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81 Cards in this Set

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The original periodic table...

... predicted the properties of elements that were not discovered until later, had elements arranged by atomic mass, had 65 elements, and was developed by Dmitri Mendeleev.

The electron configuration of an element describes _____.

the distribution of electrons in the orbitals of its atoms.

core electrons...

are electrons in the previous noble gas and any filled d or f sublevels

outer electrons...

are electrons in the highest energy level that contains electrons

valence electrons...

electrons involved in bonding.

What accounts for the observation that Li, Na, K and Cs have similar chemical properties...

They have the same outer electron configuration.

The ground-state electron configuration obeys...

both the aufbau principle and Hund's rule.

For many-electron systems each principal energy level is split into _____ of differing energies. The energy of an orbital in such a system is affected by the _____ charge, by repulsions between _____, and by orbital shape.

sublevels


nuclear


electrons

Based on periodic trends, which elements (C, Sb, Ba & F)...


... most readily forms a cation.


... forms acidic oxides.


... most readily gains electrons.


... is the most metallic metalloid in its group.

C... forms acidic oxides.


Sb... is the most metallic in its group.


Ba... most readily forms a cation.


F... most readily gains electrons.

Ranking of energy levels from lowest to highest.

S < P < D < F

The first three quantum numbers describe the _____ a particular electron is in whereas the fourth quantum number describes the _____ of an electron.

orbital


spin

Ground-state electron configurations...

... are the basis for the recurring pattern of chemical behavior and they have the lowest-energy distribution of the electrons.

The spin quantum number...

is a property of the electron itself and will have a value of +1/2 or -1/2.

Arrange the following elements in order of increasing atomic size, starting with the smallest atom at the top of the list:

I, Se, Br, S

S


Br


Se


I

When forming an ion, main-group s-block metals...

lose all electrons from the ns sublevel.

When forming an ion, main-group p-block metals...

lose first the np electrons, then the ns electrons.

When forming an ion, main-group nonmetals...

gain electrons to fill the np sublevel.

When forming an ion, transition metals...

lose ns electrons before losing (n-1)d electrons.

Electron-electron repulsions result in each electron _____.

shielding the other electrons from the nucleus.

Metal oxides are _____ and basic, whereas nonmetal oxides are _____ and acidic.

ionic


covalent

An atom of Sn (Z=50) has _____ inner (core) electrons, _____ outer electrons and _____ valence electrons.

46 inner electrons


4 outer electrons


4 valence electrons

Electron configuration can be designated using a shorthand notation of the general form nl# (e.g., 1s²). What do n, l, and # mean?

n = principal energy level or shell of the relevant electrons



l = sublevel of the relevant electrons



# = number of electrons in the given sublevel.

Arrange the following elements in order of increasing ionization energies (IE) starting with the element that has the lowest IE at the top of the list.

K, Rb, Br, Ca

Rb


K


Ca


Br

Why does atomic size generally increase down a group on the periodic table?

The outer electrons are increasingly further away from the nucleus and shielded more effectively by additional shells of inner electrons.

Elements that are in the same _____ of the periodic table will have the same _____ electron configuration and will have very similar chemical _____.

group


outer


behavior

Which of the following elements exhibit an irregular filling pattern of the orbitals? Select all that apply.


Cr, Cd, Cu, Sc, W

Cr & Cu

Which of the following monatomic ions have the electron configuration 1s² 2s² 2p⁶?

F⁻, S²⁻, O²⁻, Li⁺, Na⁺

F⁻


O²⁻


Na⁺

List the following elements in order of decreasing atomic size, starting with the largest at the top: He, B, Li, N

Li


B


N


He

IE decreases _____


IE increases _____

down a group


from left to right across a period

For a many-electron atom, which of the following sublevels has the highest energy?


3s, 4s, 3p, 3d

3d

Which of the following elements is expected to have the highest first ionization energy, based on periodic trends? Ca, Ne, P, Cl

Ne



Ionization energy is closely related to effective nuclear charge. Ne is in Period 2 and its outermost electrons are therefore in the second principal energy level or shell. It is harder to remove one of these electrons than to remove an electron from the third principal energy level.

Hund's rule states that when a sublevel contains several orbitals of equal energy, _____ electron(s) must be placed in each orbital before electrons are _____.

one


paired

Which of the following statements correctly describe effective nuclear charge (Z_eff)? Select all that apply.



A lower Z_eff makes a given electron easier to remove.



A lower Z_eff is due to the loss of a proton from the nucleus.



The effective nuclear charge is lowered by electron-electron repulsions.



Nuclear charge is only lowered by inner electrons?

A lower Z_eff makes a given electron easier to remove.



The effective nuclear charge is lowered by electron-electron repulsions.

The energy required for the complete removal of 1 mol of electrons from 1 mol of gaseous atoms or ions is called _____ energy. For a neutral element this energy is a measure of how easily the element forms an ion with a _____ charge.

ionization



positive

For electronic sublevels within the same principal energy level, in general a higher nuclear charge _____ nucleus-electron attractions and therefore _____ sublevel energies.

increases



decreases



A higher nuclear charge increases nucleus-electron attractions thus stabilizing the atom and decreasing sublevel energies.

When it comes to atomic radii...

Atomic size does not change consistently within a period for transition metals.



The atomic radius of main-group elements decreases across a period.



Atomic radii generally increase as n increases.


List the following species in order of increasing radius, with the species with the smallest radius at the top of the list. P3-, Li+, Cl, Cl-, S2-

Li+


Cl


Cl-


S2-


P3-

Second ionization energies are always _____ than first ionization energies because the remaining electrons are attracted _____ strongly as the positive charge on the ion increases. A large jump ion ionization energies is always observed after the _____ electrons have been removed.

higher



more



valence

Mg2+, Na+, and F- all have the same electron configuration as Ne, and are described as being _____ with Ne and with each other.

isoelectronic

Arrange the following elements in order of increasing atomic size, starting with the smallest atom at the top of the list.

S


Br


Se


I

Metallic behavior...

has a tendency to lose electrons and form cations.



It also has high electrical and thermal conductivity.

A condensed electron configuration includes the element symbol of the _____ gas that is _____ to the relevant element in square brackets, followed by the configuration of the energy level being filled.

noble



prior

The Pauli _____ principle guarantees that no two electrons in the same atom have the same quantum number of description. This means that the maximum number of electrons that can be accommodated by any orbital is _____.

exclusion



two

Which of the following species are isoelectronic with each other? Mg2+, Ar, Cd2+, Br-, Sr2+

Br-, Sr2+



Br- and Sr2+ are both isoelectronic with Kr. They are therefore isoelectronic with each other.

Which sublevels may be utilized in constructing a partial orbital diagram for a Period 3 element?



3s, 3p, 3d, 2d

3s & 3p

For any element in the periodic table, the _____ number gives the n value of the _____ principal energy level containing electrons. For main-group elements only, the A _____ number is always equal to the number of valence electrons.

period



highest



group

An atom of vanadium (Z=23) in its ground state has _____ valence electrons.

5

Rank the following elements in order of increasing metallic character (from least metallic at the top of the list to most metallic at the bottom).



Al, P, Cs, Zn

P, Al, Zn, Cs

_____ have a high ionization energy and low electron affinity.


noble gases

_____ have a high ionization energy and high electron affinity.

nonmetals

_____ have a low ionization energy and low electron affinity.

metals

When drawing an orbital diagram, orbitals of _____ energy are filled first. By convention, the _____ electron in a given orbital is designated as ↑ and the direction fo the arrow indicates the electron _____.

lower



first



spin

In general for main-group elements atomic size _____ from left to right across a period and _____ down a group.

decreases



increases

Describe the shielding effects in a many-electron system.

Inner electrons are more effective at shielding outer electrons in the same level.



The shielding effect increases with an increasing number of electrons in a given sublevel.



Shielding reduces the nuclear charge a given electron experiences.

Which orbitals are the last orbitals being filled in the actinide series?



5f, 4f, 3f, 7f, 6f

5f

Ionization energy generally decreases down a group because as the outermost electron moves _____ the nucleus it takes _____ energy to remove it.

farther away from



less

Group 1A(1) elements tend to _____



Group 7A(17) elements tend to _____



Group 8A(18) elements tend to _____

lose electrons



form acidic oxides



be nonreactive

Describe trends in the atomic radii of transition elements.

- The size decrease across Period 4 is greater than for Periods 5 & 6.



- Across a transition series, atomic size shrinks through the first two or three elements.

Electron configuration for selenium (Z=34)

[Ar] 4s² 3d¹⁰ 4p⁴

Which type of electrons are best at shielding a 3p electron?

3p, 3s, 3d, 2p, 4p

2p

Which of the following species has a pseudo-noble gas configuration? Select all that apply.



Pb2+, Br-, Al3+, Zn2+, Sn4+

Zn2+ & Sn4+

Which of these is the correct orbital diagram for the ground state of carbon?

Which of these is the correct orbital diagram for the ground state of carbon?

A

_____ has the shortest distance between the nuclei of atoms in a molecule of the element.

covalent radius

_____ has half the shortest distance between nuclei of adjacent atoms in a crystal of the element.

metallic radius

Which of the following statements correctly describe the trends in ionic size?

-within an isoelectronic series, size decreases with increasing nuclear charge.



-ionic size increases down a group on the periodic table.



-anions are larger than their parents.

Which of the following electron configurations are associated with increased stability?

- A full valence shell or level


- A half-filled sublevel


- A filled sublevel

Why is the 2s orbital lower in energy than the 2p orbitals?

An electron in the 2s orbital spends part of its time "penetrating" very close to the nucleus, lowering its overall energy.

A _____ is larger than the parent atom.

Anion

A _____ is smaller than the parent atom.

Cation

Which of the following statements correctly describe electron affinity?

- The electron affinity is the energy change for the addition of 1 mol of electrons to 1 mol of gaseous atoms or ions.



- Electron affinity measures the tendency of an element to form an anion.



- The overall trend in electron affinities is to increase from left to right across a period.

Which set of quantum numbers correctly designates the indicated electron orbital diagram shown?


 


2, 1, -1, +1/2


 


2, 1, -1, -1/2


 


2, 1, +1, -1/2


 


2, 2, -1, -1/2

Which set of quantum numbers correctly designates the indicated electron orbital diagram shown?



2, 1, -1, +1/2



2, 1, -1, -1/2



2, 1, +1, -1/2



2, 2, -1, -1/2

2, 1, -1, -1/2

What are some general trends in electron configurations?

- Among main-group elements the outer electron configurations within a group are identical.



- For any principal energy level n, the total number of orbitals possible for that level is equal to n²



- The period number of an element corresponds to the n value of the highest energy level containing electrons.

With their low IEs and small EAs, the members of Group 1A(1) and 2A(2) are strong _____ agents. With their high IEs and large EAs, the members of Group 6A(16) and 7A(17) are strong_____agents.

reducing



oxidizing

A diamagnetic species has...

no unpaired electrons.

A paramagnetic species has...

one or more unpaired electrons.

A species that is slightly repelled by a magnetic field is _____.

diamagnetic.

A species that is attracted to a magnetic field is _____.

paramagnetic.

By convention, the spin quantum number assigned to the first electron in any given orbital is _____.

+1/2

Which of the following species exhibit paramagnetism? Fe3+, Ti4+, V3+, Zn2+, C

C, V3+, Fe3+



There are two unpaired 2p electrons in C



There are five 3d electrons in Fe3+



There are two unpaired 3d electrons in V3+

Which of the following statements correctly describe many-electron atoms?

-principal energy levels are split into sublevels.



-the energies of the orbitals in the atom are affected both by the nuclear charge and by the presence of other electrons.



-the fourth quantum number becomes important in describing an individual electron

What is the condensed electron configuration for titanium (Z=22)?

[Ar] 4s²3d²