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65 Cards in this Set

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What is the equation for density?

What are the digits reported in an answer?

Significant figures

All final _____ to the right of the decimal place are not significant.

Zeros

What type of numbers are always significant?

Non-zero

Zeros that act as ________ are not significant

Placeholders

What do you convert to when you remove the zeros

Scientific notation

1x10

Base unit of TIME

Seconds aka s

Base unit of MASS

Kilogram aka kg

Base unit of TEMPATURE

Kelvin aka k

Base unit of LENGTH

Meter aka m

Example of second

The microwave frequency given off by a Cesium-133 atom

What is absolute zero?

The distance that light travels through a vacuum

Meter

A platinum-iridium cylinder that is stored at constant temperature and humidity

Kilogram

A cube who's all sides measure exactly one meter

Cubic meter

What is a constant?

A factor that is not allowed to change during an experiment

What is a control?

Standard for comparison

What is a hypothesis?

Tentative explanation for observations

What is a theory?

An explanation explained by many experiments

What is a model?

Visual, verbal or mathematical explanation for how things occur

What is a substance that can't be separated into simpler substances by any means

An element

Ex) air

What is a chemical combination of two or more elements?

Compound

Ex) aspirin

What are the steps of the scientific method?

1.

What are the horizontal rows on the periodic table?

Periods

What are the vertical columns on the periodic table?

Groups or families

What separates substances on the basis of boiling points?

Distillation

What separates by formation of a solid, pure particles from a solution?

Crystallization

What separates based on their movement through a special paper?

Chromatography

What separates solids from liquids using a porous barrier?

Filtration

What is a chemical property? Examples?

Describe how a substance interacts with other substances


Ex) combustibility, flammability, ductility

What is a physical property

Can be observed without chemically changing matter


Ex.) weight, texture, density, volume, odor, and malleability

What is a mixture?

Something made of two or more substances PHYSICALLY COMBINED

What is a heterogenous mixture?

Uniformly mixed (solution)

How do you know that the experiment will yield as useful data?

What is a homogenous mixture? What are two types

Is NOT uniformly mixed


1) suspension - particles don't settle


2) colloid - particles that don't move because it's a solid

What is a physical change?

Any change that does not in love changing a substances identity.

What is a chemical change?

Any change that results in a formation of new substances

What are some signs of chemical change?

Color, odors, precipitation, temps tire change or gas formation

What are the 4 changing states of phases?what do mold

1) boiling - liquid to gas


2) melting - soils to liquid


3) freezing - liquid to solid


4) precipitation - had to liquid

What is the boiling point for a substance?

100 degrees Celsius

What are three subatomic particles

Protons, neutrons, and electrons

What does the atomic number represent?

# of protons that classify the element

What does th atomic mass represent?

Average mass of all isotopes

How is 1 unit of atomic mass defined?

Kilogram

What is the purpose of bromothynol blue? What did it detect?

Candle lab

What is Daltons theory

1. Atoms are building blocks of matter


2. Atoms are indivisible (incorrect)


3. Atoms of the same element are identical


4. Atoms of different elements are different


5. Atoms unite in small whole number ratios to form compounds

What is Rutherford's gold foil experiment? What did he conclude?

1) it aimed alpha particles at gold foil


2) most past through


3) a few particles were deflected


4) some particles bounced back


Conclusion :


1) most of the atom is empty space


2) dense, positively charged core

What two subatomic particles make up the nucleus

Protons and neutrons

Which subatomic particle may vary in number from atom to atom of the same element?

Neutrons

What is the proper technique for mixing acid and water?

• Acid in water

Wa or Aw

What is the difference between the accept value and the experimental value?

Error

What is the ratio of an error to an accepted value?

Percent error

What are two measurements very close to each other?

Precise

What do you ignore when calculating the percent error?

The plus and minus

What is an isotope?

Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons

What process do unstable nuclei undergo?

Radioactive decay

What are three types of nuclear decay?

Alpha decay


Beta decay


Gamma radiation

What is alpha decay

83>


Subtract four


Add two

What is beta decay

Fast moving electrons


Add 0


Add 1

What is gamma radiation?

High energy waves with no mass or charge

What is a half life? What is the equation?

Time required for half of the nuclei to become stable



•stable amt= initial amt (1/2) t/T

What is a half life? What is the equation?

Time required for half of the nuclei to become stable



•stable amt= initial amt (1/2) t/T

What is a positron?

a subatomic particle with the same mass as an electron and a numerically equal but positive charge

What is Bohr's atomic model?

•since electrons fill the lowest energy level first, no electrons can drop down to lower energy levels


• all atoms can absorb energy from outside force


• electrons absorb energy and move to higher energy levels- excited state


• not stable so the lose electrons and return to ground state

What is the electromagnetic spectrum?

C