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30 Cards in this Set

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Taphonomy is the study of:

the processes that affect an organism after death.

A hearth is discovered with bone fragments in it. What method might be used to date the bone?

amino acid method

The time it takes for 50% of an unstable isotope to decay to a stable form is called the:

half-life.

Thermoluminescence dating can provide dates when used on which types of materials?


sediment, stone, and ceramics

Chemical analysis of the _________ can provide information on diets and habitats.


bones and teeth

Most of the fossils discovered in Africa come from the eastern and western parts of the continent. Why is this?


These areas provided better preservation.

The three eras that make up earth history are:


Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic.

During the Holocene artifacts like __________ began to appear.


ceramics

For dating hominin fossils that go back 4 million years, what dating methods might be used?


both a. and b.

The study of what happens to an organism’s remains after death is:


taphonomy

Some of the best information on climate history is based on the study of:


foraminifera.

A layer of stratigraphy in one location overwhelmingly represents one species, while the same species is discovered in a similar stratigraphic layer fifty miles away. What method is used to provide an estimate of age for this layer and this species?


biostratigraphy

A mummy is discovered whose tomb includes cloth, food, and other organic remains. What dating method might be used to date the tomb?


carbon 14

Crucial to creating a fossil record of a species is a:


representation

Igneous rock can be dated with which of the following methods?


radiopotassium dating

Coinciding with the appearance of early hominins about 5–10 mya, the climate was:


dry and seasonal.

Which period saw the proliferation of mammals?


Cenozoic

Which of the following is NOT an ideal environment for fossilization?


acidic soil (as in a jungle)

Fluorine dating is an example of what type of dating method?


chemical

Cultural dating can be used to date:


ceramics

What is the basic difference between relative and absolute dating?


the use of an actual number of years

The original continent that existed about 200 mya, from which the modern continents ultimately emerged, is called:


Pangaea

Based on the molecular clock, geneticists believe the split between chimps and hominins occurred:


8–10 mya.

Paleontologists find a fossil ape with long arms. What type of environment can they infer it inhabited?


woodland

Stratigraphic correlation is:


matching strata by chemical composition and color from several sites across distances.

Electron spin resonance dating can provide dates when used on which type of material?


teeth

Fission track dating can provide dates when used on which type of material?


igneous rock

The molecular clock has been useful to determine the phylogenetic relationships of species based on the assumption that:


a species accumulates genetic differences over time at a constant rate.

Which dating method would be most appropriate for establishing the age of a volcanic ash layer from an early hominid site in eastern Africa?


potassium-argon dating

In the 1600s Nicolaus Steno proposed :


the law of superposition.