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279 Cards in this Set

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AC
Alternating Current
Alternating Current - The movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction.
ACPI
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface - An open industry standard developed by Intel, Microsoft, and Toshiba for configuration and power management.
ACT
Activity
Activity - An action or task.
ADF
Automatic Document Feeder
Automatic Document Feeder - A feature which takes several pages and feeds the paper one page at a time into a scanner or copier, allowing the user to scan, and thereby copy, print, or fax, multiple-page documents without having to manually replace each page.
ADSL
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line - A form of Digital Subscriber Line in which the bandwidth available for downstream connection is significantly larger then for upstream. Although designed to minimise the effect of crosstalk between the upstream and downstream channels this setup is well suited for web browsing and client-server applications as well as for some emerging applications such as video on demand.
AGP
Accelerated Graphics Port
Accelerated Graphics Port - A bus specification by Intel which gives low-cost 3D graphics cards faster access to main memory on personal computers than the usual PCI bus.
AMD
Advanced Micro Devices
Advanced Micro Devices - A US manufacturer of integrated circuits, founded in 1969. AMD was the fifth-largest IC manufacturer in 1995. AMD focuses on the personal and networked computation and communications market. They produce microprocessors, embedded processors and related peripherals, memories, programmable logic devices, circuits for telecommunications and networking applications.
APIPA
Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing
Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing - A DHCP failover mechanism for local networks. With APIPA, DHCP clients can obtain IP addresses when DHCP servers are non-functional. APIPA exists in all modern versions of Windows except Windows NT.
APM
Advanced Power Management
Advanced Power Management - A feature of some displays, usually but not always, on laptop computers, which turns off power to the display after a preset period of inactivity to conserve electrical power. Monitors with this capability are usually refered to as "green monitors", meaning environmentally friendly.
ARP
Address Resolution Protocol
Address Resolution Protocol - A telecommunications protocol used for resolution of network layer addresses into link layer addresses, a critical function in multiple-access networks. ARP was defined by RFC 826 in 1982. It is Internet Standard STD 37. It is also the name of the program for manipulating these addresses in most operating systems.
ASR
Automated System Recovery
Automated System Recovery - A feature of the Windows XP operating system that can be used to simplify recovery of a computer's system or boot volumes. ASR consists of two parts: an automated backup, and an automated restore. The backup portion can be accessed in the Backup utility under System Tools.
ATA
Advanced Technology Attachment
Advanced Technology Attachment - An interface standard for the connection of storage devices such as hard disks, solid-state drives, floppy drives, and optical disc drives in computers.
ATAPI
Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface
Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface - Part of the EIDE interface that provides additional commands to control a CD-ROM drive or magnetic tape.
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Asynchronous Transfer Mode - A method for the dynamic allocation of bandwidth using a fixed-size packet.
ATX
Advanced Technology Extended
Advanced Technology Extended - A motherboard form factor specification developed by Intel in 1995 to improve on previous de facto standards like the AT form factor.
BHO
Browser Helper Object
Browser Helper Object - A DLL module designed as a plugin for Microsoft's Internet Explorer web browser to provide added functionality.
BIOS
Basic Input/Output System
Basic Input/Output System - The part of the system software of the IBM PC and compatibles that provides the lowest level interface to peripheral devices and controls the first stage of the bootstrap process, including installing the operating system. The BIOS is stored in ROM, or equivalent, in every PC. Its main task is to load and execute the operating system which is usually stored on the computer's hard disk, but may be loaded from CD-ROM or floppy disk at install time.
BNC
Bayonet-Neill-Concelman
- or -
British Naval Connector
Bayonet-Neill-Concelman/British Naval Connector - A connector for coaxial cable such as that used for some video connections and RG58 "cheapernet" connections. A BNC connector has a bayonet-type shell with two small knobs on the female connector which lock into spiral slots in the male connector when it is twisted on.
BTX
Balanced Technology Extended
Balanced Technology Extended - A form factor for motherboards, originally intended to be the replacement for the aging ATX motherboard form factor in late 2004 and early 2005. It was designed to alleviate some of the issues that arose from using newer technologies (which often demand more power and create more heat) on motherboards compliant with the circa-1996 ATX specification.
CD
Compact Disc
Compact Disc - A 4.72 inch disc developed by Sony and Philips that can store, on the same disc, still and/or moving images in monochrome and/or color; stereo or two separate sound tracks integrated with and/or separate from the images; and digital program and information files.
CD-ROM
Compact Disc-Read-Only Memory
Compact Disc-Read-Only Memory - A non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. CD-ROM is popular for distribution of large databases, software and especially multimedia applications. The maximum capacity is about 600 megabytes. A CD can store around 640 megabytes of data - about 12 billion bytes per pound weight.
CD-RW
Compact Disc-Rewritable
Compact Disc-Rewritable - A rewritable version of CD-ROM. A CD-RW drive can write about 650 megabytes of data to CD-RW media an unlimited number of times. Most CD-RW drives can also write once to CD-R media.
CDFS
Compact Disc File System
Compact Disc File System - A file system for read-only and write-once CDROMs developed by Simson Garfinkel and J. Spencer Love at the MIT Media Lab between 1985 and 1986. The file system provided for the creation, modification, renaming and deletion of files and directories on a write-once media. The file system was developed with a write-once CDROM simulator and was used to master one of the first CDROMs in 1986
CFS
Central File System
- or -
Common File System
- or -
Command File System
Central File System/Common File System/Command File System - Houses records that are of common interest or value to many employees or job functions in ONE AREA of the office suite. The files are conveniently accessible to those people. That one location is (ideally) under the control of one supervisor
CMOS
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor - A semiconductor fabrication technology using a combination of n- and p-doped semiconductor material to achieve low power dissipation. Any path through a gate through which current can flow includes both n and p type transistors. Only one type is turned on in any stable state so there is no static power dissipation and current only flows when a gate switches in order to charge the parasitic capacitance.
COMx
Communication Port (x = Port Number)
Communication Port (x = Port Number) - An application-specific or process-specific software construct serving as a communications endpoint in a computer's host operating system.
CPU
Central Processing Unit
CRT
Cathode-Ray Tube
DAC
Discretionary Access Control
DB-25
25-pin D-shell connector
DB-9
9-pin D-shell connector
DC
Direct Current
DDoS
Distributed Denial of Service
- or -
Dynamic Denial of Service
DDR
Double Data Rate
DDR RAM
Double Data Rate Random Access Memory
DDR SDRAM
Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
DFS
Distributed File System
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DIMM
Dual In-line Memory Module
Dual In-line Memory Module -
DIN
Deutsche Industrie Norm
DIP
Dual In-line Package
Dual In-iine Package -
DLT
Digital Light Tape
DMA
Direct Memory Access
DMZ
Demilitarized Zone
DNS
Domain Name Service
- or -
DOmain Name Server
DoS
Denial of Service
DRAM
Dynamic Random Access Memory
DSL
Digital Subscriber Line
DVD
Digital Video Disc
- or -
Digital Versatile Disc
DVD-RAM
Digital Video Disc-Random Access Memory
- or -
Digital Versatile Disc-Random Access Memory
DVD-ROM
Digital Video Disc-Read Only Memory
- or -
Digital Versatile Disc-Read Only Memory
DLP
Digital Light Processing
DVD-R
Digital Video Disc-Recordable
- or -
Digital Versatile Disc-Recordable
DVD-RW
Digital Video Disc-Rewritable
- or -
Digital Versatile Disc-Rewritable
DVI
Digital Visual Interface
ECC
Error Correction Code
ECP
Extended Capabilities Port
EEPROM
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EFS
Encrypting File System
EIDE
Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics
EMI
Electromagnetic Interference
EMP
Electromagnetic Pulse
EPROM
Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EPP
Enhanced Parallel Port
ERD
Emergency Repair Disk
ESD
Electrostatic Discharge
EVGA
Extended Video Graphics Adapter
- or -
Extended Video Graphics Array
EVDO
Evolution Data Optimized
- or -
Evolution Data Only
FAT
File Allocation Table
FAT12
12-Bit File Allocation Table
FAT16
16-Bit File Allocation Table
FAT32
32-Bit File Allocation Table
FDD
Floppy Disk Drive
Fn
Function
(Referring to the "Function Key" on a laptop)
FPM
Fast Page-Mode
FRU
Field Replaceable Unit
FSB
Front Side Bus
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
FQDN
Fully Qualified Domain Name
Gb
Gigabit
GB
Gigabyte
GDI
Graphics Device Interface
GHz
Gigahertz
GUI
Graphical User Interface
GPS
Global Positioning System
GSM
Global System for Mobile Communications
HAL
Hardware Abstraction Layer
HCL
Hardware Compatibility List
HDD
Hard Disk Drive
HDMi
High Definition Media Interface
HPFS
High Performance File System
HTML
Hypertext Markup Language
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTTPS
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Over Secure Sockets Layer
I/O
Input/Output
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol
ICR
Intelligent Character Recognition
IDE
Integrated Drive Electronics
IDS
Intrusion Detection System
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IIS
Internet Information Service
IMAP
Internet Mail Access Protocol
IP
Internet Protocol
IPCONFIG
Internet Protocol Configuration
IPP
Internet Printing Protocol
IPSEC
Internet Protocol Security
IPX
Internetwork Packet Exchange
SPX
Sequenced Packet Exchange
IR
Infrared
IrDA
Infrared Data Association
IRQ
Interrupt Request
ISA
Industry Standard Architecture
ISDN
Integrated Service Digital Network
ISO
Industry Standards Organization
ISP
Internet Service Provider
JBoD
Just a Bunch of Disks
Kb
Kilobit
KB
Kilobyte
- or -
Knowledge Base
LAN
Local Area Network
LBA
Logical Block Addressing
LC
Lucent Connector
LCD
Liquid Crystal Display
LDAP
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
LED
Light Emitting Diode
Li-on
Lithium-ion Daemon
LPD
Line Printer Daemon
LPR
Line Printer Remote
LPT
Line Printer Terminal
LPT1
Line Printer Terminal 1
LVD
Low Voltage Differential
MAC
Media Access Control
- or -
Mandatory Access Control
MAPI
Messaging Application Programming Interface
MAU
Media Access Unit
- or -
Media Attachment Unit
Mb
Megabit
MB
Megabyte
MBR
Master Boot Record
MBSA
Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer
MFD
Multifunction Device
MFP
Multifunction Product
MHz
Megahertz
MicroDIMM
Micro Dual In-line Memory Module
Micro Dual In-line Memory Module -
MIDI
Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIME
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension
MMC
Microsoft Management Console
MMX
Multimedia Extensions
MP3
Moving Picture Experts Group Layer 3 Audio
MP4
Moving Picture Experts Group Layer 4
MPEG
Moving Picture Experts Group
MSCONFIG
Microsoft Configuration
MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheet
MUI
Multilingual User Interface
NAC
Network Access Control
NAS
Network-Attached Storage
NAT
Network Address Translation
NetBIOS
Networked Basic Input/Output System
NetBEUI
Networked Basic Input/Output System Extended User Interface
NIC
Network Interface Card
Ni-Cd
Nickel Cadmium
NiMH
Nickel Metal Hydride
NLX
New Low-profile Extended
NNTP
Network News Transfer Protocol
NTFS
New Technology File System
NTLDR
New Technology Loader
NTP
Network Time Protocol
OCR
Optical Character Recognition
ODBC
Open Database Connectivity
OEM
Original Equipment Manufacturer
OS
Operating System
PAN
Personal Area Network
PATA
Parallel Advanced Technology
PC
Personal Computer
PCI
Peripheral Component Interconnect
PCIe
Peripheral Component Interconnect Express
PCIX
Peripheral Component Interconnect Extended
PCL
Printer Control Language
PCMCIA
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PDA
Personal Digital Assistant
PGA
Pin Grid Array
PGA2
Pin Grid Array 2
PIN
Personal Identification Number
PKI
Public Key Infrastructure
PnP
Plug and Play
POP3
Post Office Protocol 3
POST
Power-on Self Test
POTS
Plain Old Telephone Service
PPP
Point-to-point Protocol
PPTP
Point-to-point Tunneling Protocol
PRI
Primary Rate Interface
PROM
Programmable Read-only Memory
PS/2
Personal System/2 Connector
PSTN
Public Switched Telephone Network
PSU
Power Supply Unit
PVC
Permanent Virtual Circuit
PXE
Preboot Execution Environment
- or -
Pre-Execution Environment
QoS
Quality of Service
RAID
Redundant Array of Independent Discs
- or -
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Discs
RAM
Random Access Memory
RAS
Remote Access Service
RDRAM
RAMBUS® Dynamic Random Access Memory
RF
Radio Frequency
RFI
Radio Frequency Interference
RGB
Red Green Blue
RIMM
RAMBUS® In-line Memory Module
RAMBUS® In-line Memory Module -
RIP
Routing Information Protocol
RIS
Remote Installation Service
RISC
Reduced Instruction Set Computer
RJ
Registered Jack
RJ-11
Registered Jack Function 11
RJ-45
Registered Jack Function 45
RMA
Returned Materials Authorization
ROM
Read-only Memory
RS-232
- or -
RS-232C
Recommended Standard 232
RTC
Real-time Clock
SAN
Storage Area Network
SATA
Serial Advanced Technology Attachment
SC
Subscription Channel
SCP
Secure Copy Protection
SCSI
Small Computer System Interface
SCSI ID
Small Computer System Interface Identifier
SD Card
Secure Digital Card
SDRAM
Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
SEC
Single Edge Connector
SFC
System File Checker
SGRAM
Synchronous Graphics Random Access Memory
SIMM
Single In-line Memory Module
Single In-line Memory Module
SLI
Scalable Line Interface
- or -
System Level Integration
- or -
Scanline Interleave Mode
S.M.A.R.T.
Self-monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology
Self-monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology - A monitoring system for computer hard disk drives to detect and report on various indicators of reliability, in the hope of anticipating failures.
SMB
Server Message Block
Server Message Block - Operates as an application-layer network protocol mainly used for providing shared access to files, printers, serial ports, and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network.
SMTP
Simple Mail Transport Protocol
Simple Mail Transport Protocol - An Internet standard for electronic mail (e-mail) transmission across Internet Protocol (IP) networks.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol
Simple Network Management Protocol - An "Internet-standard protocol for managing devices on IP networks." Devices that typically support SNMP include routers, switches, servers, workstations, printers, modem racks, and more
SO-DIMM
Small Outline Dual Inline Memory Module
Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Module - A smaller kind of DIMM with 72 pins (supporting 32-bit transfers) or 144 pins (64-bit transfers). Regular DIMMs have 168 pins and support 64-bit transfers. Being roughly half the size of the regular DIMM, SO-DIMMs are often used in notebook computers.
SOHO
Small Office/Home Office
Small Office/Home Office - Category of business or cottage industry that involves from 1 to 10 workers.
SP
Service Pack
Service Pack - A collection of updates, fixes or enhancements to a software program delivered in the form of a single installable package. Many companies, such as Microsoft or Autodesk, typically release a service pack when the number of individual patches to a given program reaches a certain (arbitrary) limit.
S/PDIF
Sony/Philips Digital Interconnect Format
- or -
Sony Philips Digital Interface
Sony/Philips Digital Interconnect Format - A digital audio interconnect used in consumer audio equipment over relatively short distances.
SPGA
Staggered Pin Grid Array
Staggered Pin Grid Array - A style of integrated circuit socket or pin-out with a staggered grid of pins around the edge of the socket, positioned as several squares, one inside the other.
SPX
Sequenced Packet Exchange
Sequenced Packet Exchange - A transport layer protocol built on top of IPX. SPX is used in Novell NetWare systems for communications in client/server application programs.
SRAM
Static Random Access Memory
Static Random Access Memory - A type of semiconductor memory that uses bistable latching circuitry to store each bit.
SSH
Secure Shell
Secure Shell - A network protocol for secure data communication, remote shell services or command execution and other secure network services between two networked computers that it connects via a secure channel over an insecure network
SSID
Service Set Identifier
Service Set Identifier - A 32-character unique identifier that distinguishes one wireless network from another. All devices attempting to connect to a specific network use the same SSID, which appears in the header of packets. Because an SSID can be intercepted, it does not supply any security to the network.
SSL
Secure Socket Layer
Secure Socket Layer - Cryptographic protocol that provide communication security over the Internet. It encrypts the segments of network connections at the Transport Layer, using asymmetric cryptography for key exchange, symmetric encryption for privacy, and message authentication codes for message integrity.
ST
Straight Tip
Straight Tip - The sides of the ceramic tip are parallel. Multimode, rarely single-mode; Angle-polished connections (APC) not possible.
STP
Shielded Twisted Pair
Shielded Twisted Pair - A cable defined by the IBM Cabling System specifications and used with token ring or FDDI networks. This type of shielding protects cable from external EMI from entering or exiting the cable and also protects neighboring pairs from crosstalk
SVGA
Super Video Graphics Array
Super Video Graphics Array - A broad term that covers a wide range of computer display standards. Refers to a resolution of 800 × 600 pixels.
SXGA
Super Extended Graphics Array
Super Extended Graphics Array - A standard monitor resolution of 1280×1024 pixels. This display resolution is the "next step" above the XGA resolution that IBM developed in 1990.
TB
Terabyte
Terabyte - 1,099,511,627,776 bytes = 1024 gigabytes
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol - Most common transport layer protocol used on Ethernet and the Internet. It was developed by DARPA.
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol - The de facto standard Ethernet protocols incorporated into 4.2BSD Unix. TCP/IP was developed by DARPA for internetworking and encompasses both network layer and transport layer protocols. While TCP and IP specify two protocols at specific protocol layers, TCP/IP is often used to refer to the entire DoD (Department of Defense) protocol suite based upon these, including telnet, FTP, UDP and RDP.
TDR
Time-domain Reflectometer
Time-domain Reflectometer - An electronic instrument used to characterize and locate faults in metallic cables.
TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
Trivial File Transfer Protocol - A simple file transfer protocol used for down-loading boot code to diskless workstations.
UAC
User Account Control
User Account Control - A security infrastructure that reduces the possibility of lower-privilege applications communicating with higher-privilege ones until an administrator authorizes an increase or elevation.
UART
Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter - An integrated circuit used for serial communications, containing a transmitter (parallel-to-serial converter) and a receiver (serial-to-parallel converter), each clocked separately
UDF
User Defined Functions
- or -
Universal Disk Format
- or -
Universal Data Format
User Defined Function - functions provided by the user of a program or environment, in a context where the usual assumption is that functions are built into the program or environment.

Universal Disk Format - A CD-ROM file system standard that is required for DVD ROMs. UDF is the OSTA's replacement for the ISO 9660 file system used on CD-ROMs, but will be mostly used on DVD. DVD multimedia disks use UDF to contain MPEG audio and video streams.

Universal Data Format - A superset of data formats used with GIS, imaging, mapping, and CAD products. You can access data in UDF format instead of converting it from one format to another, with full geographic information preserved.
UDMA
Ultra Direct Memory Access
Ultra Direct Memory Access - An interface that was the fastest method used to transfer data between the computer (through the ATA controller) and an ATA device until Serial ATA.
UDP
User Datagram Protocol
User Datagram Protocol - Internet standard network layer, transport layer and session layer protocols which provide simple but unreliable datagram services.
UNC
Universal Naming Convention
Universal Naming Convention - The type of file system path used in Microsoft Windows networking to completely specify a directory on a file server.
UPS
Uninterruptible power supply
Uninterruptible power supply - A battery powered power supply unit that is guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming mains electrical power.
URL
Uniform Resource Locator
Uniform Resource Locator - A standard way of specifying the location of an object, typically a web page, on the Internet.
USB
Universal Serial Bus
Universal Serial Bus - An external peripheral interface standard for communication between a computer and external peripherals over an inexpensive cable using biserial transmission.
USMT
User State Migration Tool
User State Migration Tool - A Microsoft command line utility program intended to allow advanced users, comfortable with Scripting language, to transfer files and settings between PCs.
UTP
Unshielded Twisted Pair
Unshielded Twisted Pair - Normal telephone wire (in the USA). It may be used for computer to computer communications, e.g. using a version of Ethernet or localtalk. It is much cheaper than standard "full-spec" Ethernet cable.
UXGA
Ultra Extended Graphics Array
Ultra Extended Graphics Array - A display mode in which the resolution is 1600 pixels horizontally by 1200 pixels vertically (1600 x 1200). This amounts to a total of 1,920,000 pixels on the screen.
VESA
Video Electronics Standards Association
Video Electronics Standards Association - An international standards body for computer graphics founded in 1989 by NEC Home Electronics and eight other video display adapter manufacturers.
VFAT
Virtual File Allocation Table
Virtual File Allocation Table - Method to store long file names in the existing FAT file systems without altering their data structures.
VGA
Video Graphics Array
Video Graphics Array - A display standard for IBM PCs, with 640 x 480 pixels in 16 colours and a 4:3 aspect ratio.
VoIP
Voice over Internet Protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol - Any technology providing voice telephony services over IP, including CODECs, streaming protocols and session control. The major advantage of VoIP is lower cost, by avoiding dedicated voice circuits.
VPN
Virtual Private Network
Virtual Private Network - The use of encryption in the lower protocol layers to provide a secure connection through an otherwise insecure network, typically the Internet. VPNs are generally cheaper than real private networks using private lines but rely on having the same encryption system at both ends.
VRAM
Video Random-access Memory
Video Random-access Memory - Fast memory designed for storing the image to be displayed on a computer's monitor. VRAM may be built from special memory integrated circuits designed to be accessed sequentially.
WAN
Wide Area Network
Wide Area Network - A telecommunication network that covers a broad area (Example: Any network that links across metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries).
WAP
Wireless Application Protocol
Wireless Application Protocol - An open international standard for applications that use wireless communication. (Example: Internet access from a mobile phone.)
WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy
Wired Equivalent Privacy - A security algorithm for IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. Intention was to provide data confidentiality comparable to that of a traditional wired network. Recognizable by the key of 10 or 26 hexadecimal digits.
WIFI
Wireless Fidelity
Wireless Fidelity - A popular technology that allows an electronic device to exchange data wirelessly (using radio waves) over a computer network, including high-speed Internet connections.
WINS
Windows Internet Name Service
Windows Internet Name Service - Software which resolves NetBIOS names to IP addresses.
WLAN
Wireless Local Area Network
Wireless Local Area Network - Links two or more devices using some wireless distribution method (typically spread-spectrum or OFDM radio), and usually providing a connection through an access point to the wider internet. This gives users the mobility to move around within a local coverage area and still be connected to the network.
WPA
Wireless Protected Access
Wireless Protected Access - A security scheme for wireless networks, developed by the networking industry in response to the shortcomings of Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP). WPA uses Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) encryption and provides built-in authentication, giving security comparable to VPN tunneling with WEP, with the benefit of easier administration and use.
WUXGA
Wide Ultra Extended Graphics Array
Wide Ultra Extended Graphics Array - A display resolution of 1920×1200 pixels (2,304,000 pixels) with a 16:10 screen aspect ratio.
XGA
eXtended Graphics Array
eXtended Graphics Array - An IBM display standard introduced in 1990. XGA-2 added 1024×768 support for high color and higher refresh rates, improved performance, and support for 1360×1024 in 16 colors.
ZIF
Zero Insertion Force
Zero Insertion Force - A kind of socket for integrated circuits. A ZIF socket can be opened and closed by means of a lever or screw. When open, there the chip may be placed in the socket without any pressure at all, the socket is then closed, causing its contacts to grip the pins of the chip. Such sockets are used where chips must be inserted and removed frequently, such as in test equipment. They are more expensive and usually take up more space than conventional IC sockets.
ZIP
Zig-zag In-line Package
Zig-zag In-line Package - A short-lived packaging technology for integrated circuits, particularly dynamic RAM chips. It was intended as a replacement for dual in-line packaging (DIL or DIP).
IPX/SPX
Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange
Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange - Networking protocols used primarily on networks using the Novell NetWare operating systems.