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35 Cards in this Set

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Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory
criminality is not inherited; it is learned in the same way that any other behavior is learned: through interpersonal communication and social interaction in intimate groups
- To become a criminal, one must also learn specific situational meanings or definitions
- All associations are not equal; not everyone has the same definitions about what is right and what is wrong, what they feel is legal and what is not legal
Aker’s Differential Reinforcement Theory
general theory of crime and deviance, aka social learning theory1)Differential association: begins with the idea that we learn to be criminal
2)Definitions: We define these criminal actions as being okay to steal and justify them-makes it easier to commit the behavior
3)Differential Reinforcement: When you commit an act there are going to be consequences
-Positive and negative reinforcement
-Reinforcement increases behavior, punishment reduces behavior
-Positive punishment(something you receive) Negative punishment (something lost)
4)Imitation: see someone get away with something then you imitate them; get caught, then you give up
Walter Reckless Containment Theory
his ideas are contributed to the theoretical framework of control theory; containment theory is meant to explain delinquency, as well as conformity
-Internal pushes: internally push us toward delinquency, anxiety
-External pulls: hanging around the wrong crowd
-Social pressure: unemployed, poverty
Importance of inner and outer Containments
Outer Containment: support of family, help control you so you don’t become delinquent
Inner Containments: more important than outer; having good self concept and a developed conscience
Sykes And Matza Techniques Of Neutralization- techniques to weaken their bonds with society
1) Denial of responsibility- “it’s not my fault”
2) Denial of injury- “no one is really being hurt” no harm done
3) Denial of victim- person deserved it, did something to provoke it
4) Appeal to higher loyalties- something is more important than the law
5)Condemning the condemners- blame the system
Travis Hirschi’s social bond theory
interested in conformity; why people commit crimes
- Human nature control
- Social bond: those with stronger bond with society are less likely to be delinquent
The four elements of the social bond-
1) Attachment to important others & institutions- have a good job? Good family? Like school?
2) Commitment- Investment to conventional society
3) Involvement in conventional activities- “idle hands are the devil’s workshop” – no time to commit crime if busy
4) Belief in social values- Do you belive in laws and values?
Goddfredson and Hirschi’s General Theory Of Crime / Self Control-
crime vs. criminality; Crime=event Criminality=trait that you have that makes you more likely to be criminal
-Believe that criminals possess a certain trait, don’t have self-control
-Blames the parents, poor parenting
Crime and low self control
-Offenders don’t specialize
-Root of all crime is low self-control
-People with low self control do a lot of risky things (sky dive, drive fast)
Tittle’s Control Balance
accepts Hirschi’s proposition that control is the major component of conformity, but argues that it is not control that counts, but maintaining a balance between the amount of control one is subject to at the hands of others and the amount of control one can exercise over others
-Control imbalances: Control deficit and Control surplus
Lemert Labeling Theory
primary deviance: crime that is committed that doesn’t affect your self-concept secondary deviance: You are criminal because of the label and expectation to be
Becker’s Labeling Theory
emphasis on how certain behaviors come to be defined as criminal and the consequences of these definitions for individuals found to be engaging in such activities
- an act becomes criminal only when it is defined as such by a group of observers
An absolute view on crime
the view that crime is behavior that violates a law, an agreed upon
relative view on crime
the view that an act becomes criminal or deviant only when it is defined as such by a group of observers; what is defined as criminal or deviant depends on a number of factors
Type of labeling Matsueda focuses on
looked at parental labeling, impacts individuals in a different way
Braithwaite’s labeling focus
interested in how we label individuals; Shaming: a) remorse b) condemnation; Two types of shaming: stigmatizing and reintegrative
What is reintegrative shaming
an expression of disappointment in the individual who has done wrong. Rather than treating the offender as a bad person, disappointment comes from the fact that a “good person” would do something wrong; community disapproval
Four interests of critical criminology
1)Influence of interest groups
2)Public opinion
3)Relationship between threatening groups and crime control policies in a geographical area
4)Discretion- police/judge can decide whether to take charges more seriously than not
Lemert Labeling Theory
social control leads to deviance
Primary deviance- rule breaking
Secondary deviance- results from societal reaction
Becker’s Labeling Theory
-Label: carry a lot of power/assumptions
-Social power: people in authority positions are the ones that place the label
Tittle’s Control Balance
maintaining the balance between your own control and the control that people have over you
Goddfredson and Hirschi’s General Theory Of Crime / Self Control
argue that crime is a product of a lack of socialization or learning' "crime is the natural consequence of unrestrained human tendencies to seek pleasure and aviod pain"
- people with low self control engage in criminal activities
Travis Hirschi’s social bond theory
delinquent acts result when an individual's bond to society ia weak or broken
- has to be connected to the 4 elements of the social bond
Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory
criminality id not inherited, but it is learned through interpersonal communication and social interaction in intimate groups
The focus of Control Theories
everyone is criminal at heart; everyone is equally motivated to commit crimes- fulfill one's desires by violating the law
- a person's ties to their society and social institutions such as family and school inhibit them from acting on criminal motivations
Aker’s Differential Reinforcement Theory
criminal behavior is learned through direct operant conditioning and imitation or modeling of others
-the behavior is learned as a result of the effects, outcomes, or consequences it has on an individual's environment
Krisberg and privilege
poor and racial minorities are more likely than the middle class and the wealthy to be arrested and are more likely to be convicted and receive harsher sentences. Argues that poor, racial minorities and the underprivileged do not necessarily commit more crimes than middle and upperclass whites, but they are more likely to be subject to the control and degradation of the criminal justice system. Privileged people’s behavior is not considered crime, but standard business practice
What is Peacemaking Criminology
a branch of radical criminology that sees crime as one of many forms of violence that can be most successfully addressed through nonviolent , harm-reduction measures rather than through harsh, punitive social control techniques
Left realism
a branch of radical criminology that includes an examination of crimes by the wealthy, but also emphasizes the importance of taking street crime seriously as a problem committed primarily by the poor against the poor
preemptive deterrence
crime reduction strategy advocated by left realist criminologists that involves criminologists working within specific neighborhoods to prevent crime rather than neighborhoods relying on police surveillance and other repressive control techniques
Adler and Simon conclusions
the reason for an increase in crime with women is due to the more opportunities that women have to participate in legitimate activities, which has encouraged women to become more assertive, independent, competitive (more like men) as women gain more legitimate opportunities, they also have more occasions to participate in illegitimate activities
Main idea of Hagan’s Power-Control
his theory is an attempt to explain gender differences in criminal offending, especially delinquency. Observation that males and females are socialized differently- parents impose more restrictions on daughters than sons; social class is a factor in gender socialization- lower class parents are more strict with their children; socialization in the family depends largely on parents experiences in the workplace
Chesney-lind's beliefs on women
most female youth offenses are status crimes (only a crime because your status as a juvenile) committing them as survival techniques (running away from abuse, bad situations) Adult delinquency: commit crimes as an adult because of what you did or what happened when you were a kid- look at history
Gendered Lives
emphasizes the significant differences in the ways that women experience society compared with men
how feminists view their work
acknowledges the complex interaction between biology and culture but assumes that gender is essentially socially created not innately determined
Messerschmidt’s doing gender
argues that it is the gendered and class-based division of labor coupled with gender and workplace socialization experiences that account for differences in the frequency, seriousness, and motivations for offending btwn men and women in differnt social classes
-women are more closely surpervised so this factors limit women's opportunites for crime