Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

126 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the central purpose of punishment?
The central purpose of punishment is crime deterrence, not social revenge. certainty and swiftness in
punishment, rather than severity, best secure this goal.
Which important scholar argued that criminals and their punishment are functional in society, help to define norms and expectations for conformity?
Emile Durkheim
What goals of punishment are served by corrections?
Protection & punishment. Corrections is a complicated web of disparate processes that, ideally, serve the goals of fair punishment and community protection.
Systems learn, grow, and improve according to what process?
According to the feedback they receive about their effectiveness.
Approximately what fraction of all people under correctional supervision are living in the community of probation or parole?
What are the two main areas that Clear, Cole, and Reisig divide some of the controversies, issue, and themes that arise in the study of corrections?
Managing the correctional organization, working with offenders, and upholding social values.
Do non-professional staff working in corrections typically have a college education?
The nonprofessional staff frequently have only a high school education, and they function under close, often paramilitary (military-style) supervision and enforce rules with physical means when necessary.
Interdependence between staff and offenders is considered _______.
According to the text, every aspect of the correctional field raises questions that concern deeply held values about _____.
Social relations.
What are the three key issues faced by the correctional system?
Managing correctional organization, working with offenders, and upholding social values.
Probation and parole officers state that their original decision to become involved in this particular career field is based on their desire to _____.
Help people.
As a social institution, corrections reflect the visions and concern of the _____.
Larger community.
What do we call the practice of removing offenders from the community to another land?
Corporal Punishment was considered a powerful _____ deterrent, as authorities carried out sanctions in the market square for all to see.
During the Enlightenment period, did people in America and Europe begin to rethink procedural matters towards offenders?
Yes. Because of the ideas that gained currency in the 1700s,
people in America and europe began to rethink such matters as the procedures to be used
to determine guilt, the limits on a government’s power to punish, the nature of criminal
behavior, and the best ways to correct offenders.
The founder of the classical school of thought is _____.
Cesare Beccaria (1738–1794)
The period known as the enlightenment had what effect(s) on society?
A move towards liberalism and away from crude hierarchies, and, advances in scientific thinking led to a questioning attitude that emphasized observation, experimentation, and technological development.
What are the main principles of the classical school of criminology?
1. The basis of all social action must be the utilitarian concept of the greatest good for the greatest
number of people.
2. crime must be considered an injury to society, and the only rational measure of crime is the
extent of the injury.
3. The prevention of crime is more important than punishment for crimes. to prevent crime,
laws must be improved and codified so that citizens can understand and support them.
4. secret accusations and torture must be abolished. Further, the accused have a right to speedy
trials and to humane treatment before trial, as well as every right to bring forward evidence
on their behalf.
5. The purpose of punishment is crime deterrence, not social revenge. certainty and swiftness in
punishment, rather than severity, best secure this goal.
6. imprisonment should be more widely employed, and better physical quarters should be
provided, with prisoners classified by age, sex, and degree of criminality.
Jeremy Bentham argued that effective punishment prevents _____ in the future.
Similar behavior.
Who created the architectural design known as the panopticon.
Jeremy Bentham.
What country gave the world its first penitentiary?
Between 1790 and 1830, the population in urban America had _____.
tripled (in size)
An institution intended to isolate offenders from society and one another so they could reflect on their misdeeds, repent, and undergo reformation is called _________.
Separate confinement was first implemented in which penitentiary?
Walnut Street Jail, Philadelphia.
The concept of separate confinement was introduced in several location, however one became the fullest expression of rehabilitation through separate confinement. What is the name of that institution?
Eastern State Penitentiary.
What are the differences between the Penn system and the Auburn system?
New York (Auburn) system: Inmates were placed in separate cells, but they did not leave their cells to do hard physical labor, unlike the Pennslvania system. They worked under a rule of silence. Wanted to bring about molded, obedient citizens with good work habits.

Pennsylvania system: Goal was to bring about honest people (penance). Inmates did hard labor.
Were was the congregate system of prison discipline first instituted?
Which state adopted the medical model more thoroughly than did any other state?
Under the medical model, the assumption that criminal behavior was caused by _____, ______, or _____ deficiencies that require treatment.
social, psychological, or biological.
During the Progressive era, two main strategies were implemented. They included improving conditions in social environments and _________.
rehabilitate individual offenders.
According to community based corrections, the goal of the criminal Justice system is to _________.
Reintegrate the offender.
What are the two major goals of criminal punishment?
Inflicting suffering and preventing crime.
Does recent knowledge of the effectiveness of deterrence show that social science is able to measure the effects of various punishments?
No, cannot measure people who were deterred.
Know the difference between general deterrence an specific deterrence.
General: deterrence aimed at members of the general public.

Specific: deterrence aimed at the decisions of specific people/offenders.
The concept of selective incapacitation rests on the idea that _________.
offenders who repeat certain kinds of crimes are sentenced to long prison terms.

the best use of expensive and
limited prison space by targeting
for incarceration those offenders
whose incapacity will do the most
to reduce crime in society.
According to the authors of our text, _________ is the most visible penalty imposed by the criminal sanction.
Restorative Justice sees crime as violation against _________.
The victim and the community.
According to the authors, in a retributive justice model, how should those who commit a particular crime be punished?
Punishment inflicted
on a person who has infringed
on the rights of others and so
deserves to be penalized. The
severity of the sanction should fit
the seriousness of the crime.
What are the 4 forms of criminal sanction?
Deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, incapacitation.
What are the three basic sentencing structures?
(1) indeterminate sentences, (2) determinate sentences, and (3) mandatory sentences.
Do most Western democracies impose the death penalty?
What are the 4 foundations that support the legal rights of prisoners?
(1) constitutions, (2) statutes, (3) case law, and (4) regulations.
The first case recognized by the Supreme Court which acknowledged prisoners' rights involved which case?
Cooper v. Pate (1964)
What did the Court rule in the Cruz v. Beto (1972) case?
Prisoners who adhere to other than conventional beliefs may not be
denied the opportunity to practice their religion.
What did the Court rule in the Bell v. Wolfish (1979) case?
Strip searches, including searches of body cavities after contact visits,
may be carried out when the need for such searches outweighs the
personal rights invaded.
What did the Court rule in the Ruiz v. Estelle (1975) case?
Conditions of confinement in the Texas prison system are
What did the Court rule in the Wolff v. McDonnell (1974) case?
extended certain due process rights
to prisoners in disciplinary hearings, including procedures to guarantee due
Prior to the 1960s, courts maintained what policy which respect to corrections?
a hands-off policy.
One of the ways a corrections staff member can insulate themselves against civil lawsuits is to _________.
1. Follow agency policies and the instructions of
supervisors. By following policies, the staff member
will be in step with the professional expectations of
the agency’s management. From a legal standpoint,
the employee should follow the policies to ensure
compliance with legal standards and avoid lawsuits.
2. obtain good training. staff members need to know
the areas of their performance that expose them the
most to liability.
3. Become familiar with the law directly affecting the
job. This is true whatever the specialty—casework,
security, health care, probation, parole, or institutional
To ensure a good defense when being sued, find a good mentor. although correctional
workers receive formal training, they gain on the job much knowledge of how things
“really” work.
5. Keep good records. if correctional employees are called to testify at a trial or grievance
hearing, good records are invaluable.
What can we say about every offender assigned to corrections?
They are unique.
What types of problems do situational offenders pose for the correctional system?
first, the crime is usually a serious, violent crime (often murder or aggravated assault), and the offender usually knew the victim well (often a spouse or other family member). for such a crime, a severe punishment is thought appropriate. even though only an extremely small percentage of murderers commit murder again, fear of the situational offender, together with outrage at the offense, often results in lengthy incarceration.
What are the four specific sets of attributes belonging to the group of career criminals?
1. crime is his way of earning a living, his main occupation.
2. he develops technical skills useful to the commission of his crimes.
3. he started as a delinquent child and progressed toward criminality.
4. he expects to do some time in prison as a “cost” of doing this type of work.
5. he is psychologically normal.
What constitutes the classification of sex offender in the offender typologies noted in chapter 6?
A person who
has committed a sexual act
prohibited by law, such as rape,
child molestation, or prostitution,
for economic, psychological, or
situational reasons.

corrections commonly deals with
three basic types of sex offenders: (1) rapists (sexual assaulters), (2) child molesters (pedophiles),
and (3)
Which crime is more of an economic crime than a sexual crime?
What is the difference between the mentally ill offender and the mentally handicapped offender?
mentally ill offenders—people
whose rational processes do not seem to operate in normal ways.

mentally handicapped
offender- A person whose limited
mental development prevents
adjustment to the rules of society.

Insanity vs. Low IQ
What types of procedures are created in correctional facilities to deal with HIV/AIDS offenders?
Most corrections systems segregate inmates with AIDS but keep asymptomatic
HIV carriers in the general population.

They require counseling and support services for themselves and their families.
In recent years, what has happened to America's correctional population?
It has been aging.
What have correctional administrators started using to combat ambiguities in classification?
To combat ambiguities in classification, correctional administrators have started using classification
systems. Th ese systems apply a set of objective criteria to all inmates in order to arrive at an appropriate classification. The criteria usually include such
factors as current and prior off ense histories, previous experiences in the justice system, and substance
abuse patterns.
What is the central purpose of the early jail?
Jails were
used to detain accused persons awaiting trial, as well as to shelter misfits who could not be taken
care of by their families, churches, or other groups.
How many jails in the U.S.?
What is a direct descendant of the 12th century English feudal system?
What do we call a system where jail operations are funded by a set amount paid for each prisoner held per day?
Fee system.
What is the fraction of jails that do not have rehabilitative staff to serve the mentally ill population?
What fraction of the national jail population were under the influence of alcohol/drugs at the time of arrest?
nationally, half of all people placed in jail
were under the influence of alcohol or an illegal drug at the time of arrest,
What can we say about most defendants who are spending time in jail?
They are indigent.
What is the most successful pretrial release program?
Release on recognizance.
Who is least likely to be released on their own recognizance?
African Americans.
Know the arguments for and against preventive detention.
defendants who are regarded as dangerous or likely to commit crimes while awaiting trial are
kept in jail for society’s protection.

Many scholars believe that holding in custody a person who has not been convicted of
committing a crime but who someone thinks might commit a crime violates the due process
provisions of the Constitution.
What is said about local correctional workers?
Local correctional workers are among the most poorly trained, least-educated, and worst-paid
employees in the criminal justice system.
Who was the first person to provide bail for defendants under the authority of the Boston Police Court in 1841?
John Augustus.
Know the concept of judicial reprieve.
judicial reprieve A practice
under English common law
whereby a judge could suspend
the imposition or execution of a
sentence on condition of good
behavior on the part of the
What can we say about the majority of probationers in the U.S.?
They are white males.
What two major functions have probation officers traditionally performed?
Investigation and supervision.
What is the importance of the presentence investigation?
An investigation and summary
report of a convicted offender’s
background that helps the judge
decide on an appropriate sentence. Also known as a presentence report.
In what case did the Supreme Court rule that the defendant does not have a right to receive a copy of the presentence investigation report?
Williams v. New York (1949)
What are the five principle components of the model system of case management?
Statistical risk assessment: because fully accurate predictions are impossible, there is
pressure to assess risk conservatively—to consider the client a risk even when the evidence
is ambiguous. This tendency toward overprediction (estimating that a person’s chance of
being arrested is greater than it actually is) means officers will spend time with probationers
who actually need little supervision. The use of statistically developed risk assessment
instruments reduces overprediction and improves the accuracy of risk classifications.
2. Systematic needs assessment: subjective assessments of clients’ needs often suffer from
probation officers’ biases and lack of information. With systematic needs assessment, officers
can more consistently and comprehensively address probationers’ problems by evaluating
them according to a list of potential needs.
3. Contact supervision standards: probation officers understandably tend to avoid “problem”
clients and spend more time with cooperative ones. ideally, however, those who pose the
greatest risk and have the greatest needs require the most time. based on the two assessments,
offenders are classified into supervision levels. each level has a minimum supervision
contact requirement, with the highest-risk or highest-need offenders receiving the most
4. Case planning: The broad discretion given probation officers to supervise their clients can
lead to idiosyncratic approaches. When a probation officer must put the supervision plan
in writing, the result is likely to be a better fit between the client’s problems and the officer’s
supervision strategy. in addition, the officer’s work is more easily evaluated.
5. Workload accounting: because different cases have varying supervision needs, simply
counting cases can misrepresent the overall workload of an agency. a better system for
staffing the agency involves time studies that estimate the number of staff needed to carry out
What are some specialized programs designed to combat probationer's drug use?
urinalysis determines if an offender is using drugs. Antabuse, a drug that stimulates
nausea when combined with alcohol, inhibits drinking. Methadone, a drug that reduces craving for heroin, spares addicts from painful withdrawal symptoms. These approaches are often
combined with close surveillance in order to reinforce abstinence during probation.
A performance-based movement calls for a reshaping of the philosophy of probation with a new emphasis on what?
Public safety in probation.
What is the approved practice for handling revocation or probation?
Preliminary hearing, hearing, and sentencing.
What are the three reasons why there is a need for intermediate sanctions?
(1) imprisonment is too restrictive for many offenders,
(2) traditional probation does not work with most offenders, and (3) justice is well served by having options in between.
Judges sometime complain that their sentencing choices are what?
Too restricted.
What are the three consequences of the implementation of intermediate sanctions?
1. Wider nets: the reforms increase the proportion of people in society whose behavior is
regulated or controlled by the state.
2. Stronger nets: By intensifying the state’s intervention powers, the reforms augment the state’s
capacity to control people.
3. Different nets: The reforms create new jurisdictional authority or transfer it from one agency
or control system to another.
How much money in fines are collected by the courts annually in the U.S.?
Over $1 Billion.
What is the main purpose of the reparative alternatives?
They have been called
reparative alternatives, because they seek to repair some of the harm done.
One reparative alternative is restitution. Define restitution and explain how it relates to the purpose of punishment.
Restitution is compensation for financial, physical, or emotional loss caused by
an offender, in the form of either payment of money to the victim or to a public fund for crime
victims. It rests on the assumption that the offender can atone for his or her offense
with a personal or financial contribution to the victim or to society.
What are the differences between regular probation and intensive supervision probation?
Probation granted under conditions of strict reporting to a probation officer with a limited caseload. ISP clients did much worse under the stricter rules—possibly because ISP makes
detecting rules violations easier.
What are the two basic types of electronic monitoring devices?
Passive monitors: respond only to
inquiries; most commonly the offender receives an automated telephone call from the probation
office and is told to place the device on a receiver attached to the phone.

Active devices: send
continuous signals that are picked up by a receiver; a computer notes any break in the signal.
Does boot camp reduce arrest rates?
appear to fail to reduce rearrest rates.
What are the two general goal of intermediate sanctions?
improving justice, saving money, and preventing crime.?
What happened to prisoners' rights in the wake of the Civil Rights Movement?
Prisoners demanded Constitutional rights as citizens.
What are the models of incarceration?
Custodial, rehabilitation, and reintegration.
What percentage of federal inmates are citizens of other countries?
Are there more violent offenders in federal prisons or state institutions?
State institutions.
What is the prison design that is most often used for female and juvenile inmates?
“multilevel” facilities.
What percentage of state prisoners have not completed high school or its equivalent?
What difficulties/issues arise from incarceration of elderly prisoners?
Housing, medical care, programs, and release.
As states begin to deal with severe budgetary problems, the future of private prisons becomes:
What percentage of prisoners has a history or symptoms of mental illness?
Approximately 56 percent
Most prisons employ which model of incarceration?
Why are there so many prisoners with symptoms of mental illness in state and federal correctional institutions?
With the expansion of prisons and the greater police emphasis on public-order offenses, many mentally ill individuals are now arrested and incarcerated. These inmates tend to catch a revolving door from
homelessness to incarceration and then back to the streets.
According to Gresham Sykes, what are the five rules embodies in the inmate code?
1.Don’t interfere with inmate interests. never
rat on a con, don’t be nosy, don’t have a
loose lip, and don’t put a guy on the spot.
2. Don’t quarrel with fellow inmates. Play it
cool, don’t lose your head, do your own
3. Don’t exploit inmates. Don’t break your word, don’t steal from cons, don’t sell favors, and don’t
welsh on bets.
4. Maintain yourself. Don’t weaken, don’t whine, don’t cop out, be tough, be a man.
5. Don’t trust the guards or the things they stand for. Don’t be a sucker, guards are hacks and
screws, the officials are wrong and the prisoners are right.
The process by which a new inmate absorbs the customs of the prison society and learns to adopt the environment is known as _________.
Most male inmates use what four basic role orientations to adapt to prison?
Doing time: temporary break.
Gleaning: taking advantage of prison programs.
Jailing: cut themselves off and construct a life within prisons.
Disorganized criminal: cannot develop any of the other three roles.
Inmates who are 'gleaning' are said to do what in prison?
inmates who are “gleaning” try to take advantage of prison programs to better themselves and improve their prospects for success after release.
What is the standard currency in the prison economy?
The sociological theory known as the 'subculture of violence' argues that violence is primarily found in the _________ subculture.
This subculture is found in the lower class; in its value system, violence is condoned in certain situations to resolve interpersonal conflict.
Inmates who fall victim to sexual violence while incarcerated tend to be ________.
Not affiliated with a gang.
Are men serving time in prison between the ages of 16-24 more prone to violence than older men?
What strategies do prison administrators use to weaken gang violence? List them all as you never know which ones will be on the test.
Identifying members, segregating housing and work assignments, restricting possession or display of gang symbols, conducting strip searches, monitoring mail and telephone communications, and providing only no-contact visits.
What are the major prison gang? List them all.
Aryan Brotherhood, Black Guerilla Family (BGF), Mexian Mafia, La nuestra Familia
(NF), Texaas Syndicate.
What are some of the common characteristics of victims of prison sexual assault? List them all as you never know which ones will be on the test.
■First-time, nonviolent offenders
■Those convicted of a crime against a minor
■inmates who are physically weak
■Prisoners who are viewed as effeminate
■offenders who are not affiliated with a gang
■Those who are believed to have “snitched” on other prisoners
What are the suggested measures to assist in the reduction of prison violence?
Increase size, racial diversity, an custodial force.
Most prison violence occurs:
Between inmates.
What crime is the majority of women arrested for?
larceny theft.
What did Marry Belle Harris, warden of the first federal prison for women believe was responsible for much of the criminality that they experience?
dependency on men.
The justification for the lack of diverse educational, vocational, and other programs to incarcerated women is what?
Programs are geared towards female occupations.
What percent of women in prison are white?
Know the sub-cultural differences between male an female inmates.
sexual relationships between women
prisoners appeared more voluntary. Interestingly, researchers reported that female inmates
tended to form pseudofamilies in which they adopted various roles—father, mother, daughter,
sister—and interacted as a unit, rather than identifying with the larger prison subculture.

prisons for women are less violent, involve less gang activity, and do not have the racial tensions found in men's prisons. The informal social structure of the
female prison is somewhat collectivist. It is characterized by warmth and mutual aid extended to family
and kinship members; male prisoners adapt by selfsufficiency, a convict code, and solidarity with other
Are women more responsive than men to prison programs?
Are women less likely to be sexual victims than their male counterparts?
What case was instrumental in ensuring that women's prisons had programs comparable to that of male prisoners?
Glover v. Johnson,
More than what percentage of female inmates in state prisons are mothers of minor children?
When women are released into the community, many must deal with issues related to what?
60-70% have no place to live.
Holtfreter found women _____% less likely to reoffend i they have access to housing and life skills training.
The increase in the number of women in prisons has affected:
how programs are setup and delivered, and the type of programs offered.
Probation officers rely on _________, because they have very little substantive power.