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25 Cards in this Set

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What is transcription?
Process of transferring genetic information from DNA to mRNA
How is RNA different than DNA?
RNA has Ribose instead of deoxyribose, only one strand, and Uracil instead of Thymine.
What is Uracil?
Nitrogenous base only found in RNA it is a pyrimidine that bonds with Adenine.
What is mRNA?
Messenger Ribonucleic Acid
What does mRNA do?
When ever the cell needs a protein a copy of the DNA is made, that copy is mRNA and is used as a template for the protein.
Why is mRNA important?
If there is no mRNA then there is no way for the genetic information to get from the DNA to the ribosome.
What enzymes are needed for transcription?
Only RNA polymerase, but it does require helper proteins too.
Where does transcription happen?
In Eukaryotes: in the nucleus
In Prokaryotes: in the cytoplasm.
What is the first step of transcription called?
Pre-initiation
What happens during pre-initiation?
Co-factors and RNA polymerase unwind the DNA to make an initiation bubble.
What is the difference between the sense strand and the antisense strand?
The anti-sense strand is the one copied and runs 3' to 5'
What is the second step in transcription called?
Initiation
What happens during initiation?
Transcription factors help the RNA polymerase attach to the correct spot on the DNA.
What are transcription factors?
Proteins that help the RNA polymerase bind to the DNA molecule.
What is the third step of transcription called?
Promoter Clearance
What happens during promoter clearance?
RNA polymerase needs help clearing the promoter region of the DNA, so promoter proteins help it get started.
What happens to RNA polymerase if it doesn't get help from the promoter proteins?
It will fall off the DNA and not make mRNA.
What is the 4th step of transcription?
Elongation
What happens during elongation?
Polymerase zooms down the antisense strand putting the correct nucleotides in order, making a long mRNA strand.
What happens when the RNA polymerase encounters an Adenine nucleotide?
It puts the nitrogenous base, Uracil into the sequence.
What is the fifth step of transcription?
Termination
What happens during termination?
When RNA polymerase reads a stop sequence of nucleotides on the DNA it cuts the mRNA loose. The mRNA goes to the ribosome.
What are nuclear pores?
Small tunnels through both membranes around the nucleus, they allow some molecules like mRNA through.
What stage of the cell cycle does transcription occur?
Interphase
During which phase of Interphase does transcription primarily occur?
G1