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Chemistry

Unit 1: States of Matter, Atomic Structure, Ionic and Covalent Bonding, The Reactivity Series, Extraction of Metals


Unit 2: Acids & Alkalis, Salts, and Rates of Reaction


Unit 3: The Chemistry of Group 1 and Group 7 elements


Unit 4: Bonding; Mole calculations; Equilibria; Contact and Haber processes


Unit 5: Organic Chemistry, Energetics


Unit 6: Electrolysis, Industrial Production of Chemicals, Tests for Ions, Final Calculations

Unit 1

States of Matter, Atomic Structure, Ionic and Covalent Bonding, The Reactivity Series, Extraction of Metals

1.1: understand the arrangement, movement and energy of the particles in each of the three states of matter: solid, liquid and gas

Solids: Particles are touching, vibrate, low energy
Liquids: Particles touch, they move to fill gaps, some energy
Gas: Particles aren't touching, move freely, high energy

Solids: Particles are touching, vibrate, low energy


Liquids: Particles touch, they move to fill gaps, some energy


Gas: Particles aren't touching, move freely, high energy

1.2: understand how the interconversions of solids, liquids and gases are achieved and recall the names used for these interconversions

Solid → Gas: increase in heat
Gas → Solid: decrease in heat

Solid → Gas: increase in heat


Gas → Solid: decrease in heat

1.3: explain the changes in arrangement, movement and energy of particles during these interconversions

The more heat, the more energy

The more heat, the more energy

1.4: describe and explain experiments to investigate the small size of particles and their movement including:


- dilution of coloured solutions


- diffusion experiments

Dilution: a substance is put in a solvent to reduce its concentration


Diffusion: The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

Diffusion


- Hydrochloric acid is put at one end of a tube, ammonia solution at the other


- A white ring of ammonium chloride appears where the gases meet


- Ring is closer to the HCL end


- Ammonia must have travelled faster, it got further


- Lighter particles move faster, ammonia is lighter

Dilution


- Put a coloured substance in water


- The colour will be lighter (diluted by the water)


- Dilution happens quicker higher temperature because of the energy in the particles


- So applying heat decreases the amount of time taken for the coloured substance to be fully diluted

1.5: understand the terms atom and molecule

An atom is made up of a nucleus (protons and neutrons) and orbitals with electrons on.
A molecule is two or more atoms bonded together.

An atom is made up of a nucleus (protons and neutrons) and orbitals with electrons on.


A molecule is two or more atoms bonded together.

1.9: understand that atoms consist of a central nucleus, composed of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons, orbiting in shells

- The protons and neutrons in the centre make up the nucleus
- The electrons are orbiting in shells (or orbitals)

- The protons and neutrons in the centre make up the nucleus


- The electrons are orbiting in shells (or orbitals)

1.10: recall the relative mass and relative charge of a proton, neutron and electron

Relative charge


Proton: +1


Neutron: No charge


Electron: -1


Relative mass


Proton: 1


Neutron: 1


Electron: 1/1836

1.11: understand the terms atomic number, mass number, isotopes and relative atomic mass (Ar)

Atomic number: number of protons (the same as number of electrons)


Mass number: number of protons + neutrons


Isotopes: Atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons


Relative atomic mass (Ar): the mass of one atom of an element.

1.13: understand that the Periodic Table is an arrangement of elements in order of atomic number
Every atom in an element has the same atomic number.

Every atom in an element has the same atomic number.

1.14: deduce the electronic configurations of the first 20 elements from their positions in the Periodic Table

Groups are colmns in the periodic table; the group number represents the number of electrons on the outer shell.


Periods are rows on the periodic table; the row corresponds with number of shell.


So if you have an element on the third row down in group seven: it will have three shell and 7 electrons on its outer shell.

1.15: deduce the number of outer electrons in a main group element from its position in the Periodic Table

The groups (that's going down the periodic table) tell you how many electrons are on the outer shell.


Also note that the periods (going across) tell you the number of orbitals the atom has.

1.30: recall the charges of common ions in this specification
1.21: write word equations and balanced chemical equations to represent the reactions studied in this specification

Word equations have just the names of the reactants and products involved: Hydrogen + Oxygen > Water


Balanced equations are the symbols of the products and reactants including the numbers of each, there must be an equal number of each element on both sides of the equation, if there are not you can alter this by putting the right number infront of a symbol: 2H + O > H2O

1.22: use the state symbols (s), (l), (g) and (aq) in chemical equations to represent solids, liquids, gases and aqueous solutions respectively

(S) solid


(L) liquid


(G) gas


(Aq) aqueous/ solid dissolved in liquid

2.30: describe how reactions with water and dilute acids can be used to deduce the following order of reactivity: potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and copper

potassium, sodium, lithium and calcium all react with water and acidsmagnesium, zinc and iron all react with acids (and very slowly with water.)


copper doesn't react with either.


The more vigorous the reaction the more reactive the metal. The more things a metal will react with, the more reactive the metal.

2.32: understand oxidation and reduction as the addition and removal of oxygen respectively

Oxidation is the gain of oxygen


Reduction is the loss of oxygen

2.31: deduce the position of a metal within the reactivity series using displacement reactions between metals and their oxides, and between metals and their salts in aqueous solutions

A metal oxide or a metal salt dissolved in water:


- introduce a more reactive metal and it will displace the current one


- introduce a less reactive metal and no displacement will take place


From this you can deduce which metals are more and less reactive.

2.29: understand that metals can be arranged in a reactivity series based on the reactions of the metals and their compounds: potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, zinc, iron, copper, silver and gold
1.29: understand oxidation as the loss of electrons and reduction as the gain of electrons

Oxidation


Is


Loss (of electrons)


Reduction


Is


Gain (of electrons)

2.33: understand the terms: redox, oxidising agent, reducing agent

5.1: explain how the methods of extraction of the metals in this section are related to their positions in the reactivity series

5.4: describe and explain the main reactions involved in the extraction of iron from iron ore (haematite), using coke, limestone and air in a blast furnace

2.34: describe the conditions under which iron rusts

2.35: describe how the rusting of iron may be prevented by grease, oil, paint, plastic and galvanising

2.36: understand the sacrificial protection of iron in terms of the reactivity series

5.1: explain how the methods of extraction of the metals in this section are related to their positions in the reactivity series

5.4: describe and explain the main reactions involved in the extraction of iron from iron ore (haematite), using coke, limestone and air in a blast furnace

2.34: describe the conditions under which iron rusts

2.35: describe how the rusting of iron may be prevented by grease, oil, paint, plastic and galvanising

2.36: understand the sacrificial protection of iron in terms of the reactivity series