Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/57

Click to flip

57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

From an evolutionary perspective, the most important property that defines a species is _____.

Reproductive Isolation

Question 1: The cells of all plants have _____.

Chloroplasts and mitochondria and use carbohydrates to power their functions.

Question 2: Which of the following is a difference between cellular respiration and anaerobic respiration?

Only cellular respiration uses oxygen to break down carbohydrates.

Question 16: Which of the following are found in the cells of a dog but not in the bacteria that are found on a dog's fur?

Membrane-enclosed nucleus and mitochondria.



(Eukaryotes have a membrane-enclosed nucleus and mitochondria not found in bacteria.)

Question 18: The products of photosynthesis are the materials that react in the process of _____.

Cellular respiration.

Question 4: Tissues within an organism's body are different from each other because the cells in each tissue _____.

Activate different portions of the identical DNA.

Activate different portions of the identical DNA.

Gametes that combine in sexual reproduction to produce a zygote.

Question 6: The growth of a population of sparrows accelerates with each generation. The chances of dying are about the same for these sparrows, regardless of age. This population of sparrows therefore demonstrates _____.

Exponential growth and a type II survivorship curve.

Question 7: A population will grow the fastest when total fertility rates are _____.

High and generation times are short.

Question 20: A population will not change in size if the _____.

Birth rate equals the death rate and the immigration rate equals the emigration rate.



(If the number born equals the number that die, there is no change. If the number of organisms leaving equals the number coming in, there is no net growth of population size.)

Question 8: As a population increases to near its carrying capacity, _____.

Birth rates decline, death rates increase, and the overall rate of population growth declines.

Question 10: The various activities that define an organism's role in an ecosystem are that organism's _____.

Ecological niche.

Question 22: Largemouth bass and rainbow trout are stocked in a small, deep 10-acre pond. The bass are most active in 20-30 °C water, and the rainbow trout prefer water at about 6-22 °C. We expect to find few places in this pond where the two species interact because they have different _____.

Ranges of tolerance.

Question 11: The evolutionary concept of fitness is most closely associated with _____.

Reproduction.

Question 12: The ultimate source of new inherited traits in a population is _____.

Mutation.

Question 23: Studies of human birth weight and infant health reveal that babies who are heavier than 10 pounds or lighter than 6 pounds have decreased survival rates. This pattern of survival is an example of _____.

Stabilizing selection.



(In stabilizing selection, individuals at both ends of the range are less likely to survive than individuals with average birth weights.)

Question 14: From an evolutionary perspective, the most important property that defines a species is _____.

Reproductive isolation.

Question 24: In Missouri, the marbled salamander breeds in the late fall (October-December). In the same region, the closely related spotted salamander breeds in early spring (February-March). Thus, these species are kept separate because of _____.

Temporal isolation.



(These two species are reproductively isolated by the time period when they mate and lay eggs.)

Question 15: Which one of the following correctly lists the levels of classification from specific to general?

Species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom.

Question25: In a phylogenetic tree, all of the species in one family will _____.

Be clustered together in the tree.



(In a phylogenetic tree, organisms that are more closely related are clustered near each other.)

Which of the following represents an example of a regulating ecosystem service?

As river levels rise with spring precipitation and snowmelt in the Midwest of the United States, marshes and swamps along the edge of the Mississippi River become flooded. These flooded regions regulate water levels and reduce river levels and threats of flooding in the towns further along the river.

Sunlight enters a prairie ecosystem where it promotes the evaporation of water, is captured and converted by photosynthesis into molecules that build and sustain plants, and is reflected back into the sky. If we created an energy equation of the input and outputs of this prairie ecosystem, we would say that _____.

the total amount of energy equals the total amount of energy absorbed, reflected, and released


Regular wildfires in many forests open up areas where new trees can grow. Eventually, these young trees will refill the burned regions and the mature forest will be restored. This type of recovery best illustrates _____.

dynamic homeostasis in ecosystems


Two important sources of uncertainty in our understanding of the environment are _____.

ignorance and complexity


Some people advocate the creation of a carbon tax, based upon the carbon content of fossil fuels, as part of an effort to decrease the production of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. The expectation is that if people have to pay more for carbon-based fuels, they will switch to non-carbon-based sources of energy. This effort best addresses which of the following aspects of sustainability science?

human incentives that produce sustainable interactions between ecosystems and social systems


Which one of the following best represents a tipping point?

Deforestation reduces rainfall in a region, which leads to additional forest fires and more deforestation.


The United Nations Commission on Sustainability argued that sustainability is maintaining the ability to accommodate three important sources of change. These are _____.

the world is changing, we are changing, and we are changing the world


The two environmental issues of greatest concern today are _____.

widespread extinction of plant and animal species and the warming of Earth's atmosphere


Which one of the following is most like something that a transcendentalist might say?

Our growing interest in material goods drives us further from our connection with the natural world.


Objecting to the rearing of domestic animals for food and leather is most consistent with _____ ethics.

biocentric ethics


In the state of Arizona, the use of groundwater has been aggressively managed since about 1980. Before that time, agricultural, commercial, and private demands for water were growing at levels that were not sustainable. Before water regulation of any sort, demand for water in all its forms in the state of Arizona illustrated _____.

the tragedy of the commons


In a cap and trade program regulating green house gas (GHG) emissions, _____.

a company that emits fewer GHGs than the cap earns credits that can be sold to companies that exceed the cap


A citizen of the United States is questioning the constitutionality of a regulation of the Clean Water Act. Which branch of the federal government determines whether a regulation is constitutional?

the judicial branch


The most important organization shaping international environmental policy and law is the _____.

United Nations


Isotopes of an element differ from each other by the _____.

number of neutrons


Which one of the following statements about pH is correct?


Lemon juice has more H+ ions than OH- ions.


Baking soda has more H+ ions than OH- ions.


Stomach acid has more OH- ions than H+ ions.


Seawater is slightly acidic.

Lemon juice has more H+ ions than OH- ions.


In which form are water molecules most closely bonded to each other?

liquid water a few degrees above the freezing point


Which one of the following is a molecule but NOT a compound?

O2

Which one of the following is a carbohydrate and one of Earth's most abundant organic molecule?

cellulose

Which one of the following is a protein that functions as a catalyst?

enzyme

The process of translation involves the use of _____.

nucleic acids to make proteins


The cooling effect of sweating best represents what?

latent heat transfer


When plants use sunlight in photosynthesis, the plants are using a form of _____.

electromagnetic radiation


Which of the following converts mass to energy?

nuclear fission


When a windmill turns to generate electricity, the amount of kinetic energy input _____.

is more than the amount of electrical energy produced


Which of the following best represents kinetic energy?

a hot burner on a stove


Which of the following processes reduces entropy?

photosynthesis in a leaf


Which one of the following planets is a gas giant?

Jupiter

What is the main driving force that causes Earth's tectonic plates to drift?

Heat from Earth's core causes the mantle rock to circulate.


In which of the following locations would you expect to find large quantities of young rocks?

the Mid-Atlantic Ridge


The oxygen-rich atmosphere of Earth is mainly the result of _____.

photosynthetic organisms


A scientist working on the chemical reactions in the ozone layer is studying the _____.

stratosphere


The total amount of moisture in the air is highest when relative humidity is _____.

high and temperatures are high


You are enjoying a spring day but expect a storm to arrive soon . As the storm arrives and the rain begins to fall, you notice that the temperature drops dramatically. Most likely, you have just experienced the arrival of a _____.

cold front


Every day tremendous amounts of the sun's energy strikes Earth. Why doesn't Earth overheat?

The energy is ultimately radiated back to space.


How many calories are required to heat up 1,000 grams of liquid water (about 1 liter) from 20 °C to 70 °C?

50,000

Hadley cells near the Equator consist of _____.

rising moist air that produces precipitation and rainforests, and falling dry air associated with deserts