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63 Cards in this Set

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A temperature inversion can adversely affect air quality and is characterized by:

A layer of warm air forming above colder air

The primary sources of the acidity in acid rain are the gases:

SO2 and NOx

Species that are found only in specific environments or have restricted localities are said to be:

Endemic

Species richness is affected by many variables. As one travels to higher latitudes, one would expect:

The number of species to decrease

A watershed is:

The area of land from which rainfall drains into rivers or lakes

Abundant light and constant nutrient input make ______ among the most productive ecosystems on Earth.

Estuaries

The primary cause of soil erosion is:

Over cultivation

Water diversion and pumping has allowed humans to grow crops in areas where natural supplies have been limited. A major challenge that exists in these regions has been:

Salinization of soils

Primary plant/tree growth is characterized mainly by:

Upward and downward growth due to cell division at the stem and root

The most abundant fossil fuel extracted in the U.S. is

Coal

Mine tailings contain ___________, which harms fish and other aquatic organisms

Sulfide

Which of the following is considered a biological human health hazard?

Malaria exposure

What part of the IPAT equation does providing contraceptive and reproductive health fall under?

Population

Residence time is:

Average length of time a molecule of a substance spends in the environment

A ________ can be defined as the likelihood of a harmful outcome impairing health or causing deaths

Risk

In the U.S. today, the approach which best reduces the volume and weight of municipal solid waste is:

Incineration

The green house gas produced from most landfills is:

Methane

In urban planning, _____________ is the designation of specific areas for different categories of land use

Zoning

In urban areas, an increase in impervious surfaces will cause:

An increase in runoff

Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using renewable energy resources?

Greenhouse gas emissions continue to be a significant factor

Mine tailing contain ________ which harms fish and other aquatic organisms

Sulfide

The source of energy for nuclear power is:

Nuclear fission

A major concern with natural gas demand is:

Transportation

Photovoltaic technology is best described as:

Using sunlight to generate electricity

Tidal energy is:

The kinetic energy of the tides

Natural gas is composed primarily of:

Methane

Air and water pollution are directly responsible for the loss of some species. In their studies of these pollution effects, biologists have determine that ______ are especially sensitive to air pollution, and are now being used as an index of urban air quality

Lichens

In the U.S., ____________ is the largest consumer of water

Industry

CFC's were primarily used in:

Refrigeration

Photochemical smog is formed when primary air pollutants interact with:

Sunlight

Which of the following is a secondary air pollutant?

Ozone

Which step would be the most likely to have the greatest effect on improving outdoor air pollution?

Significant reduction in automobile use

Stratospheric ozone destruction involves a complex series of reactions. The first significant reaction involves:

UV from sunlight causing Cl atoms to break free from CFC's

In many developing countries a primary indoor air pollutant is:

Smoke from wood-fueled stoves

Radon is an indoor air pollutant that has been linked to:

Lung cancer

A greenway is:

The link that provides pathways for wildlife to travel between parks and reserves

Cities tend to require very ______ inputs of energy and materials resulting in _____ outputs of waste

Large, large

In urban areas, an increase in impervious surfaces will cause:

An increase in runoff

Hazardous wastes are characterized by being mainly:

Corrosive, flammable, and explosive

When considering using graywater, you might use the water for:

Flushing toilets

In arid regions, many urban planners are encouraging homeowners towards:

Xeriscaping

Parts of a metropolitan area outside the central city is called:

Suburbs

In wastewater treatment, the removal of nutrients occurs during ________ treatment

Tertiary

Sanitary landfills produce_____, which may be used for energy

Methane

Modern cities arose during the _____ revolution

Industrial

The biggest impact (problem) to urban hydrology is:

Paved surfaces

Urban ________ is the widespread growth in the amount of land included in the metropolitan area

Sprawl

Renewable energy sources are those that are:

Constantly replenished

Currently, the most abundant renewable energy source in the world is:

Hydroelectric

A disadvantage of hydropower is:

Ecosystem disruption

Clusters of wind turbines are known as:

Wind farms

Solar energy that uses mechanical devices is ______ solar technology

Active

The main source of energy for biomass is derived from:

Photosynthesis

The fastest growing renewable energy source is:

Wind

What percentage of cropland is used to create feed for domesticated animals?

30%

The soil horizon ___________ is where parent material is broken down

C

___________ water adheres to soil particles and is unavailable to plants

Hygroscopic

One major issue with livestock waste (manure) is

Nutrient pollution

_______ and soil determine where a crop can be grown

Climate

What type of wetlands are continuously flooded & filled with herbacious plants?

Marshes

The ocean's open waters are the _____ zone

Pelagic

________ currents are driven by Earth's radiation, winds, and difference in Earth's water temp

Surface

What percentage of water flowing in Earth's streams gets used by humans?

At least 50%