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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The smallest particle that exists as and element
The tendency of a mineral to break along plains of weak bonding
A mineral characteristic that is unreliable. Impurities change color
A substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
Crystal Form
Expression of orderly arrangement of atoms. If space available
Negatively charged subatomic particle that has a negligible mass and is found outside of an atoms nucleus
A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances. Building blocks of minerals. Periodic Table
Any break or rupture in rock along which no appreciable movement has taken place. Minerals without cleavage exhibit fracture
The resistance a mineral offers to scratching. Measured by Mohn's scale
Light refelcted on surface of a mineral. Metallic vs non metallic
Neutrally occurring, inorganic, solids that possess a definite chemical structure. 4,000 minerals exist
Mineral Resource
Useful minerals that can be recovered for use
Mohn's scale
A series of 10 minerals used as a standard in detriming hardness
A subatomic found in a nucleus of an atom
The small, heavy core of an atom that contians all of it's positive charges
Metallic minerals that can be mined for profit
A positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom
Already identified depositis from which can be extracted profitably
A consolidated mixtue of minerals
Specific Gravity
Weight of a mineral compared to the weight of equal volume of H2O
The color of a mineral in powder form. More reliable than color
Bowen's Reaction Series
Shows sequence of mineral crystallization
Chemical Sedimentary of Rock
Sedimentary rock consisting of a material that was precipitated from water by either inorganic or organic means. Water is main agent of weathering
Chemical Weathering
Chemical processes alter rock material into different substances. Structure of minerals is altered by adding and removing elements
Coarse-Grained Texture
Cool slowly mass inter grown, identifiable crystals, can be seen with unaided eye
Contact Metamorphisism
Changes in rock caused by the heat from a nearby magma body. Molten material "bakes" surrounding rock
The formation and growth of a crystalline solid from a liquid or gas. Molten magma undergoes crystallization either beneath or at the surface to form igneous rocks
Detrital (Clastic) Sedimentary Rock
Products of chemical weathering. Solid particles that make up sedimentary rock and are classified by particle size. Shale (most abundant), siltstone, sandstone, conglomerate
Evaporite Deposit
A sedimentary rock formed of material deposited from solution by evaporation of the water
Extrusive (Volcanic)
Igneous activity that occurs outside the crust
Fine-Grained Texture
Cool rapidly at surface, crystals too small to be seen
Foliated Texture
A texture of a metamorphic rock that gives a layers appearance
Glassy Texture
A term used to describe the texture of certain igneous rocks, such as obsidian, that contain no crystals
Igneous Rock
A rock formed by the crystallization of molten magma
Intrusive (Plutonic)
Igneous rock that formed below the earth's surface
Magma that reaches earth's surface
The process, generally cementation and/or compaction of converting sediments to solid rock
A body of molten rock found at depth, including any dissolved gasses and crystals
Mechanical Weathering
Rocks are physically broken into smaller pieces that retain chararistics of original material. This increases surface area for chemical attack
Metamorphic Rock
Rocks formed by the alteration of preexisting rock deep within the earth by heat, pressure, or chemically active fluids. Low Grade: original features still visible. High Grade: original features obliterated
Nonfoilated Texture
Metamorphic rocks that do not exhibit foliation. Resemble coarse igneous rocks
Potphyritic Texture
An igneous texture consisting of large crystals embedded in the matrix of much smaller crystals
Regional Metamorphisism
Metamorphisim associated with the large- scale mountian-building process. Extensive areas, great volume of rock produced. Appalachian mountians
Rock Cycle
A model that illustrates the origin of the three basic rock types and their relationships. Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic
Sedimentary Rock
Rocks formed from the weathered products of preexisting rocks that have been transported, deposited, and lithified
Unconsolidated particles created by the weathering and erosion of rock, by chemical precipitation from solution in water, or from the secreations of organisms and transported by water, wind, or glaciers
The size, shape and distribution of the particles that collectively constitute a rock
The response of materials (rocks) to a changing environment at or near contact with water, air or organisms
Charged atoms. Ions with opposite charges attract one another to produce neutral chemical compounds
Scientific Meathod
State the problem, Gather information, Form hypothesis, Test the hypothesis, Record and analyze data, Conclusion, Repeat the work
Well tested and widely accepted view that scientist agree that best explains certain observable facts
Distance in degrees East and West of zero or prime meridian
Distance in degrees North and South of the equator