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31 Cards in this Set

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4 main roles of maintaining homeostasis in kidneys
1) Excretion of hydrophilic waste (i.e. toxins, nitrogenous substances, phosphate)

2) Maintain constant solute compostion

3) Maintain constant pH, ~7.4

4) Maintain constant fluid volume--important for blood pressure and cardiac output
1) Excretion of hydrophilic waste (i.e. toxins, nitrogenous substances, phosphate)

2) Maintain constant solute compostion

3) Maintain constant pH, ~7.4

4) Maintain constant fluid volume--important for blood pressure and cardiac output
What wedge-shaped structures of collecting ducts compose most of the medulla?
Renal Pyramids (medullary pyramids)
The most inner portion of the kidney
(Hint: extension of the ureter)
Renal Pelvis located in the kidney's hilus
The structural unit of the kidney
Nephron
-more than a million units/kidney
Nephron
-more than a million units/kidney
The glomerulus is continuous with the distal convoluted tubule (T/F)
False.
-Continuity begins at Bowman's capsule
-Glomerulus is a capillary bed within the Bowman's capsule (together makes up the renal corpuscle)
Pathway of filtrate through excretory system
1) Glomerulus (blood) -->Bowman's capsule (filtrate)

2) Nephron (PCT, ↑ & ↓ loop of Henle, DCT, collecting duct)

3) Papillary duct (where nearby collecting ducts merge)

4) Renal Pelvis-funnel-shaped sections called "calyces"

5) Ureter

6) Ur
1) Glomerulus (blood) -->Bowman's capsule (filtrate)

2) Nephron (PCT, ↑ & ↓ loop of Henle, DCT, collecting duct)

3) Papillary duct (where nearby collecting ducts merge)

4) Renal Pelvis-funnel-shaped sections called "calyces"

5) Ureter

6) Urinary Bladder

7) Urethra
3 elements renal corpuscle is comprised of:
1) Glomerulus--tuft of capillaries

2) Glomuerular basement membrane

3) Bowman's capsule--surrounds glomerulus
Name pathway of blood flow from heart to kidney
abdominal artery→renal artery→afferent arterioles (branch to individual corpuscles)→branch to form glomerular capillaries in Bowman's capsule→renal vein
abdominal artery→renal artery→afferent arterioles (branch to individual corpuscles)→branch to form glomerular capillaries in Bowman's capsule→renal vein
What are some causes that forces fluid to leave blood vessels and filter into Bowman's capsule?
-afferent arterioles > efferent arterioles (↑ pressure)

-efferent arterioles can constrict creating high blood pressure in glomerular capillaries--↑ pressure forces fluid out of capillaries into ↓ pressure B's capsule
-afferent arterioles > efferent arterioles (↑ pressure)

-efferent arterioles can constrict creating high blood pressure in glomerular capillaries--↑ pressure forces fluid out of capillaries into ↓ pressure B's capsule
Glomerulus
Network of branched capillaries sitting inside Bowman's capsule that is responsible for delivering blood into the nephron.
Where does blood enter the kidney to become filtrate?
Exits the glomerulus, supported by pressure differences, and enters the permeable visceral layer of Bowman's capsule.
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
-Length of tubule proximal to the renal corpuscle

-Where most (~75%) reabsorption and secretion takes place through active transport proteins in apical membrane
What happens once a solute has reach its maximum in the proximal convoluted tubule?
Solutes in the filtrate are then reabsorbed through passive or facilitative diffusion.
What is the net result of the proximal convoluted tubule?
To reduce the amount of filtrate in the nephron while changing the solute composition without changing the osmolarity.
The nephron carries out its job in what 4 steps? Also name the transport method and selectivity of each step.
1) Filtration: passive and non-selective

2) Secretion: active and highly selective

3) Reaborption: passive, active and selective 

4) Excretion
1) Filtration: passive and non-selective

2) Secretion: active and highly selective

3) Reaborption: passive, active and selective

4) Excretion
Name the specialized cells in Bowman's capsule responsible for filtration. (3)
-Slit Pores

-Podocytes

-Basement Membrane
Descending Loop of Henle
- water permeable but nearly impermeable to soultes

-Increasing [solute] gradient of medulla interstitium causes water to be reabsorbed into surrounding efferent capillaries (vasa recta)→renal vein
Ascending Loop of Henle
-water impermeable, solute permeable

-At first, Na+ passively diffuses then actively transported to maintain interstitial concentration gradient
Solute concentration and volume of filtrate and is equal in cortical segments of the descending and ascending limbs. (T/F)
False.  
-Filtrate solute concentration in corresponding ascending limb is somewhat lower.

-Filtrate volume is much lower
False.
-Filtrate solute concentration in corresponding ascending limb is somewhat lower.

-Filtrate volume is much lower
Distal Convoluted Tubule
-Site of additional reabsorption and secretion that fine tunes and lowers filtrate concentration

-reabsorbs Na+ and Ca++ , secretes K+, H+, HCO3- (depending on blood [HCO3-])
Where does aldosterone act on the nephron?
-The distal convoluted tubule

-Increases Na+/K+ protein pump activity

-Released when Na+ levels are low (and Ca++)
Where does the ADH act on in the nephron? (2)
-On the collecting tubule (cortex) and collecting duct (medulla).

-Makes cells more permeable to water
Vasodilation of cardiovascular system increases blood filtration. (T/F)
True.
-vasoconstriction decreases blood filtration
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
- Monitors filtrate pressure in the distal tubule 

-specialized cells (granular) cells secrete renin, ultimately stimulates release of aldosterone
- Monitors filtrate pressure in the distal tubule

-specialized cells (granular) cells secrete renin, ultimately stimulates release of aldosterone
Renin
Secreted by granular cells in juxtaglomerular apparatus (distal convoluted tubule) that initiates cascade of angiotensin I, II, and III → aldosterone
Secreted by granular cells in juxtaglomerular apparatus (distal convoluted tubule) that initiates cascade of angiotensin I, II, and III → aldosterone
Osmoregulation
Management of the body's water an solute concentration.
3 types of nitrogenous wastes and corresponding taxa of animals
1) Ammonia: very soluble, highly toxic; organisms that live in the water i.e. hydra, fish, etc.

2) Urea: Not as toxic; earthworms and humans (liver processes ammonia--->urea)

3) Uric Acid: paste-like, non-toxic; excreted by insects, many reptiles, and birds--minimum water loss
Contractile Vacuole
-protists
-unicellular algae
Flame Cells
Simplest freshwater invertebrates--PLANERIA
-platyhelminthes (flat worms)
Nephridia OR Metanephridia
Earthworms
Malphighian tubules
Insects