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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psychology is defined as the scientific study of
1) behavior and mental processes.
2) diagnosis and treatment of behavioral disorders.
3) conscious and unconscious mental processes.
4) the mind.
As a science, Psychology has four goals. Which of the following is NOT one of those goals?
1) eliminate behavior
2) explain behavior
3) predict behavior
4) control behavior
A __________ proposes a relationship among observed events.
1) science
2) theory
3) prediction
4) school of psychology
Theories allow psychologists to make __________ such as a client’s chance of recovery.
1) descriptions
2) explanations
3) predictions
4) beliefs
Dr. Rossini is developing a training program to help a young woman with mental retardation to sort clothes in the laundry of the residential facility in which she lives. Whenever she performs her job according to the protocol, she receives a reward. If she does not stay on task, she receives no reward. Applying the principles of learning theory to the direct modification of human conduct is referred to as
1) pure research.
2) basic research.
3) psychoanalysis.
4) the practice of psychology.
Applied research is research undertaken
1) with humans.
2) with lower animals.
3) for its own sake.
4) to find solutions to specific problems.
The difference between pure and applied research is the difference between
1) prediction and control.
2) practice and theory.
3) research for its own sake and research to solve specific problems.
4) application and adaptation.
School psychologists are employed by school districts to
1) develop achievement and aptitude tests.
2) identify and assist students who have problems that interfere with their learning.
3) study hereditary and environmental influences on the development of students.
4) develop instructional methods for teachers to employ.
__________ psychologists study the relationship between genetic and environmental factors on growth of the individual through the life span.
1) Biocultural
2) Personality
3) Developmental
4) Social
A theory that divides human behavior into two basic traits, introversion and extraversion, was probably formulated by a __________ psychologist.
1) developmental
2) personality
3) behavioral
4) clinical
Which of the following psychologists is most likely to conduct pure research?
1) experimental
2) organizational
3) consumer
4) human factors
Industrial psychologists and organizational psychologists study the behavior of people in
1) workplaces.
2) research laboratories.
3) universities.
4) court rooms.
A forensic psychologist may be involved in any of the following activities EXCEPT:
1) testing the mental health of a defendant in a criminal trial.
2) analyzing criminal behavior patterns.
3) consulting with attorneys about selecting jury members.
4) developing standardized intelligence tests.
Wilhelm Wundt founded the school of psychology called
1) functionalism.
2) psychoanalysis.
3) behaviorism.
4) structuralism.
Which of the following statements is most likely to have been made by a functionalist psychologist?
1) The mind is composed of discrete elements.
2) Perception is greater than the sum of its parts.
3) The only object of psychology is the study of behavior.
4) Adaptation to the environment is the purpose of mental processes and behavior.
Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution predicted that organisms that survived and reproduced were __________ than those less fit.
1) more intelligent
2) better adapted to the environment
3) more conscious of their surroundings
4) better at problem solving
John B. Watson argued for a psychology based on the study of
1) stream of consciousness.
2) unconscious mental processes.
3) measurable behavior.
4) sensation, feelings, and mental images.
John B. Watson established __________ as a school of psychology.
1) behaviorism
2) functionalism
3) structuralism
4) psychoanalysis
__________ psychologists are concerned with racism, sexism, and ageism.
1) Community
2) Personality
3) Forensic
4) Social
Cognitive psychologists are specifically interested in studying
1) animal learning and motivation.
2) human thinking and memory.
3) genetic and hormonal effects on behavior.
4) introspection and behavioral disorders.
The clinical psychologist’s aim in applying prediction and control principles to a client’s behavior is to
1) decide the treatment.
2) help the client meet his or her goals in treatment.
3) allow the client a narrow range of options for his or her behavior.
4) use a database to formulate a treatment for the client.
Both social-cognitive theorists and behaviorists adhere to the __________ perspective.
1) humanistic-existential
2) learning
3) neoanalytic
4) developmental
Jean Blake, a psychiatrist who is strongly influenced by the social-cognitive perspective, is most likely to take which approach in treating a male client who is extremely shy of females?
1) Observe and imitate models engaged in social interactions with women.
2) Condition positive emotional responses to women.
3) Uncover the unconscious conflicts in the approach and avoidance of women.
4) Prescribe that he take anti-anxiety medication before going out with a woman.
Eduardo DeLeon is engaged in scientific research involving the study of behavior and mental processes. DeLeon is a
1) psychotherapist.
2) psychoanalyst.
3) psychiatrist.
4) psychologist.
In terms of principles of critical thinking, the statement “Intelligence is genetically based” needs to be examined for its
1) assumptions or premises.
2) definition of intelligence.
3) oversimplification of the question.
4) all of these.
Which visual capacity do infants develop first?

1) following a moving light with their eyes

2) focusing on objects at a distance of 12 feet

3) color vision

4) depth perception
In research with two-month-old infants, you would probably find they prefer

1) a clown’s face to a printed word.

2) colored lines to a smiley face.

3) a red balloon to a green balloon.

4) criss-cross lines to a doll face.
Piaget described human thought in terms of two basic concepts:

1) logic and reason.

2) logic and emotion.

3) adaptation and affordances.

4) assimilation and accommodation.
Jean Piaget hypothesized that cognitive development progressed

1) as a slow lifetime process.

2) as a result of heredity.

3) as a quantitative change process.

4) as an orderly sequence of stages.
Other researchers have criticized Piaget’s theory because

1) he underestimated children’s abilities at younger ages.

2) he proposed a continuous progression in cognitive development.

3) his sequence of stages was not supported by research.

4) all of these.
A five-year-old is speaking on the telephone to his/her grandparent. The child holds up the picture they were describing and says to the grandparent “See.” According to Piaget, this demonstrates _____.

1) egocentrism

2) object permanence

3) animism

4) artificialism
Support for Kohlberg’s theory has been found in his view that

1) moral reasoning follows a developmental sequence.

2) most people reach the post conventional level.

3) there are no prerequisites for the post conventional level.

4) some people may skip stages.
Attachment is defined as

1) an enduring emotional tie.

2) basic trust.

3) a human bond.

4) a temporary bond.
Cocaine and amphetamines increase the production of which neurotransmitters?

1) GABA and endorphins

2) norephinephrine and dopamine

3) acetylcholine and endorphins

4) acetylcholine and GABA
Deficiencies in __________ have been linked to anxiety, mood disorders, eating disorders, and insomnia.

1) noradrenaline

2) acetylcholine

3) serotonin

4) dopamine
Jack just finished a 26-mile marathon. In spite of the physical strain he feels euphoric and elated due to the release of

1) serotonin.

2) dopamine.

3) endorphins.

4) acetylcholine.
The brain and spinal cord make up the

1) peripheral nervous system.

2) central nervous system.

3) autonomic nervous system.

4) sympathetic nervous system.
Sensory and motor messages that allow you to pick up your pen are transmitted by the

1) afferent and efferent nerves.

2) peripheral nervous system.

3) autonomic nervous system.

4) both a and b
The two divisions of the autonomic nervous system are the

1) sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.

2) peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system.

3) somatic nervous system and the motor nervous system.

4) peripheral nervous system and the somatic nervous system.
When Charlotte hears something embarrassing, she blushes. Being a student of psychology, she knows that this condition is controlled by the

1) motor cortex.

2) autonomic nervous system.

3) somatosensory cortex.

4) motor nervous system.
You and a friend are studying psychology at the dining room table when you hear something stirring underneath it. You lean over to investigate, and a rat scurries across the floor. Which nervous system kicks into gear in both you and your friend?

1) the afferent nervous system

2) the parasympathetic nervous system

3) the sympathetic nervous system

4) the central nervous system
After a serious car accident, Dr. Murray tests the reflexes of an unconscious victim. Lack of response may indicate that he has injuries to his

1) cerebrum.

2) limbic system.

3) spinal cord.

4) frontal lobes.
After her stroke Cathy was no longer able to coordinate her dance movements. More than likely her __________ was damaged.

1) thalamus

2) cerebellum

3) medulla

4) amygdala
A patient comes to his doctor complaining of visual difficulties. After a thorough examination the ophthalmologist finds no anatomical problem in the patient’s eyes. The doctor therefore refers the patient to a neurologist to investigate possible damage to his

1) parietal lobe.

2) frontal lobe.

3) temporal lobe.

4) occipital lobe.
Wernicke’s aphasia causes

1) impairment of one’s ability to comprehend speech and to think of the proper words to express their own thoughts.

2) one to speak slowly and laboriously in simple thoughts.

3) serious impairment in reading.

4) an inability to segment words in sounds while reading.
Which of the following would not be possible without the functioning of the nervous system?

1) ideals, thoughts, and plans

2) imagery and cognitions

3) behaviors, emotions, and cognitions

4) all of these
A(n) _________ is a nerve cell.

1) axon

2) neuron

3) dendrite

4) glial cell
The neurotransmitter(s) linked to pleasure and alleviation of pain is (are)

1) norephinephrine.

2) endorphins.

3) serotonin.

4) acetylcholine.
A newborn shows a preference for his/her mother’s voice rather than the father’s voice. This is most likely the result of

1) an inability to hear until after birth.

2) learning to recognize the mother’s voice because of more exposure to these sounds before birth.

3) an inability to hear lower pitched tones as in a male’s voice.

4) liking mom more than they like dad.
Damage to the __________ can prevent an individual from being aroused and possibly lead to a coma.

1) thalamus

2) reticular activation system

3) hypothalamus

4) septum
_______________is stimulation of the sense receptors; perception is an inner representation of the world.

1) Adaptation

2) Organization

3) Sensation

4) Cognition
The ________ __________ is the minimum amount of stimulation needed to produce a sensation.

1) absolute threshold

2) difference threshold

3) Weber’s threshold

4) darkness threshold
Which of the following is a prediction of Weber's constant for noticing differences?

1) A person of 200 pounds would have to lose twice as much weight as a person of 100 pounds in order for the difference to be noticed.

2) The maximum difference in stimuli that can be detected is the same for all senses.

3) The constant is the same for all sense modalities.

4) Motivation, attention, and past experience are factors in the constant.
A psychological factor in signal detection is focusing your _________ on stimuli that you consider important.

1) attention

2) feature detectors

3) perception

4) threshold
Wallace lives near a major railroad changing station. He is desensitized to the noise of the roaring trains. What has taken place?

1) positive adaptation

2) negative adaptation

3) signal detection

4) just noticeable difference
Light first passes through the outer surface of the eye called the ___________.

1) cornea

2) retina

3) pupil

4) iris
As you leave a darkly lit movie theater and enter the parking lot on a bright sunny day, the ______ in your eyes adjust so you are not blinded by the increase in light.

1) retina

2) fovea

3) pupils

4) optic nerve
________ are the photoreceptors that allow us to see black and white; ______ are the photoreceptors that allow us to see colors.

1) Cones; rods

2) Rods; cones

3) Ganglion cells; bipolar cells

4) Bipolar cells; ganglion cells
To avoid the heat it is better to wear white clothing as opposed to black when out in the sun. This is true because

1) black reflects light whereas white reflects little light.

2) white absorbs the light.

3) white reflects a lot of light whereas black reflects little light.

4) none of these.
On theories of color vision, the weight of evidence tends to support

1) opponent-process theory.

2) trichromatic theory.

3) neural rebound effect.

4) opponents process and trichromatic theories as partially correct.
When psychologists talk of focusing on a particular stimulus, they are referring to

1) selective attention.

2) sensory awareness.

3) stream of thought.

4) all of these.
Certain kinds of stimuli have been found to capture people’s attention more easily than others. Among these are __________ stimuli.

1) intense

2) novel

3) repetitive

4) all of these
According to Freud, some mental events are unavailable to us under almost all circumstances. These are in the

1) nonconscious.

2) unconscious.

3) preconscious.

4) subconscious.
A circadian rhythm is

1) a cycle of lunar phases.

2) an old method of birth control.

3) a cycle connected to the 24-hour period of earth’s rotation.

4) a cycle of wakefulness based on meteorological conditions.
When you wake up, and you feel as if you have not slept at all,

1) you were probably awakened while still in stage one.

2) you stayed in stage two of your sleep cycle.

3) you stayed in stage three of your sleep cycle.

4) you were constantly awakened by sleep spindles.
The deepest sleep, and the one from which it is hardest to be awakened, is

1) stage 1.

2) stage 4.

3) the hypnagogic state.

4) REM sleep.
Deprivation of REM sleep in humans

1) can cause epileptic seizures.

2) interferes with learning and memory.

3) allows most individuals to handle stress better.

4) all of these.
Which of the following statements about insomnia is true?

1) insomnia can be caused by narcolepsy.

2) insomnia can be caused by REM deprivation.

3) men typically suffer more from insomnia than do women.

4) people compound their sleep problems when they try to force themselves to fall asleep.
Today, hypnotism is used to

1) help people control weight and quit smoking.

2) help manage Alzheimer’s disease.

3) help people overcome fear and anxiety, and control pain.

4) both a and c
Role theory and response set theory of hypnosis are supported by which of the following research findings?

1) Suggestible people have vivid imaginations.

2) Suggestible people are good role players.

3) Suggestible people know what is expected of them.

4) All of these
The part of the eye that changes its thickness to adjust an image to make it clearer is the________.

1) lens

2) retina

3) iris

4) cornea
The loudness of a sound is determined by the __________ of sound waves.

1) frequency

2) amplitude

3) consonance

4) dissonance
Following a long period of playing lead guitar in his rock band, Orpheus showed diminished hearing in particular frequencies. He most likely suffers from

1) conductive deafness.

2) strabismus.

3) stimulation deafness.

4) sensorineural deafness.
Cochlear implants, or “artificial ears,” restore hearing by

1) stimulating the bones of the middle ear.

2) amplifying the vibrations at the oval window.

3) amplifying the sounds through the bony cochlea.

4) stimulating the auditory nerve directly.
The four qualities of taste are

1) bitter, spicy, sweet, and sour.

2) salty, bitter, sweet, and hot.

3) sweet, sour, bitter, and salty.

4) sweet, sour, spicy, and hot.