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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The point within Earth from which earthquake wave energy radiates is known by which of the following terms?
Focus
On average, how many damaging earthquakes occur each year?
1000
Most earthquakes are the result of movement along which of the following features?
Faults
During the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the Pacific Plate moved 4.7 meters (15 feet) north relative to the North American Plate. Which of the following types of stress was exerted on the rocks during this earthquake?
Shear stress
Which of the following events allows rocks on either side of a fault to rebound elastically, causing an earthquake?
Friction along the fault plane is overcome
Which type of stress on rock is uniform in all directions?
Confining pressure
Which type of stress produces most crustal deformation?
Differential Stress
Which feature is considered a rock structure?
Joint, fault, fold, fracture
Which type of stress would you expect to find at a transform boundary?
Shear
Which type of stress would you expect to find at a divergent boundary?
Tension
The Black Hills of South Dakota are a good example of which feature?
Dome
Folds exhibit which type of deformation?
Ductile
Which term is used to describe a fold in which one limb has been tilted far beyond the vertical?
Overturned
During deformation of sedimentary rocks, which type of stress produces folds?
Compressional
Folded rocks are uncommon in which tectonic setting?
Divergent boundaries
What is a fault?
Fractures along which ricks move
What are rocks below and above a fault called?
The footwall below and the hanging wall above
Which type of force is responsible for normal fault formation?
Tensional force
Which type of force is responsible for reverse fault formation?
Compressional force
Which type of force is responsible for normal strike-slip formation?
Shear force
Which is not one of the three broad zones describing the ocean floor?
Continental slope
Which feature would you expect to find at the mouth of a submarine canyon?
a deep sea fan
Which coast represents an active continental margin?
The west coast of South America
Moving off the east coast of North America, identify the sequence of environments you would encounter as you move deeper into the Atlantic Ocean.
Continental shelf
continental slope
continental rise
abyssal plain
Which statement best explains the formation of seamounts?
They represent volcanoes situated over mantle plumes that have since moved away from their source of magma and subsided.
Which response best explains the absence of volcanoes and earthquakes at a passive continental margin?
No earthquakes or volcanoes can occur due to the distance from any active boundaries
When considering mass wasting, which of the following factors is most influential in the downslope movement of weathered particles?
gravity
Which of the following responses are examples of how water can promote mass wasting?
Waves and streams can undercut banks and cliffs, causing them to fail.
Water can saturate sediment, reducing the integrity of the slope and allowing it to move.
When water is added to weathered particles, the mass of the sediment is increased, which can cause slope instability.
When dry sediment accumulates, the angle of repose represents what property of the deposit?
The steepest angle at which those sediments can accumulate and remain stable.
The steepest angle at which those sediments can accumulate and remain stable.
slight addition of water to the sediment
Of the following types of mass wasting, which tends to be the fastest moving and most destructive?
rockslides
Which of the following examples of mass wasting is characterized by a crescent-shaped scarp or cliff at its head?
slump
Which of the following types of mass wasting is extremely slow and occurs when saturated soil flows downslope?
solifiluction
At a local landfill, the liner beneath the trash was being repaired. In the process, trash from the base of the slope was removed and piled on top of the landfill. After an unusually heavy rainfall, the slope failed very quickly along a curved surface. Which of the following types of mass wasting best describes this slope failure?
slump
During the eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980, snow and glacial ice on the mountain melted and rushed down the Toutle River. What is the name given to this specific type of mass wasting?
Lahar