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44 Cards in this Set

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Who was John Dalton?
Said that atoms were tiny particles that could not be divided
Who was J.J. Thompson?
Came up with the theory of electrons
Who conducted the gold foil experiment?
Ernest Rutherford
Who discovered the charge of electrons?
Robert Milikan
Who discovered the neutron?
James Chadwick
How many sig. digits? 0.189
3
How many sig. digits? 0.002300
4
What is an isotope?
Atoms of an element that are chemically similar, but have different number of neutrons, thus, different mass numbers.
Isotope Abundance?
The relative amount of an isotope of an element ; expressed as a perfect or decimal fraction. (Ex. C-13 = 1.11% abundance)
How do you calculate Average Atomic Mass?
aam = (mass)(abundance)
Atomic radius __________ from left to right on the periodic table
decreases
Ionization energy ____________ from left to right on the periodic table
increases
What is Electronegativity?
the measure of an atoms ability to attract electrons in a chemical bond
When adding an oxygen to a polyatomic ion, what prefix is added?
per-
When removing two oxygen from a polyatomic ion, what prefix is added?
hypo-
Can covalent compounds conduct electricity?
No
What is a non-polar covalent bond?
A bond between two atoms with an electronegativity difference of less than 0.5
If the molecule IS symmetrical, the overall molecule is _____________?
non-polar
Intermolecular Forces
The attractive force between molecules
What is the weakest intermolecular force?
London dispersion, also exists between all types of molecules
What are dipole-dipole forces?
molecules with dipoles will change their direction so that their oppositely charged ends are near to one another
What is the strongest intermolecular force?
Hydrogen bonding
Miscible vs. Immiscible
able to mix to form a solution, unable to mix to form a solution
Solute vs. Solvent
Solute is the substance that dissolved IN a solvent, solvent dissolves the solute
Factors that affect rate of dissolving?
Temperature, agitation, size of particles
Factors that affect solubility?
temperature, molecule size
What is the Arrhenius theory?
acids dissociate in water to form H+ ions, bases dissociate in water to form OH+ ions
What was the problem with the Arrhenius theory?
It only involves on solvent - water, many acid-base reactions take place in other solvents
Conjugate acid
the particle that results when the base receives the proton
Gases can be described in terms of:
volume, temperature, and pressure
How do convert celcius to Kelvin?
add 273
what are the conversions of pressure?
101.3KPa = 1atm = 760mmHg = 760 torr
Convert: 1400mmHg to torr
1400 torr
1.4mmHg to atm
0.0018atm
3.4 atm to KPa
344.42 Kpa
Kinetic Theory of Gases
Gases consist of extremely small particles, constant random motion, perfectly elastic, forces of attraction are negligible.
Ideal Gas
gas particles hardly take up any space
Boyle's Law?
If you increase pressure, volume decreases, vice versa
Charles' Law?
If temp. is increased volume is increased, if temp is decreased, volume is decreased
G. Lussac's Law?
the pressure exerted by a gas is directly related to the temperature provided the volume remains constant
What is STP?
Standard Temperature and Pressure
What is the value of STP?
101.3KPa and 273K
What is the value of R (gas constant)
R = 8.314 (KPa x L)\(mol x K)
What is the ideal gas formula?
PV = nRT