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42 Cards in this Set

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What are the four bones fused together to make up the bovine pelvis and sacrum?

Sacrum, ischium, ilium, pubis
What are the two parts to the sacroiliac ligaments in the horse? Where do they attach?
Dorsal sacroiliac ligament
1. Attached to tuber sacrale and the summits of the sacral spines
2. Triangular sheet attached cranially to tuber sacrale and adjacent part of the medial border of the ilium dorsal to the greater ischiatic notch and ventrally to the lateral border of the sacrum
Blends ventrally with the sacrosciatic ligament (3) and caudally with the caudal fascia

Ventral sacroiliac ligament (7)
Surrounds the sacroiliac joint
Strong dorsally – located between the ilium and the wing of the sacrum
What is this bone? Is it oriented cranially or caudally?
Left equine femur - cranial aspect
What is this bone? Is it oriented cranially or caudally? What species does it belong to?
Left equine femur, caudal aspect
The key is there, but can you name these structures of the equine pelvis? (ventral view)
The key is there, but can you name these structures of the bovine pelvis? (ventral view)
What bone is this? Is it the right or left bone?
That was the cranial aspect of the left equine tibia and fibula. Here is the caudal aspect.
What inserts in the popliteal fossa and extensor fossa of the femur?
Popliteal fossa – where popliteus m. originates
Extensor fossa – where long digital extensor m. originates
What are the regions of innervation of the pelvic limb of the large animal?
ischiatic n = sciatic n
fibular n = peroneal n
What are the OIAI of #8? (This is a medial view of a horse pelvic limb)
Psoas minor m. (8)
O: Horse – bodies of the last three thoracic and first four or five lumbar vertebrae and the vertebral ends of the 16th and 17th ribs
O: Ruminant – bodies of T12 – L5 vertebrae
I: psoas minor tubercle on the ilium
Action: flex the pelvis; move the pelvis to the side
Innervation: lumbar spinal nn.
What are the OIAI of #9, 10, 11? This is the medial view of an equine pelvic limb

What do these muscles join to form?
Psoas major m. (9)
O: ventral surfaces of the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae and the last two ribs
I: lesser trochanter of the femur in common with iliacus
Iliacus m.
O: Horse (10, 11) – sacroiliac surface of the ilium, ventral sacroiliac ligaments, wing of the sacrum, psoas minor tendon
O: Ruminant – body of the 6th lumbar vertebra, ventrolateral surface of the ilium, ventral sacroiliac ligaments, sacrum
I: lesser trochanter of the femur in common with psoas major
Action: flex the hip joint and rotate the thigh laterally
Innervation: lumbar spinal nn. and femoral n.

Psoas major and ilacus join to form iliopsoas m.
Name the muscles 1-4.
1. Longissimus lumborum m.
2. Quadratus lumborum m.
3. Psoas major m.
4. Psoas minor m.
What is the OIAI of the quadratus lumborum m. or the horse and ruminant?
O: Horse – ventral surface of the dorsal part of the last two ribs and the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae
O: Ruminant – ventrolateral surface of the bodies of the last four thoracic vertebrae, caudal border of the last rib, ventral surface of the lumbar transverse processes
I: Horse – ventral surface of the wing of the sacrum and the ventral sacroiliac ligaments
I: Ruminant – cranial border of the transverse processes of the succeeding vertebra, ventral sacroiliac ligaments, ventral surface of the wing of the ilium
Action: fix the last two ribs and the lumbar vertebrae; bend the lumbar region laterally
Innervation: lumbar spinal nn.
What is the OIAI of tensor fascia latae m. in the horse and ruminant?
O: tuber coxae
I: Horse – fascia lata and thus indirectly on the patella, lateral patellar ligament, cranial border of the tibia
I: Ruminant – fascia lata and femoral fascia – numerous indirect attachments to the patella and tibia
Action: tense the fascia lata, flex the hip joint, extend the stifle joint
Innervation: cranial gluteal n.
What are the OIAI of the superficial gluteal m. of the horse and ruminant?
Superficial gluteal m. – Horse (not present in the ruminant)
O: tuber coxae, adjacent part of the ilium, gluteal fascia
I: third trochanter of the femur
Action: abduct the limb and flex the hip joint
Innervation: cranial and caudal gluteal nn.
What are the OIAI of middle gluteal m.?
Middle gluteal m.
O: aponeurosis of longissimus lumborum as far cranially as L1 vertebra, gluteal surface of the ilium, sacroiliac and sacrosciatic ligaments, gluteal fascia
I: caudal part of the greater trochanter of the femur, crest ventral to the greater trochanter, lateral aspect of the intertrochanteric crest
Action: extend the hip joint and abduct the limb; by connection with longissimus lumborum, involved with rearing, kicking and propulsion
Innervation: gluteal nn.
Where is the trochanteric bursa of the horse hip and thigh?
Between the tendon of accessory gluteal m. and the cranial part of the greater trochanter
What is the OIAI of gluteobiceps m?
Gluteobiceps m.
O: sacrum, sacrosciatic ligament, tuber ischiadicum, ischium near the obturator foramen
I: lateral patellar ligament, fascia lata, crural fascia and common calcaneal tendon
Action: extend the hip and stifle, flex the stifle, abduct the limb and extend the hock
Innervation: caudal gluteal and sciatic or tibial nn.
What are the OIAI of biceps femoris m. of the horse?
(5)
Origin:
Vertebral head – sacroiliac ligament, sacrosciatic ligament, gluteal fascia, caudal fascia
Pelvic head – tuber ischiadicum

Insertion:
Cranial part – near the third trochanter on the femur and on the patella
Middle part – cranial border of the tibia and the lateral patellar ligament
Caudal part – tuber calcanei via common calcaneal tendon

Innervation:
Caudal gluteal, sciatic and peroneal (fibular) nn.

Action: General action is to extend the limb, as in propelling the body, rearing or kicking, and to abduct the limb
Cranial part – extend the stifle and hip joints and abduct the limb
Middle part – extend the hip and with semitendinosus may flex the stifle
Caudal part – assist in extending the hock
What are the OIAI of gluteobiceps in the horse and ruminant?
Not in the horse.

O: sacrum, sacrosciatic ligament, tuber ischiadicum, ischium near the obturator foramen
I: lateral patellar ligament, fascia lata, crural fascia and common calcaneal tendon
Action: extend the hip and stifle, flex the stifle, abduct the limb and extend the hock
Innervation: caudal gluteal and sciatic or tibial nn.
What are the OIAI of semitendinosus m. of the horse?
O: Vertebral head (Horse) – transverse processes of the first two caudal vertebrae, caudal fascia
O: Pelvic head (Horse and Ruminant) – ventral surface of tuber ischiadicum
I: cranial border of the tibia, crural fascia, tuber calcanei by way of the common calcaneal tendon
Action: extend the hip and hock joints, flex the stifle, rotate the limb medially
I: Caudal gluteal and Sciatic nn.
What are the OIAI of semimembranosus m. of the horse and ruminant?
O: Vertebral head (Horse) – caudal border of the sacrosciatic ligament

O: Pelvic head (Horse and Ruminant) – ventral surface of tuber ischiadicum (also ventral surface of the caudal part of the ischium and caudal-most portion of the pelvic symphysis in the Ruminant)

I: medial epicondyle of the femur - caudal to the medial collateral ligament
Action: extend the hip joint and adduct the limb

Innervation: Sciatic n.
ID 2,3,4,7,8
Gluteobiceps m. (2,3,4)
Semitendinosus m. (8)
Semimembranosus m. (7)
What is trochanteric bursitis in the horse?
Trochanteric bursa is located between the accessory head of the middle gluteal muscle and the greater trochanter
The accessory head is more fibrous and is prone to tearing
Damage may occur if horse is not warmed up properly
Hurts for horse to bring leg forward; reluctant to take big stride, travels sideways
What is fibrotic myopathy in the horse?
Horse slips on haunches and damages hamstring muscle tissue which heals with scar tissue
Semitendinosus is most commonly affected
Shortens limb, limb slaps the ground, can’t extend completely
Can be secondary to repeated intramuscular injections
May see adhesions to semimembranosus and biceps femoris mm.
What is the origin and insertion of the four heads of the quadriceps femoris m. of the horse?
Rectus femoris
O: body of the ilium dorsal and cranial to the acetabulum
I: base and cranial surface of the patella
Vastus lateralis
O: lateral border of the femur from the greater trochanter to the supracondylar fossa
I: lateral part of the cranial surface of the patella; tendon of rectus femoris
Vastus medialis
O: medial surface of the femur from the neck to the distal third
I: medial border of the patella and parapatellar fibrocartilage, proximal part of medial patellar ligament, tendon of rectus femoris
Vastus intermedius
O: cranial surface of the femur (proximal to distal third), tendinous covering of vastus medialis
I: base of the patella, femoropatellar joint capsule

Action: extend the stifle joint; raise the femoropatellar joint capsule during extension of the joint; rectus femoris also flexes the hip joint
Innervation: femoral n.
Which of the heads of the quadriceps femoris m. is more extensive in the ox than in the horse?
Vastus intermedius
O: extensive – from all surfaces of the femur except caudal
I: on either side of the base and cranial surface of the patella, including the femoropatellar ligaments
What is the OIAI of sartorius m. of the horse?
O: iliac fascia and psoas minor tendon
I: medial patellar ligament and tibial tuberosity
Action: flex the hip joint and adduct the limb
Innervation: saphenous n.
What is the OIAI of gracilis m. of the horse?
O: middle third of the pelvic symphysis, the prepubic tendon and the symphyseal tendon
I: medial patellar ligament, the cranial border of the tibia and the crural fascia
Action: adduct the limb
Innervation: obturator n.
What is the difference between sartorius m. in the ruminant from the horse?
Sartorius m. has two heads in the ruminant.

O: Cranial head – iliac fascia and psoas minor tendon
O: Caudal head – body of the ilium
I: crural fascia medial to the stifle and on the medial patellar ligament
Action: flex the hip joint and adduct the limb
The femoral vessels and nerve pass between the two heads of origin
What forms the femoral triangle in the ruminant? What courses through it?
The two heads of sartorius m. Femoral n, a, and v run through it going cranial to caudal.
What are the OIAI of pectineus m. of the horse?
Pectineus m. (13)
O: prepubic tendon, accessory femoral ligament, cranial border of the pubis
I: middle of the medial border of the femur
Action: adduct the limb and flex the hip joint
Innervation: obturator n.
What are the OIAI of adductor m. in the horse?
O: ventral surface of the pubis and ischium, symphyseal tendon
I: caudal surface and medial epicondyle of the femur, medial collateral ligament of the stifle joint
Action: adduct the limb, extend the hip joint, rotate the femur medially
Innervation: obturator n.
What are the OIAI of pectineus m. of the ruminant?
Pectineus m. (14)
O: extensive – from the prepubic tendon and the cranial border of the pubis
I: middle of the caudomedial border of the femur just caudal to the adductor; medial epicondyle of the femur
Action: adduct the limb and flex the hip joint
Innervation: saphenous and/or obturator nn.
What are the OIAI of adductor m. of the ruminant?
Adductor m. (15)
O: ventral surface of the pubis and ischium; symphyseal tendon
I: caudal surface of the femur just lateral to the pectineus; tendon of origin of the medial head of gastrocnemius m.
Action: adduct the limb, extend the hip joint
Innervation: sciatic or tibial and obturator nn.
What are the OIAI of gemelli m. in the horse and ruminant?
O: Horse – lateral border of the ischium near the ischiatic spine
O: Ruminant – ventrolateral part of the ischium at the level of the lesser ischiatic notch, medial surface of tuber ischiadicum
I: trochanteric fossa and crest of the femur
Action: rotate the femur laterally
Innervation: sciatic n.
ID 8-11 in this horse hip joint.
Internal obturator m. (8,9)
Deep gluteal m. (10)
Gemelli mm. (11)
What are the OIAI of internal obturator m. in the horse and ruminant?
Internal obturator m.
O: Ischiopubic head (9) – arises from the pelvic surface of the pubis and ischium around the obturator foramen
O: Iliac head (8) – arises from the pelvic surface of the body of the ilium and the wing of the sacrum
I: trochanteric fossa
Action: rotate the femur laterally
Innervation: sciatic n.
Not present in the Ruminant
What are the OIAI of quadratus femoris m. of the horse?
O: Horse – ventral surface of the ischium just cranial to semimembranosus
O: Ruminant – ventrolateral edge of the ischium near the caudolateral angle of the obturator foramen
I: caudal surface of the femur near the ventral part of the lesser trochanter
Action: assist in extending the hip joint and adducting the thigh
Innervation: sciatic n. (obturator and sciatic nerves in the Ruminant)
What are the OIAI of external obturator m. of the horse?
O: ventral surface of the pubis and ischium and the margin of the obturator foramen
I: trochanteric fossa of the femur
Action: adduct the thigh and rotate it laterally
Innervation: obturator n.
What are the OIAI of external obturator m. of the ruminant?

How is the ruminant external obturator m. different?
Regular portion
O: ventrolateral ischium and pubis caudal and ventral to the borders of the obturator foramen
I: trochanteric fossa with intrapelvic portion and gemelli mm.
Action: adduct the limb and rotate it laterally
Innervation: obturator n.
Intrapelvic portion (12)
O: dorsal (pelvic) surface of the ischium and pubis and the pelvic symphysis
I: trochanteric fossa with external obturator and gemelli mm.
Action: rotate the femur laterally
Innervation: obturator n.

Horse only has the regular portion
What is the OIAI of coccygeus m. in the horse and ruminant?
(3)
O: spine of the ischium and medial surface of the sacrosciatic ligament
I: Horse – transverse processes of the first three to five caudal vertebrae and caudal fascia
I: Ruminant – transverse processes of the first three caudal vertebrae
Action: flex the tail and move it laterally
Innervation: caudal rectal n. (possibly sacral nn. In the Ruminant)
What is the OIAI of levator ani m. of the horse and ruminant?
(4)
O: spine of the ischium and medial surface of the sacrosciatic ligament
I: Blends with the external anal sphincter
Action: fix the anus during defecation
Innervation: caudal rectal n. (possibly sacral nn. in the Ruminant)