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73 Cards in this Set

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Human growth
A gradual process which occurs from birth until a point in early adulthood when you reach your maximum height.

It involves both height and weight gain
Human development
A change in a person's skills and capabilities

e.g. people develop intellectually, emotionally etc
Developmental norms
The process of human growth and development follows a fairly predictable pattern

Baby can sit unaided: 6-9 months
Baby can crawl: 8-10 months
Infant can say a few words: 9-12 months
Baby can walk unaided: 12-13 months
Puberty begins: 10 (girls) 12 (boys)
Menopause occurs: 45-55 years
Life stages
The phrase of growth and development that a person passes through

Infancy: 0-2
Childhood: 2-8
Adolescence: 9-18
Early adulthood: 18-45
Middle adulthood:46-65
Later adulthood: 65+
Life course

Life cycle
The unique pattern of events and experiences that a person goes through during their existence

The human life course is more flexible and more sophisticated idea tan the life cycle (another commonly used concept)

The life cycle suggests that most human beings tend to go through a very similar process of development, moving from one developmental stage to another when they reach a particular age.

Each stage of the life cycle is seen to contain a series of ‘events that have a general significant for development e.g. going to school in childhood and a similar impact on all those people who experience that stage

The idea of the life course allows you to move away from the generalised approach to human development
Life span
The length of time between a person’s birth and death
Life expectancy
The number of years that a man or woman living in a specified country can expect to live

2011, male= 77.4. Female =81.6
Foetal development
The growth and development of the unborn child ruing pregnancy

Approximately 9 months
Maturation
The gradual process of becoming physically mature or fully developed

e.g. girls in adolescence will start to grow breasts while boys start to grow facial hair
Biological clock
The physical changes that ‘unfold’ in a relatively predictable way as a result of maturation

Helen Bee (1995) identified 3 features of human biological maturation:
Universal- appearing in all children in all cultures
Sequential- involving a predictable pattern of unfolding psychical changes or skill development
Biological- not requiring an ‘environment’ influence to trigger its occurrence
Motor skills
Infant’s movement skills

Locomotor skills- pulling, crawling, walking, holding on
Non-locomotor skills- holding head up, pushing, bending body
Manipulative skills- reaching, grasping, stacking blocks
Gross motor skills
Using large muscle groups to accomplish tasks e.g. crawling and walking

The basic but unsophisticated abilities of limb (arm and leg), trunk and head control. Gross motor skills enable an infant to hold his/her head up without support, to hold onto people and larger objects and later to crawl.

These movements skills are the first to emerge during infancy
Fine motor skills
These involve the more precise control of small muscles such as those found in the finder when picking up a small object like a pea. Fine motor skills are more difficult to acquire and take longer to develop

More sophisticated, highly skilled and finely controls forms of movement that are needed for many everyday activities such as eating with cutlery, doing up zips and buttons and tying shoe lace.
Other growths that occurs during infancy
Physical growth- body hardens , they change from being floppy and helpless to a state they have the pshc7ial capacity fir independent movement

Brain growth- the child develops the ability to think and speak.

Intellectual and language development- the development of language and thinking. Links to development for relationship-building and social skills
Intellectual development

Object permanence
The emergence and improvement of thinking and language skills

A child will learn that people and objects continue to exist in the world even when they can’t be seen.
Development of language
Language is needed to:
- Express feelings
- Control behaviour
- Investigate the world
- Develop imagination
- Develop relationships
- Give and receive information
- Communicate needs
Emotional and social development


Attachment and bonding
Emotional development- The emergence of feelings about self and others
Social development- The emergence and improvement of communication skills and relationships with other people.

The process which these feelings are developed is knows an ‘attachment’
It involves an infant developing a strong emotional link with their parents or main care-givers. The parent or carer response to this emotional linking is known as ‘bonding’

Processes through which an emotional link is established between a baby and a parent or carer.

Indiscriminate attachment- up to 6 months, anyone can hold the baby and may protest when put down by whoever is holding them
Specific attachment- between 7 to12 months, the baby is usually bonded to the parents and shows fear of strangers
Multiple attachment- from 12 months onwards, the baby’s attachment broadens and starts to include close relatives and people whom the baby sees frequently
Blueprint
Your first experience of attachment and boding provides a model for other relationships
Key concept in infancy
Physical growth- motor development and maturation
Intellectual development- sensorimotor development and language development
Emotional and social development- attachment and bonding
Physical growth and development of childhood:

Motor development during childhood
18-24 months- run at 20mnths, walk well at 24mnths, can push, stack blocks and pick up objects without overbalancing

2-3 years: runs quite easily, climb onto and get off furniture unaided, move large toys around, throw a ball

3-4 years: walk up the stairs using one foot per step, walk on tiptoe, pedal and steer toys with wheel, catch a large ball with both hands and hold a pencil between thumb and forefinger.

4-5 years: use a bat and ball, kick a ball and hold a pencil with ease

5-6 years: play ball games well, skip using alternative feet and has enough fine motor control to thread a needle and sew stitches.
Intellectual development in childhood


Concrete operations
Imaginative and sophisticated e.g. a broom can become ‘a horse’ or a doll can be used tor represent ‘Mummy’

Concrete operations- when children discover some general rules for understanding and relating to the world around them e.g. adding to something makes it bigger while subtracting makes it smaller
Emotional and social development







Gender constancy
Significant features of social development that occur during childhood include:’
• The acquisition of further communication- and relationship-building skills
• An increase in the number and breadth of social relationships, to include other children and adults who are not numbers of the child’s own family.
• A greater degree of independence from parents
• An improvement in the ability to use social and language skills to manage personal relationships with others.

Gender constancy- the notion that a person’s sex (male or female) is fixed and will not change. It forms an important part of a child’s developing sense of ‘self’
Self-concept
Combination of self-image and self-esteem, which together produce a sense of personal identity

Having an awareness of you own personal internal qualities, beliefs and personality traits
Primary socialisation
Process by which children learn to become members of society by learning the norms and values of the society in which they live.

Parents are the main socialising influence
Norms
A shared expectation of behaviour that indicates what is culturally desirable and acceptable
Reciprocal trust
Children tend to change their definition of ‘friends’ to refer to other children whom they help and trust and who help and trust them in return.
Puberty
The developmental period when secondary sexual characterises develop and reproducing organs become functional

Males: facial, public, underarm and chest hair. Testes begin to produce sperm. Wet dreams. Growth spurt in height and weight. Voice change and becomes deeper. Muscle development

Females: ovulation starts/ Underarm and public hair. Hips widen. Curvaceous shape
Physical development due to hormones in adolescence
Primary
Boys: penis, scrotum
Girls: ovaries, uterus, vagina, clitoris

Secondary
Boys: voice lowers, public hair
Girls: breasts, hips, public hair
Intellectual development in adolescence
Abstract thinking- high level thinking that enables a person to think issues, problems or situations that they have not directly experienced themselves or are hypothetical (imaginary)
Abstract thinking improves an adolescent’s ability to:
- Contemplate the future
- Understand the nature of human relationships
- Use foresight to predict possible consequences
- Empathise
Emotional development in adolescence
Functional independence- e.g. making dressing and dietary choices
Attitudinal independence- e.g. developing own values and beliefs
Emotional independence e.g. finding non-parental sources of approval, intimacy and emotional support
Conflictual independence- e.g. recognising separateness from parents without feeling or provoking guilt, resentment or anger, that s, being comfortable with from parents
Maturity
The state of being fully developed
Ageing process
Pattern of biological change, not caused by accident or disease that occurs over time in the structure and functioning of the human body.
Menopause
Period of time during which a woman’s menstrual cycle wanes and gradually stops, usually between age 45-50
Physical changes in adulthood
• Human vision and hearing become less acute
• Bones become more brittle (fragile)
• Loss of calcium in bones, and wear and tear on the joints
• Reduction in brain weight and loss of brain matter
• Change in sleep patterns; early to bed, early to rise
• Loss of ability to hear very high and very low sounds
• Loss of muscle tissue, especially fibres used for bursts of strength and speed
• Increase in wrinkles due to loss of elasticity
Intellectual development in adulthood
• Memory becomes less effective
Cognitive performance
Ability to use thinking and memory skills
Social and emotional development in adulthood
• New roles such as worker, partner, parent
• From early adulthood: leaving home, separation from parent... finding intimate partner
• Starting a family of your own
Role strain
The pressure and difficulties that may result from the conflicting demands of a person’s different social roles (such as worker and parent)
Social roles
Expected pattern of behaviour associated with a particular social status
Adulthood to old age
Physical
- menopause,
- ageing process
- maturity

Social:
- need to adapt to new social circumstance,
- new social roles develop/emerge,
- can experience role strain,
- loss of social roles in later life

Intellectual:
- gradual improvement, then decline in cognitive skills as we age,
- few older people experience dementia

Emotional
- emotional separation from parents and family
- new relationships formed, including close partnership
- loss in later life
Genes
Short stretches of DNA ribbon located in chromosomes
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid
The chemical ribbon that tells cells how to function
Chromosomes
Long strands or packets of DNA
Explain the role that genes play in human growth and development
Check AS folder
To what extent do genes determine human growth and development? .
Check AS folder
Social structures
e.g. family, education system
Primary socialisation
Carried out within the family where children learn the culture or rules of bahaviours that are expected in the wider society
Norms

Values
expected behaviour in society

Ideas and beliefs that are important to those who hold them
Social class
economic standing in society
Peer group
A group of people who share common characteristics e.g. age. A person idenifies with this group and may be influenced by this group
Key points in social factors affecting growth and development
Family support
- diversity of family types
-performs development function e.g. speaking to you for intellectual development

Socialisation
- teaching of social values, attitudes and ways of behaving

Access to care services
- important for people who have chronic illness or disability

Culture and beliefs
- way of life of a society or social group

Education
- essential for intellectual and social development

Social class
- a peon's social economic standing in society

Community support
- offers social contact, emotional support and intellectual stimulation

Peer group relationships
- a group of people who share common characteristics
Lifestlye
The particular attitudes and habits that a person has that influences their daily life
Exercise and PIES
Physical- imorves strength and stamina, reduces blood pressure and weight

Intellectual- stimulates thinking and planning skills

Emotional- increases self-esteem and confidence

Social- develops team work and cooperation skills, provides a way of meeting others
Reasons for the decline in exercise
- an increase in leisure 'passive' leisure activities such as watching TV instead of participation in sports
- preference for car journeys instead of walking or cycling
- technology makes work lighter e.g. cleaning and washing of clothes that were once physically demanding
Stress
Feeling under pressure, unable to cope with demands of a situation
Sources of stress
- personal relationships
- financial and commitments problems
- health problems
- hostility from others
- lack of res and relaxation
-
Stress
In infancy, stress as an effect on social and emotional development e.g. fear and uncertainty undermine the development of confidence and self-esteem

Children and adolescents who are more stressed are less likely to learn well or realise their intellectual potential

In adults, it can disrupt and damage a person's social relationships and have a negative effect on their self-esteem and confidence... linked to health problems such as depressions and high blood pressure,
Risk of alcohol
- develop high blood pressure
- coronary heart disease
- cancers of the mouth & throat
- liver damage
- obesity
Why people use drugs
- peer pressure
- experiment
- a way of coping with difficulties and pressure in life
- part of leisure activities
Substance misuse
Umbrella term for problems associated withe excessive alcohol consumption and the non-medical use of prescribed and illegal drugs
Risk of smoking
- develop lung cancer and other cancers
Smoking during pregnancy
- reduces the ability of a woman's blood to carry oxygen to her placenta
- greater risk of miscarriage
- give birth to premature and underweight babies
- high levels of cot death
- the babies are more prone to respiratory problems e.g. asthma
internal factors

external factors
genes

environment
Noxious substance
poisonous, harmful and unpleasant substances such ass chemical pollutants
Pollution
Contamination with something harmful or poisonous
Sources of environment pollution
- water pollution from sewage and industrial chemicals
- air pollution from car fumes and industrial production
- land contamination form domestic and commercial waste
- noise pollution from industrial or domestic activities
- soil and water pollution from pesticide use
Who's at risk from environmental pollution?
Children
Pregnant women
Elderly
ill people e.g. with asthma
Sanitation
a system for promoting health by getting rid of dirt and germs such as drainage and sewerage system
Negative apporach
- absence of illness
- biomedical model
Biomedical approach
an approach to health that focuses on the structure and functioning of the human body. It is associated with he scientific approach taken by practitioners of western medicine.
Positive approach
Focuses on present qualities or abilities such as being fit. feeling food, having a good BMI, optimistic about life

Using this approach involves more than just being unwell. t is about meeting certain expectation such as having a BMI, blood pressure that are healthy for a person of your age and physical built
Holistic approach
A state of complete psychical, mental and social wellbeing

The physical part can be measured objectively well the wellbeing can be measures subjectively
Health promotion activities
Health education- information focus: aims to increase awareness of health issues and the health consequences of a person's lifestyle and behaviour.
e.g. information about safe limits of alcohol, the effects of smoking cigarettes and the consequences of obesity

Health improvement- activity focus: aims to provide people with strategies for improving their personal health. e.g. ways of improving psychical fitness, loosing wight or giving up smoking

Preventive health work- medical approach: aims to make people aware of the factots that lead to ill-health and of strategies, such as screening and immunisation, to identity illness and disease at an early treatable stage.