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61 Cards in this Set

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Anterior pituitary.
The anterior part of the "master gland" (pituitary gland) which is located in the brain and controls the production of other hormones in the body. The anterior pituitary specifically produces:
-PRL: prolactin.
-GH: growth hormone.
-ACTH: adrenocorticotropin.
-TSH: thyroid-stimulating hormone.
-LH: luteinizing hormone
-FSH: folicle stimulating hormone.
Posterior pituitary.
The posterior part of the "master gland" (pituitary gland) which is located in the brain and controls the production of other hormones in the body. The posterior pituitary specifically produces:
-Ocytocin.
-ADH: antidiuretic hormone.
Hypothalamus.
Lies just above the pituitary gland in the brain. It releases hormones that start and stop the release of pituitary hormones such as:
-GH release: growth hormone releasing hormone.
-TRH: thyrotropin-releaing hormone.
-CRH: corticotropin-releasing hormone.
-GnRH: gonadrotropin- releasing hormone.
-Prolactin-inhibiting hormone.
Thymus.
Very large after a child is born and largest at puberty. Then its tissue is replaced by fat. It secretes humoral factors. Humoral factors help to develop the lymphoid system.
Pineal Gland.
Melatonin.
Testes.
Testosterone.
Ovaries.
-Estrogen.
-Progesterone.
-Inhibin.
Thyroid.
Small gland inside the neck, located anterior to the trachea and inferior to the larynx. Controls metabolism and produces:
-T3: tri-iodothyronine
-T4: thyroxine.
Adrenal Glands: adrenal cortex.
-Glucocorticoids such as cortisol.
-Mineralcorticoids such as aldosterone.
Adrenal Glands: adrenal medulla.
-Epinephrine (adrenaline).
-Norepinephrine.
Parathyroid.
Controls calcium and phosphorous levels in the body by producing:
-PTH: parathyroid hormone.
Pancreas.
Helps the body maintain healthy blood sugar (glucose) levels by producing:
-Insulin.
-Glucagon.
Prolactin (PRL).
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: anterior pituitary.
-Target: mammary glands, testes.
-Female: milk synthesis.
-Male: increased LH sensitivity and testosterone secretion.
Growth hormone (GH).
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: anterior pituitary.
-Target: liver, bone, cartilage, muscle, fat.
-Widespread tissue growth, especially in the stated tissues.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: anterior pituitary.
-Target: adrenal cortex.
-Growth of adrenal cortex, secretion of glucocorticoids.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: anterior pituitary.
-Target: thyroid gland.
-Growth of thyroid, secretion of thyroid hormone.
Luteinizing hormone (LH).
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: anterior pituitary.
-Target: ovaries, testes.
-Female: ovulation, maintenance of corpus luteum.
-Male: testosterone secretion.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: anterior pituitary.
-Target: ovaries, testes.
-Female: growth of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogen.
-Male: sperm production.
Ocytocin (OT).
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: posterior pituitary.
-Target: uterus, mammary glands.
-Labor contractions, milk release.
-Possibly involved in ejaculation, sperm transport, sexual affection, and mother-infant bonding.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: posterior pituitary.
-Target: kidneys.
-Water retention via water resorption in the collecting ducts.
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH).
-Origin: hypothalamus.
-Promotes secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin (PRL).
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
-Origin: hypothalamus.
-Promotes secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
-Origin: hypothalamus.
-Promotes secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH).
-Origin: hypothalamus.
-Promotes secretion of growth hormone (GH).
Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH).
-Origin: hypothalamus.
-Inhibits secretion of prolactin (PRL).
Somatostatin (hypothalimic)
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: hypothalamus.
-Target: anterior pituitary.
-Inhibits secretion of growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
Epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: adrenal medulla.
-Target: most tissues.
-Promotes alertness; mobilize organic fuels; raise metabolic rate; stimulate circulation and respiration; increase blood glucose level; inhibit insulin secretion and glucose uptake by insulin-dependent organs (sparing glucose for brain).
Aldosterone.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: adrenal cortex.
-Target: kidneys.
-Promotes Na+ and water retention and K+ excretion; maintains blood pressure and volume.
Cortisol and corticosterone.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: adrenal cortex.
-Target: most tissues.
-Stimulate fat and protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, stress resistance, and tissue repair.
Dehydroepiandrosterone.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: adrenal cortex.
-Target: bone, muscle, integument, brain, and many other tissues.
-Precursor of testosterone; indirectly promotes growth of bones, pubic and axillary hair, aprocrine glands, and fetal male reproductive tract; stimulates libido.
Insulin.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: pancreatic islets.
-Target: most tissues.
-Stimulates glucose and amino acid uptake; lowers blood glucose level; promotes glycogen, fat, and protein synthesis.
Glucagon.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: pancreatic islets.
-Target: primarily liver.
-Stimulates amino acid absorption, gluconeogenesis, glycogen and fat breakdown; raises blood glucose and fatty acid levels.
Melatonin.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: pineal gland.
-Target: brain.
-Uncertain; may influence mood and sexual maturation.
Thymopoietin, thymosin, thymulin.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: thymus.
-Target: immune cells (T lymphocytes).
-Stimulate T lymphocyte development and activity.
Thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3).
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: thyroid gland.
-Target: most tissues.
-Elevate metabolic rate and heat production; increase respiratory rate, heart rate, and strength of heartbeat; stimulate appetite and accelerate breakdown of nutrients; promote alertness and quicken reflexes; stimulate GH secretion and growth of skin, hair, nails, teeth, and fetal nervous system.
Calcitonin.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: thyroid gland.
-Target: bone.
-Lowers blood calcium by stimulating bone deposition (moving calcium from blood to bone), mainly in children.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH).
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: parathyroid glands.
-Target: bone, kidneys, small intestine.
-Raises blood calcium level by stimulating bone resorption and inhibiting deposition, reducing urinary calcium ion excretion, and enhancing calcitriol synthesis.
Somatostatin (pancreatic).
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: pancreatic islets.
-Target: stomach, intestines, pancreatic islet cells.
-Modulates digestion, nutrient absorption, and glucagon and insulin secretion.
Pancreatic polypeptide.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: pancreatic islets.
-Target: pancreas, gallbladder.
-Inhibits release of bile and digestive enzymes.
Gastrin.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: pancreatic islets.
-Target: stomach.
-Stimulates acid secretion and gastric motility.
Estradiol.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: ovaries.
-Target: many tissues.
-Stimulates female reproductive development and adolescent growth; regulates menstrual cycle and pregnancy; prepares mammary glands for lactation.
Progesterone.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: ovaries.
-Target: uterus, mammary glands.
-Regulates menstrual cycle and pregnancy; prepares mammary glands for lactation.
Inhibin.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: ovaries, testes.
-Target: anterior pituitary.
-Inhibits FSH secretion.
Testosterone.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: testes.
-Target: many tissues.
-Stimulates fetal and adolescent reproductive development, musculoskeletal growth, sperm production, and libido.
Cholecalciferol.
(origin, effect)
-Origin: skin.
-Precursor to calcitriol.
Calcidiol.
(origin, effect)
-Origin: liver.
-Precursor to calcitriol.
Angiotensinogen.
(origin, effect)
-Origin: liver.
-Precursor to angiotensinogen II.
Erythropoietin.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: liver, kidneys.
-Target: red bone marrow.
-Promotes red blood cell production, increases oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.
Hepcidin.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: liver.
-Target: small intestine, liver.
-Promotes iron absorption and mobilization.
Insulin-like growth factor I.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: liver.
-Target: many tissues.
-Prolongs and mediates action of GH.
Angiotensinogen I.
(origin, effect)
-Origin: kidneys.
-Precursor to of angiotensinogen II, a vasoconstrictor.
Calcitriol.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: kidneys.
-Target: small intestine.
-Increases blood calcium level mainly by promoting intestinal absorption of calcium ions.
Atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: heart.
-Target: kidney.
-Lower blood volume and pressure by promoting sodium ion and water loss.
Cholecystokinin.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: small intestine.
-Target: gallbladder, brain.
-Bile release; appetite suppression.
Gastsrin.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: stomach.
-Target: stomach.
-Stimulates acid secretion.
Ghrelin.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: stomach.
-Target: brain.
-Stimulates hunger, initiates feeding.
Peptide YY.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: small intestine.
-Target: brain.
-Produces sense of satiety, terminates feeding.
Leptin.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: adipose tissue.
-Target: brain.
-Limits appetite over long term.
Osteocalcin.
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: osseous tissue.
-Target: pancreas, adipose tissue.
-Stimulates pancreatic beta cells to multiply, increase insulin secretion, enhances insulin sensitivity of various tissues, and reduces fat deposition.
Estrogen, progesterone (non-glandular)
(origin, target, effect)
-Origin: placenta.
-Target: many tissues of mother and fetus.
-Stimulate fetal development and maternal bodily adaptations to pregnancy; prepare mammary glands for lactation.
Tropic hormones.
Act mainly on other endocrine glands.