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291 Cards in this Set

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were southern whites who allied themselves iwth the Carpetbaggers and took advantage of the political opening

The fist president to be impeached


The heavily Republican House of Representatives brought eleven articles of impeachment against Johnson

Ku Kux Klan

6 veterans

Pulaski, Tennessee

June 9th 1886


Northerners who saw the shattered South as a change to get rich quickly by grabbing political office now barred from the old order

When reconstruction ended?


The Compromise of 1877

federal troops were pulled from the Southern sates

What amendments to the constitution the reconstruction brought

the 13th, 14th and 15th amendment


Laws designed to prevent blacks from getting equal treatment in the Southern sates

14th Amendment

granted “equal protection” of the Constitution to former slaves–and enact universal male suffrage before they could rejoin the Union

15th Amendment

adopted in 1870, guaranteed that a citizen’s right to vote would not be denied “on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”

The Freedmen's Bureau

Freedmen's Bereau Bill 1865

General Howard - head of the bureau

Ultimately failed to bring together whites and blacks in the South

def - Government agency designed to create a
new social order by government mandate this bureau provided freedmen with education, food, medical care, and access to the justice system

Phases of Reconstruction

Lincoln the 10% plan

Wade-Davis Bill 1864 - 50% to pledge an oath

Johnson Plan of Reconstruction - hostile towards the south

Black codes

passed by Southern governments during the Johnson presidency. These laws imposed restrictions on freed slaves, such as prohibiting their rights to vote, forbidding them to sit on juries, and limiting their rights to testify against white men, carry weapons in public places, and work in certain occupations

Radical Republicans

believed black were entitled to the same political rights and opportunities as whites

Thadedeus Stevents and Charles Sumner

The fist president to be impeached


The heavily Republican House of Representatives brought eleven articles of impeachment against Johnson


United States history, a carpetbagger was a Northerner (Yankee) who moved to the South after the U.S. Civil War, especially during the Reconstruction era (1865-1877), in order to profit from the instability and power vacuum that existed at this time.

13th Amendment

officially outlawed the institution of slavery

Most significant change at the end of the civil war

4 million slave changed status with the emancipation proclamation and the 13th amendment next year

The period of the reconstruction

Reconstruction def


The federal government’s attempts to resolve the
issues resulting from the end of the Civil War

Ku Klux Klan def

A quasi-military force formed immediately after the Civil War by former Confederate soldiers in order to resist racial integration and preserve white supremacy

Ten-Percent Plan

Plan issued by Lincoln in 1863 that offered amnesty to any southerner who proclaimed loyalty to the Union and support of the
emancipation of slaves;
once 10 percent of a state’s voters in the election of 1860 signed the oath, it could create a new state government and reenter the Union

Wade-Davis Bill

Bill that would have allowed a southern state back into the Union only after 50 percent of the
population had taken the loyalty oath

Civil Rights Act

Bill that granted all citizens mandatory rights, regardless of racial considerations; designed to
counteract the South’s new black codes

Congressional Reconstruction 1867–1877

Phase of Reconstruction during which Radical Republicans wielded more power than the president, allowing for the passage of the
Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments and the
Military Reconstruction Act

Military Reconstruction Act

Act that divided the former rebel states,
with the exception of Tennessee, into five military districts; a military commander took control of the state governments and federal soldiers enforced the law and kept order

The Second Reconstruction Act

Second Reconstruction Act, authorizing the Union military commanders to register southern voters and assemble the constitutional conventions

The Tenure of Office Act

In 1867 Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act, which required the president to obtain the consent of the Senate before removing certain government officials from office.


System in which a family farmed a plot of land
owned by someone else and shared the crop
yield with the owner

Convict Leasing

the state leased out prisoners to private companies or landowners looking for workers after the demise of slavery

Civil Rights Act of 1875

Act that forbade racial discrimination in all public
facilities, transportation lines, places of amusement, and juries; it proved largely ineffective

Civil Rights Cases

Cases in which, in 1883, the Supreme Court
declared all of the provisions of the Civil Rights
Act of 1875 unconstitutional, except for the
prohibition of discrimination on juries

Panic of 1873

Financial crisis provoked when overspeculation, high postwar inflation, and disruptions from Europe emptied the financial reserves in America’s banks; many banks simply closed their doors; this emergency focused northern attention on the economy rather than on civil rights

Mississippi Plan

In 1875, Democrats in Mississippi initiated a policy called the Mississippi Plan, which called for using as much violence as necessary to put the state back under Democratic control


A collection of southern Democrats and their supporters who used violence, intimidation, and the law to win political and social control away from those promoting greater racial equality in
the region

The Compromise of 1877

Compromise in which Republicans promised
not to dispute the Democratic gubernatorial
victories in the South and to withdraw federal
troops from the region, if southern Democrats
accepted Hayes’s presidential victory and
respected the rights of black citizens

There were three prominent reasons why Reconstruction ended in 1877, before equality
could be ensured for southern African Americans

Northern indifference

Southern recalcitrance

National political ambivalence

Compromise of 1877

Compromise in which Republicans promised not to dispute the Democratic gubernatorial victories in the South and to withdraw federal troops from the region, if southern Democrats accepted Hayes's presidential victory and respected the right of the black citizen

America Federation of Labor

The leading labor organization in America, founded in 1881 by Samuel Gompers and composed of craft unions rather than a single national union

American Socialist Party

Political party formed in 1901 and led by Eugene V. Debs that advocated replacing the nation's capital system


A radical form of political protest that advocates the use of labor activism to overthrow the capitalist system


A compilation of know union activist in a particular area; employers refuse to hire anyone whose name appeared on one

Contract Labor Law

Passed in 1885, this prohibited employers from forcing immigrants to work to pay off the costs of their passage to America

Credit Mobilier Company

A construction company set up by the directors of the Union Pacific in 1867 in order to build part of their transcontinental railroad essence, they were their own subcontractors and awarded themselves generous contract

craft union

union of skilled laborers, the type of union assembled under the American Federation of LAbor

horizontal integration

the system by which a business takes over its competitors in order to limit competition, lower costs, and maximize profits

Industrial revolution

Transformation in the way goods were made and sold, as American businessmen between 1865 and 1915 used continuing technological breakthroughs and creative financing to bring greater efficiency to their businesses

International Ladies' Garment Workers; Union (ILGWU)

Major New York City union that often conducted its union meetings in five different languages simultaneously

International Workers of the World (IWW)

A collection of militant mining unions founded in 1905 in Colorado and Idaho; sought to use labor activism to overthrow the capitalist system


The machine's mischievous nickname for Republicans who supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in the 1884 election only because Republican candidate James Blaine was considered a product of machine politics

Social Darwinism

The theory that "survival of the fittest extended to the business realm: tycoons believed they were justified in their overbearing behavior because they had shown themselves to be the most successful competitors in an open market


workers who agreed to work while union workers were on strike


crowded factory in an urban setting, often one where workers are exploited

Tammany Hall

A political organization known as a "machine" whose members regarded politics as an opportunity to get rich while providing favors to the urban underclass

Triangle Shirtwaist Company

New York City garment factory; scene of a horrific fire in 1911

Tweed Ring

Friends and cronies of New York's corrupt "Boss" William M. Tweed

vertical integration

The system by which a business controls all aspects of its industry, from raw material to finished product, and is able to avoid working or sharing profits with any other company

yellow dog contract

contract stipulating that an employee would not join a union

By the early 1900s, three waves of reformers had emerged to demand that the government
intervene to curtail the most oppressive practices of big business:

(1) the labor movement,
(2) the Populists, and

(3) the Progressives

Industrial Revolution

Transformation in the way goods were made and sold, as American businessmen between 1865 and 1915 used continuing technological
breakthroughs and creative financing to bring
greater efficiency to their businesses

the “Big Four” captains of the railroad industry

Leland Stanford

Collis Huntington,

Charles Crocker, and
Mark Hopkins

transcontinental railroad was completed in


incandescent light bulb, created by Thomas
Edison in


the mechanized elevator, invented by Elisha Otis in


the federal government created the first
national park, Yellowstone National Park, which
comprises parts of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho in


Market Revolution

focused primarily on improvements in communications and transportation to broaden the reach of American agricultural goods

First half of 18th century

Industrial Revolution

Transformation in the way goods were made
and sold, as American businessmen between 1865 and 1915 used continuing technological breakthroughs and creative financing to bring greater efficiency to their businesses

In what year Congress offered enormous financial incentives to the Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad companies to complete the expansive task

1862 completed 1869

The top preservationist of the Industrial Revolution was

John Muir

founder of the American environmental organization the Sierra Club and an influential advocate of preserving the mountain lands between California and Montana

Yellowstone National Park, which comprises parts of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho was the first national park created in


Ghost Dance

The central ritual for the Plains Indians, this was a dance lasting five days that would supposedly raise the Indians above the ground while the land below them was replaced with new land, effectively sandwiching the white men between the two layer of sod, removing them forever

Second Mississippi Plan

Plan that established legal barriers (poll tax, literacy test , and property qualifications) to prevent AA form voting in Mississippi; server as a legislative model for other states.

Munn v. Illinoin (1877)

A supreme Court case that declared states could regulate businesses within their borders if those business operated in the public interest

Plessy v Ferguson

1896 Supreme Court case that declared that segregation laws were constitutional, claiming that, as long as the accommodation were "separate but equal", it was legal to have separate facilities for black and white Americans

American league

The second professional baseball league, begun in 1901

Atlanta Compromise

Speech delivered by Booker T. Washington in 1895 encouraging black economic development and assuaging white fears of racial intermingling; black and white people, he said, should remain as separate as the finger on a hand, but they should work together to reach common economic ground

bonanza farms

Giant farms on the Great Plains, covering thousands of acres and employing hundreds of workers

Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

Act that banned the immigration of Chinese laborers for then year and prohibited hte Chinese who were already in the US from becoming citizets

Coney Island

Public amusement park opened in NY in 1895; it featured roller coasters, water slides, and fun houses

Dawes General Allotment Act

Federal law, passed in 1887, declaring that lands held by tribes were to be divided among families, and the Indians were not allowed to sell their lands because the government held these lands in trust for 25 years, after which individuals were to receive title to the land and become US citizens

Ellis Island

Immigrant gateway to NY City from 1892 to 1954

gold standard

An economic plan using gold as the primary form of currency while taking paper money and silver coins out of circulation


European newcomers to America

hierarchy of races

A theory based on the idea that some racial groups are superior to others; in the 19th century, many Americans used purported scientific evidence and social science data to argue that white people from British descent sat atop the hierarchy, while racial minorities and new immigrants were less sophisticated and less capable of self-rule

Homestead Act

Federal act, passed in 1862, that awarded 160 acres to settlers who occupied the land for 5 year

Jim Crow laws

State and local laws, usually passed in southern states, that mandated racial segregation in public facilities, including schools, restaurants, and rail cars


A celebrating marking the date that slaves were formally freed in Texas, June 19th 1865

Louisiana Separate Car Act

1890 law mandating that black people and white people ride in separate train cars; challenged by Homer Plessy

National League

The first professional baseball league, began in 1876 with eight team

Niagara movement

An attempt at political organization among black activist in the early 1900s W.E.B. Du bois drafted a "Statement of Principles," which declared that AA should fight for their rights rather than accept abuse and separation

Populist Party

A political party of the 1890 that championed the "farm" cause of land and crops over the powers of banking and credit


To turn a certain commodity back into an acceptable currency


American pioneers who settled the northern Great Plains

Subtreasury Plan

An economic plan advocate by the Framers' Alliance, in which crops would be stored in government-owned warehouses and used as collateral for low-cost government loans to struggling farmers


crowded slum houses in urban areas, which housed mostly immigrants

Tuskegee Institute

College established for AA in Tuskegee, Alabama, by Booker T. Washington in 1881

World Series

Baseball competition between the National League and the American League, played for the first time in 1903

Wounded Knee Massacre

1890 conflict in which the US Army fire on the Sioux, triggering a battle that left 39 US soldier and 146 Sioux dead

The New Freedom

Woodrow Wilsons's platform messaged pledging to use government power to destroy big business and give smaller ones greater ability to compete


An early-twentieth-century movement centered on the belief that it was possible to improve the human species by discouraging or outlawing reproduction by various people thought to have undesirable traits

Federal Trade Commission

A government agency charged with investigating unfair business practices

Galveston hurricane

Devastating hurricane that killed that 8000 people in Galveston, Texas in 1900; helped spur demands that local and state governments be more responsive to people's needs

Hull House

The second but most renowned settlement house in the United States, founded in Chicago in 1889 by Jane Addams; its residents lobbied the government to pass better construction and safety laws to improve conditions in the surrounding tenement


a legislative device designed to allow citizens more control over state law; they could advocate a specific idea and introduce it on the ballot


investigative writers who exposed bad conditions in American factories, political corruption in city machines, and the financial deceit of corporations

National Forest Service

Government agency created by T.Roosevelt to preserve land and protect local animal species


a preliminary election designed to let voters choose which political candidates will run for public office

Progressive Education Association

Formed in 1919, this national association supported and advocated for education reforms that taught children to make good moral and political choices

Progressive Party

Political part created by T. Roosevelt in 1912 to win back the presidency from Taft

Pure food and drug act

Passed in 1906, this act, along with the Meat Inspection Act, gave the federal government responsibility for ensuring that meat would reach its customer fresh and disease free


a device by which petitioning citizens can, with a vote, dismiss state officers, governors, and judges who are deemed to have violated the popular interest


a legislative device designed to allow citizens more control over state law; citizens could collect a few thousand signature on a petition in order to advance a specific idea and introduce it on the ballot

scientific management

Pioneered by Frederick W. Taylor, the detailed study of the best ways to schedule, organize, and standardize the work tasks

Sherman Antitrust Act

Passed in 1890 the federal government's first attempt to break up monopolies

Social Gospel

An early-twentieth-century Protestant-inspired movement advocating widespread reforms to curb to worst abuse of the Industrial Revolution; its leaders include Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch


A nickname for those in government advocating antitrust laws

settlement houses

safe residence in poor neighborhoods where reformers could study local conditions and where residents could hold meetings and received free health care

Boxer Rebellion

Conflict that erupted in China in 1900; Chinese nationalist attacked embassies in Beijing in an attempt to oust foreigners

dollar diplomacy

policy of using American troops to advance the interests of the American business community

Espionage Act

Legislation that meted out large fines and twenty-year jail terms to anyone who protested the draft or said anything that might impede the war effort

Fourteen points

Declaration by president Wilson that outlined the principles he believed should shape the postwar peace settlement; a blueprint for what he called "a world made fit and safe to live in"

Platt Amendment

Legislation intended to overrule the Teller Amendment and then added to the Cuban constitution, allowing the United State to military intervene on the island whenever revolution threatened

Rough Riders

The most colorful contingent of the American forces in the Spanish-American war, led by Theodore Roosevelt

Teller Amendment

Legislation that barred the US from annexing Cuba, forcing it to leave Cuba independent once the Spanish-American war was over

Treaty of Wanghsia

Agreement between China and US signed in 1844, opening several Chinese ports to American trade

Turner Thesis

Argument put forward by historian Frederick Jackson Turner that the presence of the western frontier had shaped the American character and allowed the development of democracy and capitalism, necessitating in the wake of its 1983 disappearance "a wider field for its exercise"; was used to buttress attempts to propel American interest abroad

war bond

Security brought by ordinary people to fund and support the war effort

yellow journalism

Journalism that shows little dependence on fact or research and instead uses sensationalized headlines and storyline in order to sell more newspapers or magazines; pioneered by Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst during the buildup to the Spanish-American War

America's creation of an overseas empire during the half-century following the Civil War was driven by four basic reasons

1) the closing of the American frontier,

2) economics,

3) religious and moral reasons, and

4) geopolitics.

glut thessis

argued that the financial panics of 1870 and 1890 were the result of the overproduction of goods as the industrialized economy endure painful fits and starts

The United States used its new power to pursue three major goals in the Progressive era

1) open trade with China,

2) build the Panama Canal, and

3) police Latin America to protect American interests.

Roosevelt, whose foreign policy credo was

speak softly and carry a big stick

Roosevelt Corollary

The United States, he declared, would not only prevent European colonization of Latin American countries but would also intervene in the domestic affairs of any Latin American nation whose instability threatened the security of the Western Hemisphere.

dollar diplomacy

Policy of using American troops to advance the interests of the American business community

Americans fell into three camps when it came to viewing themselves as a world power:

1) isolationists,

2) realists, and

3) idealists.

Zimmermann Note

January 16, 1917, the German foreign minister, Arthur Zimmermann, sent a note to Mexico in which he promised German support for a Mexican invasion, the goal of which was to reconquer New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas for Mexico.

The treaty included three major provisions:

1) reparations that forced Germany to accept full responsibility for the war and pay heavy fines to the Allies;

2) self-determination for nationalities; and

3) Wilson’s “ general association of nations,” which the treaty called the League of Nations.

Ida B. Wells-Barnett, an editor and writer, concentrated her reform efforts on the social issue:



c)women's rights.




The rapid growth of the southern textile industry established it as

a) the most successful area of industrial development for the South prior to 1900.

b) although for a while the textile industry did well, the North eventually surpassed it, and by 1900 it was on its last legs.

c) wages in southern textile mills were the same as in the North.

d) the production of iron had outpaced textile production by 1900.

e) it employed a large percentage of Southerners.


Which of these was not a major reason for immigration to America in the late 1800s and early 1900s?


a) A large increase in population across Europe.

b) A rise in anti-Semitism, especially in Russia.

c) The lure of economic opportunity in America.

d) American advertisements placed in Western European newspapers.

e) Europe's Industrial Revolution, which drew too many people to the cities, where they could not find jobs.


In his book, The Lost Cause, published just one year after the Civil War ended, Edward Pollard argued that the real reason the Civil War happened was

a) northern aggression against the South.

b) states' rights.

c) the South's desire to maintain slavery.

d) old hatred between the North and the South.

e) the North's desire to end slavery.


Housing for factory workers was so bad in the late 1800s, and city sanitation was so poor, that epidemics of ____ swept through whole cities.

a) smallpox

b) typhoid

c) measles

d) swine flu

e) plague


The Grange was

a) a national farm movement that sought political solutions to farmers' economic problems.

b) a rural chain of savings banks for farmers.

c) an organization that tried to unionize cowboys.

d) a nativist organization committed to the exclusion of Chinese from the United States.

e_ a southern group comparable to the Ku Klux Klan.


The three progressive presidents




Triple wall of privilege

tariffs, banks and the trust

Wilson's New Freedom program sought to achieve the same vision by attacking what he called the Triple wall of privilege


William James called his new doctrine "pragmatism"

Humans can and have historically adapted their physical environments to suit their purposes: in essence, no individual should accept injustuces as the "law of nature" if they can think of a better way


American Civil Liberties Union

Organization founded in 1920 that was dedicated to fighting infringements on civil liberties, including free speech


Notion taht all American immigrant groups should leave behind their old ways and melt into the Anglo-Saxon mainstream

companion unions

organization of workers from a single company who represented workers' grievances to management

cultural pluralism

idea that each cultural group should retain its uniqueness and not be forced to change by a restrictive state or culture

Equal Rights Amendment

Proposed amendment to the Constitution meant to eliminate all legal distinctions between the sexes, such as those that permitted different pay scales for men and women doing the same job

five-dollar day

Initiative begun by Henry Ford in 1914 to pay his workers $5 a day, more than three time the normal wage at the time.

The initiative made Ford's workers consumers, while also ending any efforts to unionize Ford's plants


Protestants who insisted that the Bible should be understood as God's revealed word, absolutely true down to the last detail; they asserted and upheld the main points of traditional Christian doctrine, including biblical inerrancy, the reality of miracles, and the Virgin birth

Great Migration

The movement of nearly 2 million African Americans out of the southern part as the US to the cities of the North between 1910 and 1930 most were rejecting Jim Crow segregation

Harlem Renaissance

A cultural and political endeavor among African Americans using art and literature to protest the perpetuation of racism in America and in African Americans' historic responses to it;

its leaders demanded the rise of a "new Negro" who would stand up and fight American racism;

lasted from 1919 to 1929

melting pot

concept that all the nation's people contributed their cultural traits to a single mix, creating something altogether new


Protestants who consciously sought to adapt their Protestant faith to the finding of scientific theories, such as evolution and evidence that questioned the literalness of the Bible

National Origins Act

Legislation that restricted the number of immigrants permitted to enter the US, create a series of quotas in 1924

National Women's Party

Political lobbying coalition founded in 1913 that promoted women's right to vote and share political and economic equality

Sacco and Vanzetti

Italian immigrant suspects in a 1920 payroll heist, who were arrested, tried, and convicted of robbery and murder despite a flimsy trail of evidence

Scopes Monkey Trial

Famous 1925 court case that revolved around a state law prohibiting the teaching of evolution in Tennessee schools;

John Scopes, a young teacher, offered to deliberately break the law to test its constitutionality


Clandestine bar serving alcohol during Prohibition

Universal Negro Improvement Association

Marcus Garvey's black nationalist fraternal organization that advocated a celebration of blackness, the creating of black-owned and operated business, and the dream of a return of all black people to Africa

Volstead Act

Legislation passed in 1919 that laid down strict punishments for violating the 18th Amendment

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

A transformative act of the New Deal that established an agency that, among other things, paid farmers not to grow crops in order to curb supply; was one of the most influential federal agencies in the South and West

bank holiday

Business day when banks are closed; used strategically by Roosevelt immediately after assuming the presidency

Black Cabinet

Informal group of black officials appointed to government post who discussed African American issue with FDR.

Bonus Army

Group of 15,000 World War I veterans who stage a protest in Washington, D.C. in 1932 demanding immediate payment of their military bonuses

Brain trust

Group of leading intellectuals charged wit hformulating policy with Roosevelt


a line of people waiting to receive free food handed out by charitable organization or public agency

call loan

most common form of credit for stock purchases; allowed a stock buyer to put down from 10 to 50 percent of a stock's price and borrow the rest of the money in order to make the full payment; the lender could then "call back" the load and demand repayment when a stock fell below a certain price


Civilian Conservation Corps

New Deal program that enlisted unemployed young men ages eighteen to twenty-five in building and repairing highways, forest service sites, flood control projects, and national park buildings


Congress of Industrial Organizations

Broadly based trade union that recruited unskilled men and women on a large scale, particularly in the mining and clothing industries

Dust Bowl

Parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, and Texas that suffered punished dust storms and drought from the early 1930 to the early 1940


Federal Emergency Relief Administration

Federally funded department creating economic programs to employ the unemployed

Glass-Seagall Banking Act

A law regulating the banking industry, including its loans, and creating the FDIC to guarantee individual deposits

Hawley-Smoot Tariff

Bill passed in 1930 that raised American tariffs on foreign agricultural and manufactured goods by as much as 50%; triggered European retaliation


Popular name for a shantytown built by homeless American during the Great Depression


The belief that governments should engage in deficit spending in order to simulate a depressed economy, premised on the economic though of British economist John Maynard Keynes, upon which FDR in particular based his actions


National Industrial Recovery Act

New Deal act that instituted programs to regulate industry , establish labor rights, and improve working conditions


National Recovery Administration

Department that enforced fair-trade rules set by industrial associations during the 1920s, encouraged companies and workers to meet and agree on prices and wages, and established a public relations campaign to mobilize support of the New Deal

Scottsboro Boys

Nine African American boys accused of raping a white woman in Scottsboro, Alabama, in 1931; they were imprisoned, although their guild was never established conclusively

Section 7a

A component of the NIRA that legalized and granted rights to labor unions, leading to the dramatic expansion of labor unions across the nation

sit-down strike

action in which workers stop working and lock themselves in the factory so that strikebreakers cannot take their places

Social Security Act

Most far-reaching element of all 1930s legislation, passed in August 1935; intended to provide a "safety net" for citizens who could not financially support themselves

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

Department created in May 1933 to build a series of dams on the Tennessee River in order to improve the river navigation and create electricity fo the area's rural residents

Wagner Act

Legislation passed in July 1935, also known as the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA); strengthened the legal position of trade unions


Works Progress Administration

New Deal agency whose workers built roads, dams, schools, subways, housing projects, and other federal projects; it also sponsored cultural programs for unemployed artists and writers

18th Amendment

banned the manufacture, transportation and sale of intoxicating liquors–ushered in a period in American history known as Prohibition

Volstead Act

Prohibition was difficult to enforce, despite the passage of companion legislation known as the Volstead Act.

American First Committee

Organization created to oppose US involvement in the Second World War committee leader argued that the Nazis were unstoppable and that the US should negotiate with them

good neighbor policy

American strategy of renouncing military intervention in Latin American affair

bracero program

Wartime arrangement in which the US government brought several hundred thousand Mexican migrants to work on California farms

Atlantic Charter

Set of aims issued by Roosevelt and Churchill starting that the war was being waged in the name of national self-determination and was not a war of conquest

Double V

Campaign championed by African American during World War II, demanding "democracy at home and abroad"

Fair Employment Practices Committee FEPC

Agency that required companies with federal contracts to make jobs available without regard to "race, creed, color, or national origin"

Four Freedoms

Basic human rights articulated by FDR to ensure that America's involvement in World War 2 was seen as ideology sound: freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, freedom from fear

four policeman

four major allies: the US, the Soviet Union, Britain and China; Roosevelt suggested that after the war, these countries exert their military power to ensure international peace

GI Bill

Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, which promised unemployment benefits, education opportunities, low-interest housing loans, and medical care to millions of soldier

Grand Alliance

Group of three countries allied to fight Hitler: the US, Britain, and Soviet Union


One of the Solomon Islands in the Pacific, the location of a 1943 battle that gave the US and its allies a foothold in the Pacific

Lend-Lease Act

Legislation passed in March 1941 empowering the president to lend weapons and supplies to nations fighting the Germans or the Japanese

Munich Agreement

1938 treaty in which the leading powers of western Europe allowed Hitler to annex strategic areas of Czechoslovakia in order to satisfy his territorial aspiration (strategy of appeasement)


City in central France, headquarters of the pro-German French regime installed in 1940

Yalta agreement

Statement issued by Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin in February 1945 that promised independent regimes in Poland and eastern Europe, yet conceded that pro-Soviet parties would have a large role in creating and sustaining these regimes

In the improving American economy of the 1920s,

a: many Americans were still living in poverty, especially the factory workers.

the percentage of national wealth that went to the poorest 60 percent fell by almost 13 percent during b: the 1920s, causing the wealthy to increase their wealth at the expense of the poor.

c: it was easier for poor farmers to rise out of poverty.

d: the wealth of the Roaring Twenties was a come-and-go phenomenon.

e: Latinos living and working in the American Southwest were gradually ascending into the middle class.


All of the following is true about the 1920s, except

1. A series of Republican presidents promised to facilitate business expansion and turn their back on Progressive legislation.
2. Americans witnessed an intensification of the mass consumer culture that had been growing since the start of the Industrial Revolution.
3. Americans invested themselves heavily in foreign policy experiments in Latin America and Asia.
4. Both Democrats and Republicans were exhausted by constant efforts and had given up on progressive reform.
5. The United States became the richest society in the history of the world.




e, a, b, d

Immigration to America changed a great deal during the 1920s, as

1. the U.S. Congress adopted Americanization as the basic American policy; immigrants would be expected to leave behind old cultural ways and become fully American.
2. most Americans fell in line behind the "melting pot" theory, which stated that all cultures would contribute parts of their cultures to make a single, all-new mix of peoples who were specifically American.
3. Congress implemented a series of quotas for Mexico and Asian nations, but not for European countries.
4. Congress passed laws establishing quotas for immigrants based on their home country.
5. cultural pluralism became the dominant theme in America.


At the "Scopes Monkey Trial,"

1. famous defense lawyer Clarence Darrow volunteered to defend science teacher John Scopes, who was arrested for teaching evolution.
2. Scopes was accused of breaking the law by teaching that man had descended directly from Adam.
3. William Jennings Bryan came to Tennessee to assist Darrow in the defense of Scopes.
4. Scopes was convicted and fined $1,000, but the ACLU was successful in overturning the law prohibiting teaching evolution.
5. the people of Tennessee completely abandoned religious fundamentalism.







Critics of the New Deal included all of the following except

1. Republicans who argued that downturns were inevitable and only the forces of the market economy could address them.
2. Extremists like Charles Coughlin who accused FDR of being in league with communists and Jewish bankers.
3. Political parties on the left, such as Socialists, Communists, and Progressives, who thought the programs didn't go far enough to address vast income disparities in America.
4. Conservative Democrats who thought the government should play a greater role in assisting businesses and stimulating the economy.
5. the Supreme Court, which declared the NIRA invalid because of the broad powers it gave the federal government.







The event that made Hoover seem heartless, probably costing him votes in the 1932 presidential election, a contest he was likely to lose anyway, was

1. the miscarriage of justice in the Scottsboro Boys trial.
2. his order to remove poor WWI veterans who protested in Washington for early payment of bonuses.
3. his decision to forego direct assistance to suffering citizens.
4. his refusal to meet with Franklin Roosevelt to debate the issues.
5. his pressure on Congress to pass the Hawley-Smoot Tariff.


Passed in 1935, the Wagner Act

1. is also known as the Social Security Act.
2. required that employers permit workers to strike when they felt company policies were unfair.
3. imposed steep income taxes on the wealthy that at times reached nearly 80 percent.
4. provided work relief programs for high school and college students.
5. strengthened the position of unions and established a government agency to oversee industrial compliance.


Hollywood during the 1930s

1. dramatically cut its movie production.
2. failed to meet demand since studios still produced every movie like an elaborate work of art.
3. suffered from the fact that it still struggled with sound and color quality.
4. began to hammer away at the old and disproven "rags-to-riches" mythology of the past.
5. took gentle jabs at the elites while reassuring audiences that the American "rags-to-riches" dream was alive and well.


Writers and other intellectuals in America tended to place the blame for the Depression on

1. the World War I peace treaty.
2. America's involvement in World War I.
3. reliance on foreign markets for the health of the American economy.
4. unbridled competition among wealthy individuals that sacrificed the good of society for selfish gains.
5. too much emphasis on industrialization over agriculture and education.


When Franklin Roosevelt came into the presidency, he set out to mend relations with the countries of Latin America by using


1. the Roosevelt Corollary to the Roosevelt Corollary.
2. the policy of "dollar diplomacy."
3. his plans to pull all American troops out of every Latin American country.
4. the "good neighbor" policy.
5. the Lend-Lease Policy.


The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 (the GI Bill) provided

a)some unemployment benefits for veterans.

b)low-interest housing loans.

c)medical care for veterans.

d)financial aid for education.

e)All of these choices.


In June 1942, American forces halted Japan's advance at the Battle of

1. Midway.
2. the Bulge.
3. the Coral Sea.
4. Iwo Jima.
5. the Philippines.


Historians regard the Great Depression as probably the greatest factor in causing World War II because

1. Americans fared so much better than Europeans, leading to anger and in-fighting.
2. Facing dwindling resources of its own, Germany hoped to improve its economy by annexing other countries.
3. It led American businesses to reduce investments in Germany, which decreased that nation's production and its ability to repay its World War I reparations


The "Double V" campaign refers to

1. U.S. victory against the Japanese and the Germans.
2. growing victory gardens at home to help feed servicemen overseas.
3. African American efforts to win the war overseas and end discrimination at home.
4. Roosevelt's initiative to build public support for America's entry into World War II.
5. None of these choices.


In 1940, the United States experienced its first

1. attempted attack from another country on American soil, in the state of Oregon.
2. peacetime draft.
3. request for military assistance from another country: Britain.
4. debate in Congress as to whether the United States should enter the new European war.
5. attack by a German submarine on an American merchant ship.


The task of the War Relocation Authority was to

1. select sites for the new defense facilities to be built across the country.
2. oversee the forced internment of Japanese-Americans, including American citizens, in various camps in California and the American Southwest.
3. close the CCC camps and help the young men either return home or locate an enlistment office for the branch of service in which they were interested.
4. return the migrant workers to Mexico when the war ended and their services were no longer needed.
5. facilitate the return of women to the home, and to help veterans become reintegrated into society.


Which of these events did not happen at Potsdam?

1. Churchill was called home mid-conference because his party had been defeated in a general election.
2. The Allies divided Germany and Austria into four occupied zones.
3. Truman learned that the atom bomb had been tested successfully.
4. Poland was given an outlet to the sea and had its prewar territorial integrity and political independence fully restored and protected.
5. Both the Americans and British became more concerned about and suspicious of Stalin and his political intentions than they had been earlier in the war.


Roughly 90 percent of all Americans favored isolationism despite the situation in Europe for all of the following reasons except

1. They were haunted by memories of World War I and its brutality.
2. The problems of the Great Depression had Americans focused on improving conditions at home.
3. Many Americans respected Adolf Hitler.
4. America was riddled with anti-Semitism and did not want to get into war over Jews.
5. Americans did not want to bear the cost of war, which they feared would only deepen the Depression.


Women participated in the U.S. World War II effort by

1. working in war plants.
2. joining the military.
3. growing Victory Gardens.
4. playing in baseball leagues.
5. All of these choices


bus boycott

a campaign to boycott an area's buses until change is instituted; used frequently during the civil rights movement

Cold War

The postwar ideological, economic, and military contest between the US and the Soviet Union


US strategy for dealing with the Soviet Union, with the intent of containing communism and not letting it advance any further that it already had

Domino Theory

Metaphor referring to unstable nations as dominoes, with the US being obligated to prevent the dominoes from "falling," which would begin a process of communist world domination

Fair Deal

Truman's 21 postwar plan that provided increases in the minimum wage, federal assistance in building homes, federal support for education and health care, and jobs in public works; represented a renewal of the Fair Employment Practices Commission

Hollywood Ten

Group of screenwriters and directors accused of being members of the Communist Part

Kitchen Debate

Discussion between Soviet premier Nikita Krushchev and VP Richard Nixon in 1959 debating the relative merits of capitalism and communism

Marshall Plan

Truman Doctrine as it was administered in Europe by General George Marshall; the plan sent 13 billion dollars to governments that promised to become or remain democracies

massive resistance

A campaign and policy begun by politicians in Virginia to craft laws and do whatever possible to resist racial integration; spread throughout the South

National Interstate and Defense Highways Act

The largest public works project in American history when it was passed; authorized 25 billion to build 41,000 miles of roads, greatly assisting the burgeoning car culture of the 1950s


Strategy for social changes that rejects the use of violence

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Pact that cemented an alliance of Western nations; prompted by the Berlin Crisis


Classified paper written by American diplomats that portrayed an uncontrollably aggressive Soviet Union and recommended stopping the threat through a massive military buildup, the creation of hydrogen bombs and the rooting out of all communists on American soil

Taft-Harley Act

Labor-Management Act of 1974 that banned the closed shop, outlawed collective bargaining within industries, and authorized the president to delay strikes by declaring a "cooling-off" period

Truman doctrine

US strategy of offering aid to nations that might be susceptible to communist infiltration


International organization that fosters discussions among the world's nations and monitors the well-being of almost all individuals in the world

White Citizens Councils

Committees organized in the 1950s and 1960s to defend segregation in the south

Berlin wall

Barrier built in 1961 by the communist government to separate impoverished, Soviet-controlled East Berlin form the more prosperous West Berlin

Black Power

Movement bridging the gap between Black Nationalism and the civil rights struggle; its leaders argued that black people should have control over the social, education, and religious institutions in their communities and advocated black pride

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Legislation outlawing all discrimination in public facilities based on color, religion, sex, and national origin, and establishing the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to investigate violations of the law in employment


Social movement of the sixties that consciously rejected traditional politics, social values, and corporate consumerism

Hart-Cellar Act

Legislation passed in 1965 curtailing the quota system of the 1920s and permitting larger numbers of non-Europeans to settle in the US

Nation of Islam

Black Nationalist organization whose leaders rejected the intergrationist perspective of mainstream civil rights protesters, calling instead for an independent black nation state


Students for a Democratic Society

Organization founder in 1959 declaring that young people were tired of older political movements, even older radical ones; formed the core of a self-conscious "New left" movement, which rejected the Old Left's ideologies of economic justice in favor of an ideology of social justice

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

Legislation allowing the president to "take all necessary measures to repel armed attack against the forces of US and to prevent further aggression," which was used to justify US involvement in Vietnam

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Legislation outlawing attempts to deny suffrage to African Americans through literacy test, poll taxes, or any other attempt to disfranchise citizens


Umbrella term referring to many government assistance programs, especially Aid to Families with Dependent Children

Roe vs Wade

Supreme Court decision of 1973 that struck down laws in 46 states that limited a woman's access to a safe legal abortion

affirmative action

program meant to ensure that a certain percentage of a company's employees are minorities or that a certain percentage of government contracts are given to minority-owned businesses

Camp David Accord

1978 peace agreement between Israel and Egypt, brokered by President Carter

Moral Majority

Conservative political organization by Rev.Jerry Falwell in 1979 and consisting of evangelical Christians who overwhelmingly supported the Republican party


Economic cycle in which prices keep going up (inflation) while the economy is losing jobs (or stagnating)

Stonewall Inn

Site in NY of the riots that ignited the Gay Liberation movement in the late 1960s and 1970s; at the time of the riots, all fifty states had antisodomy laws, and police busts of gay bars where routine

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)

Sessions held between President Nixon and Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev, in which the two leaders agreed to freeze the number of long-range missile launchers and build certain new missiles only after they had destroyed the same number of older missiles

Emmett Till was murdered because

1. he supposedly whistled at a white woman working in a grocery store.
2. he drove erratically in Los Angeles traffic.
3. he carried a concealed weapon.
4. he insisted on attending Little Rock High School.
5. he stole a car.


All of the following is true about the Montgomery Bus Boycott, except

1. It followed a successful bus boycott in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in 1953.
2. Following the arrest of Rosa Parks, the African American community of Montgomery, Alabama, boycotted the bus service for more than a year.
3. The white owners refused to integrate seating until 1956, despite serious economic losses.
4. The Montgomery Bus Boycott led directly to the formation of the Southern Christian Leadership Council.
5. Once segregation in Montgomery's local bus service had broken down, it quickly crumbled elsewhere in the state of Alabama and throughout the South.


Truman eventually managed to break the Berlin blockade by

1. sending massive amounts of food and supplies by regular airlift.
2. threatening to use nuclear force against the Soviet Union.
3. publicly upbraiding Stalin for his mistreatment of the East Berliners.
4. appealing to the U.N. for help in resolving the crisis.
5. running the blockade frequently enough to convince Stalin that it would never succeed.


The main reason that the Dixiecrats broke with Truman in 1948 and formed their own party was his

1. support for civil rights.
2. accommodationist stand on Communism.
3. lack of charisma compared to FDR.
4. poor treatment of General Douglas MacArthur.
5. extremely liberal views.


What was the most common reaction of Americans to Cold War uncertainties?

1. liberalism and antidiscrimination
2. socialism and anxiety
3. greed and unconcern
4. fear and the rise of conservativism
5. antidiscrimination and conservatism


The main goal of those who participated in Freedom Summer was to

1. register blacks to vote in the South.
2. pay the poll taxes for blacks so that they could afford to vote.
3. call attention to the deplorable conditions in the segregated South.
4. let southern blacks know that there were white people in America who supported them in trying to gain their right to vote.
5. drum up support for the Civil Rights Act of 1964.


In his Great Society program, LBJ included all of the following except

1. new funding for higher education.
2. job training.
3. a school voucher system.
4. public housing projects.
5. medical care for the poor.


The significance of the Tet Offensive was that

1. American soldiers began to doubt, for the first time, that they could tell friend from foe well enough to be able to win the war.
2. American troops re-took all of the places seized by the Vietcong within a few weeks, showing the true measure of U.S. military strength.
3. it illustrated that the Americans and the South Vietnamese had learned to work together effectively.
4. many Americans, including prominent politicians, began to publicly state that America could not win the war in Vietnam.
5. the Vietcong won a great propaganda victory by taking about two dozen American soldiers captive.


The Chicano Movement led by Caesar Chavez

1. led several boycotts against grape growers, but none were successful.
2. pushed for citizenship for undocumented immigrants who had worked in California for years.
3. initially targeted the lettuce growers' associations.
4. called for a national boycott of grapes, which resulted in higher wages and better living conditions for workers.
5. took hold during the 1950s but had no real successes until the 1960s.


The revival of the women's movement in the 1960s is often identified with the publication of Betty Friedan's book

1. The Problem with No Name.
2. Equality NOW.
3. Fear of Flying.
4. From Mothers to Daughters.
5. The Feminine Mystique.


supply-side economics

Theory that tax cuts would produce new investment, which would, in turn, generate an increase in federal revenues; these revenues would eventually "trickle down" to the lower classes in the form of more jobs


political ideology that eclectically blended liberal and conservative philosophies and policies, sometimes called "the Third Way", during Bill Clinton's presidency; components included conservative economic principles and liberal social principles

Contract with America

Document released by the Republican Party during he 1994 congressional elections promising to reform government, impose term limits, reduce taxes, increase military spending, and loosen regulations on businesses


North American Free Trade Agreement

Legislation signed in 1993 that removed the tariff barriers between US, Mexico, and Canada

The Pentagon Papers

1. showed that Nixon had no idea how to handle the war in Vietnam.
2. proved that Nixon lied when he promised during the 1972 presidential campaign that he would get America out of Vietnam.
3. showed that the government had lied to the public over major events in the Vietnam War to manipulate public opinion.
4. proved that massive numbers of civilians were murdered or abused by U.S. soldiers.
5. uncovered illegal campaign activities by Nixon and his staff.


The Watergate scandal began with a break-in at the

1. Washington Post.
2. Democratic National Committee headquarters.
3. National Endowment for the Arts headquarters.
4. Republican National Headquarters.
5. National Review.


The Cuban Missile Crisis

1. brought the US and Soviet Union to the brink of nuclear war.
2. ended when Kennedy agreed to remove missiles from Cuba and the Soviet Union agreed to remove missiles from Turkey.
3. ended the Cold War.
4. was a U.S. attempt to seize control of Cuba from Fidel Castro.
5. caused the U.S. to escalate its testing of nuclear weapons.


Stagflation is an economic crisis that combines

1. low prices and economic growth.
2. steady prices and decreasing output.
3. runaway high prices and declining jobs.
4. unemployment with a contraction in the money supply.
5. a contraction in the labor market combined with excessive regulation.


Nixon is often called an accidental liberal because

1. he resented the Eastern Establishment.
2. be covered up his role in the Watergate break-in.
3. of his crimes of tax evasion and bribery.
4. of his commitment to liberal principles.
5. his preoccupation with getting reelected led him to advocate many liberal goals.


All of the following is true about young conservatives in the late 1950s under the leadership of William F. Buckley, except

1. They opposed Great Society and New Deal-style government programs.
2. They opposed abortion and embraced traditional family values.
3. They advocated aggressive imperial expansion.
4. They urged tax cuts and less government intervention in people's lives.
5. They were militantly anti-communist.


Passed in 1972, Title IX is important because

1. It outlawed discrimination in employment based on race, creed, religion and national origin.
2. It required that educational institutions spend equally on women's and men's athletics.
3. It legalized access to safe and legal abortions.
4. It led to the nuclear disarmament.
5. It banned wiretapping of political candidates and government officials.


roposition 13

1. was the law that granted Nixon his pardon.
2. limited all further increases on property taxes in California to 2 percent per year and inspired similar legislation in other states.
3. was the order that got the final troops out of Saigon, Vietnam in 1973.
4. was a plan against stagflation authored by a group of MIT economists.
5. was a movie shot in Detroit at the height of the oil embargo.


Which of these was not enacted or created during the Nixon years?

1. Environmental Protection Agency
3. Pell Grants for higher education
4. Doubling of the budget for the National Endowment for the Humanities
5. Increased funding for the National Endowment for the Arts


Which is true of affirmative action?

1. Companies found it fairly easy to follow the affirmative action guidelines of hiring a certain percentage of minorities.
2. Nixon tried but failed to cause a breakup of the Democratic coalition of blacks and whites that had been forged during the New Deal years.
3. Many of the nation's universities adopted affirmative action policies only after lengthy court battles.
4. In the 1978 case Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, the Supreme Court upheld the legality of affirmative action but denied the right of an entity to use exact quotas to achieve the goal of equality.
5. Programs of affirmative action were generally developed at the state level, since the federal government could not create a one-size-fits-all policy.


Bush doctrine

Political principle articulated by President George W. bush in which he declared America's right to fight a "preemptive war" against any nation that, one day, might threaten the U.S.

One of the biggest successes of Obama's presidency was

1. passage of the Affordable Care Act.
2. deregulating the banking industry.
3. passing tax cuts that aid the middle class and the wealthiest class of Americans.
4. decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.
5. stabilizing gas prices.


The rationale given for attacking and invading the country of Iraq in 2003 was that

1. the country possessed weapons of mass destruction, of various kinds, that could be used against the United States.
2. Saddam Hussein had tried to have George W. Bush's father, the former president, assassinated.
3. Iraq had been aiding al Qaeda since before the attacks in America.
4. Iraq was one of the members of the "axis of evil" that was trying to take over the world.
5. Iraq posed an imminent danger to the sovereignty of the state of Israel.


Kenneth Lay was the head of

1. FEMA when Katrina hit the Gulf Coast.
2. the Enron Corporation.
3. the largest trailer manufacturing firm to receive orders from the federal government for Katrina victims.
4. Homeland Security after Michael Brown "resigned."
5. the biggest "Ponzi" scheme ever perpetrated on the American people.


Abu Ghraib refers to

1. a naval base in Cuba where U.S. houses prisoners.
2. a battle during the Iraq war.
3. the location where Osama bin Laden hid out in Afghanistan.
4. an Iraqi prison where U.S. soldiers tortured and humiliated prisoners of war.


After September 11, it became clear that the al Qaeda network operated from a base of power in

1. Indonesia.
2. Somalia.
3. Afghanistan.
4. Pakistan.
5. Saudi Arabia.


The centerpiece of George W. Bush's agenda when he entered office was

1. getting to the bottom of the Enron scandal.
2. a large tax cut for wealthy Americans.
3. an increase in defense spending.
4. defending the United States against terrorists.
5. deposing Saddam Hussein of Iraq.


Which of the following best describes the Bush doctrine?

1. America has the right to defend itself from any enemies anywhere at any time.
2. America will never cower in the face of threats from or actions of terrorists.
3. It is the right of the United States to fight a preemptive war, if necessary, against any nation that has caused harm to America or Americans.
4. It is the right of the United States to wage a preemptive war against any nation that might one day threaten the United States.
5. America will never negotiate with terrorists for any reason.


Obama achieved all of the following in the war on terror except

1. He ended the war in Iraq.
2. He dramatically reduced the number of troops in Afghanistan.
3. He oversaw the successful capture and execution of Osama bin Laden.
4. He closed the detention center at Guantanamo Bay.
5. He renewed the PATRIOT Act.


As a political movement, the Tea Party is characterized by

1. its disdain for wealthy Americans.
2. its free-market libertarianism.
3. its racism.
4. its efforts to end the war in Iraq.
5. its embrace of humanitarian issues and global social justice.


According to the USA PATRIOT Act

1. those spying on the U.S. government will be considered enemies of the state and sentenced to life in prison.
2. the federal government no longer needs a warrant to monitor libraries, banks, bookstores and homes for suspected terrorists.
3. all men must register for the draft upon turning 18 or forfeit federal student aid for college.
4. federal employees are required to take loyalty oaths.
5. the federal government can deport anyone suspected of terrorist associations.