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26 Cards in this Set

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Macroscopic Kidney
MICROANATOMY OF THE KIDNEY
CAPSULE = connective tissue cover
CORTEX = outer region
filtration apparatus, tubules, vessels
MEDULLA = inner region
Tubules, capillary network
RENAL PELVIS = expanded origin of Ureter
RENAL SINUS = connective & adipose tissue
Plus the ren...
CAPSULE = connective tissue cover
CORTEX = outer region
filtration apparatus, tubules, vessels
MEDULLA = inner region
Tubules, capillary network
RENAL PELVIS = expanded origin of Ureter
RENAL SINUS = connective & adipose tissue
Plus the renal pelvis & major calyces
Renal Corpuscle
In the kidney, a renal corpuscle is the initial blood-filtering component of a nephron. It consists of two structures: a glomerulus and a Bowman's capsule.

spherical
200 μm diameter
Renal Corpuscle consists of:
Glomerulus = capillary loops
...
In the kidney, a renal corpuscle is the initial blood-filtering component of a nephron. It consists of two structures: a glomerulus and a Bowman's capsule.

spherical
200 μm diameter
Renal Corpuscle consists of:
Glomerulus = capillary loops
Bowman’s Capsule = double-layered epithelial cup
Urinary Space = Bowman’s Space
Bowman’s Capsule
Bowman’s Capsule has 2 parts:
1. Parietal layer
simple squamous epithelium
2. Visceral layer
Podocyte cells
TUBULES Proximal & Distal Convoluted Tubules
simple cuboidal epithelium
located between renal corpuscles
Medullary Rays
not in medulla (in cortex) name of paralellel tubules

Straight tubules (Loop of Henle)
Collecting tubules
Lined with a simple cuboidal epithelium
Run parallel with each other
PARTS OF THE NEPHRON
- elongated cells are the macula densa cells in the distal tubules
- endothelial cells (fenestrated)
- elongated cells are the macula densa cells in the distal tubules
- endothelial cells (fenestrated)
FILTRATION APPARATUS
located in the renal corpuscle

the layers ultrafiltrate travels through
1. glomerular capillaries
fenestrated (90nm diameter) - i.e nothing larger than 70KDa
diaphragm is absent

2. glomerular basement membrane
350nm (the podcytes add thickness)
double as thick than normal

3. Visceral layer of Bowman’s Caps...
1. glomerular capillaries
fenestrated (90nm diameter) - i.e nothing larger than 70KDa
diaphragm is absent

2. glomerular basement membrane
350nm (the podcytes add thickness)
double as thick than normal

3. Visceral layer of Bowman’s Capsule
Podocyte cells
extend cytoplasmic processes around capillaries
Pedicels or Foot Processes
FILTRATION APPARATUS
high power EM
the podcytes foot processes look like they arent attached but they really are
the podcytes foot processes look like they arent attached but they really are
the 3 barriers
thus 3 barriers.
1. endothial fenestration
2. ionic membrane (and basement membrane)
3. squeeze through foot processes
PODOCYTE
JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS
located in the renal corpuscle 1. macula densa cells 2. Juxtaglomerular cells
3.Extraglomerular mesangial cells Endocrine function Regulates blood volume & composition Via renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) Regulates blood pressure
EXTRAMESANGIAL
phagocytic
ght-staining cells in the kidney found outside the glomerulus, near the vascular pole and macula densa

? Function secrete;
Erythropoietin
IL-1
PDGF
phagocytic
ght-staining cells in the kidney found outside the glomerulus, near the vascular pole and macula densa

? Function secrete;
Erythropoietin
IL-1
PDGF
Macula densa cells
Located in wall of distal convoluted tubule
Tall, narrow cells, nuclei appear crowded
Low [Na+] in distal tubule
Macula densa release prostaglandins
Paracrine affect on juxtaglomerular cells
Located in wall of distal convoluted tubule
Tall, narrow cells, nuclei appear crowded
Low [Na+] in distal tubule
Macula densa release prostaglandins
Paracrine affect on juxtaglomerular cells
Juxtaglomerular cells
•modified smooth muscle cells of afferent arteriole
•spherical nuclei, cytoplasmic granules contain renin
Endocrine function renin released into bloodstream
•modified smooth muscle cells of afferent arteriole
•spherical nuclei, cytoplasmic granules contain renin
Endocrine function renin released into bloodstream
Proximal convoluted tubules
= initial & major site of reabsorption 
cuboidal epithelial cell lining 
Specific modifications For absorption function 
1. Microvilli on apical surface 
2. Junctional complex on lateral surface 
3. Plicae on lateral surface 
4. Basal striat...
= initial & major site of reabsorption
cuboidal epithelial cell lining
Specific modifications For absorption function
1. Microvilli on apical surface
2. Junctional complex on lateral surface
3. Plicae on lateral surface
4. Basal striations
5. numerous mitochondria in basal region
Why basal Striations?
to INC. SA
- because we have abs. and secrition across oth membranes
Distal convoluted tubules
Is only 1/3 as long as the proximal
cuboidal epithelial cell lining

Specific modifications For absorption function
1. few, short Microvilli (most reabsorption already occured)
2. Junctional complex on lateral surface
3. Plicae on lateral su...
Is only 1/3 as long as the proximal
cuboidal epithelial cell lining

Specific modifications For absorption function
1. few, short Microvilli (most reabsorption already occured)
2. Junctional complex on lateral surface
3. Plicae on lateral surface
4. Basal striations
5. numerous mitochondria in basal region
CONVOLUTED TUBULES
DDx Proximal vs Distal
the microvilli gives it a funny appearance
the microvilli gives it a funny appearance
COLLECTING DUCTS
Simple squamous or
cuboidal epithelium

wider lumenal diameter
Simple squamous or
cuboidal epithelium

wider lumenal diameter
Parenchyma (Interstitial tissue) of the Kidney
Connective tissue surrounding the nephrons,
ducts and blood vessels
Fibroblasts, collagen and myofibroblasts
URINARY BLADDER
URINARY BLADDER - MUCOSA
epithium + loose connective tissue = mucosa

stratified (not all cells reach the BM)

can strect out and become flatten squanmous cells (from dome cells)
epithium + loose connective tissue = mucosa

stratified (not all cells reach the BM)

can strect out and become flatten squanmous cells (from dome cells)
Ureter
DDx between an advential layer vs serosa
ADVENTITIA: not exposed to the cavity and so atttached to other regions

SEROSA: lines a free surface (like pericardium... ) as opposed to adeventia