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73 Cards in this Set

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Freud's stages are psychosexual while Erikson's stages are
psychosocial
In Freudian theory instincts are emphasized. Erikson is an ego psychologist. Ego psychologists ______.
believe in man's powers of reasoning to control behavior
The only psychoanalyst who created a developmental theory which encompasses the entire life span was who?
Erik Erikson
The statement, "the ego is dependent on the id," would most likely relfect the work of who?
Sigmund Freud
Jean Piaget's theory has four stages. What are they in correct order?
sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations
Some behavioral scientists have been critical of Piaget's developmental research because____?
his findings were often derived from observing his own children
A tall skinny pitcher of water is emptied into a small squatty pitcher. A child indicates that she feels the small pitcher has less water. The child has not yet mastered ______.
conservation
In Piagetian literature, conservation would most likely refer to _____ or ______.
volume or mass
A child masters conservation in the Piagetian stage known as
Concrete operations-7 to 11 yrs. old
_____ expanded on Piaget's conceptualization of moral development.
Lawrence Kohlberg
According to Piaget, a child masters the concept of reversibility in the third stage, known as concrete operations or concrete operational thought. This notion suggests what?
one can undo an action, hence an object can return to its initial shape
During a thunderstorm, a 6-year-old child in Piaget's stage of preoperational thought (stage 2) says, "The rain is following me." This is an example of
egocentrism
Lawrence Kohlberg suggested how many levels of morality?
three
This is one method used by Kohlberg to assess the level and stage of moral development in an individual.
The Heinz Story
The term "identity crisis" comes from the work of ____.
Erikson
What are Kohlberg's three levels of morality?
preconventional, conventional, postconventional
What are Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development?
1.)Trust v/s Mistrust
2.)Autonomy/Shame
3.)Initiative/guilt
4.)industry/inferiority
5.)identity/role confusion
6.)intimacy/isolation
7.)generativity/stagnation
8.)integrity/despair
In Kohlberg's first or preconventional level, the individual's moral behavior is guided by ___.
consequences
Kohlberg's second level of morality is known as conventional morality. This level is characterized by ____.
a desire to live up to society's expectations and a desire to conform
Kohlberg's highest level of morality is termed post-conventional morality. Here the individual
has self-imposed morals and ethics
According to Kohlberg, level three, which is postconventional or self-accepted moral principles is what?
the highest level of morality. However, some people never reach this level
Both Piaget and Kohlberg believed in _______ development, which moves from a lower to a higher stage.
sequential
Freud and Erikson could be classified as ______.
maturatonists
John Bowlby's name is most closely associated with
bonding and attachment
In which Eriksonian stage does the mid-life crisis occur?
generativity/stagnation (7)
The researcher who is known for his work with maternal deprivation and isolation in rhesus monkeys is
Harry Harlow
The statement, "Males are better than females when performing mathematical calculations" is true according to research by
Maccoby and Jacklin
The Eriksonian stage that focuses heavily on sharing your life with another person is
intimacy/isolation 23-34 yrs.
In Harry Harlow's experiments with baby monkeys the baby monkey was more likely to cling to a terry cloth mother surrogate than a wire surrogate mother. What did Harlow call this?
contact comfort
What are Freud's psychosexual stages?
oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
_____ is one of the top ten causes of death.
suicide
Suicide rates tend to increase or decrease with age?
increase
The fear of death is greatest during
middle age
In Freudian theory, attachment is a major factor
which evolves primarily during the oral age.
When comparing girls to boys, it could be noted that
girls grow up to smile more, girls are using more feeling words by age two, and girls are better able to read people without verbal cues at any age.
The Freudian developmental stage which "least" emphasizes sexuality is
latency
In terms of parenting young children are boys punished more or less than girls?
more
When developmental theorists speak of nature or nurture they really mean
how much heredity or environment interact to influence development
Stage theorists assume
qualitative changes between stages occur.
Development is
a continuous process which begins at conception
Heredity assumes
the normal person has 23 pairs of chromosomes, heredity characteristics are transmitted by chromosomes, genes composed of DNA hold a genetic code.
Piaget's final stage is known as the formal operational stage. In this stage ____ thinking emerges and problems can be solved using ______.
abstract and deduction
Kohlberg lists____ stages of moral development which fall into ______ levels.
6, 3
A person who lives by his or her individual conscience and universal ethical principles has, according to Kohlberg, reached the what stage of moral development?
postconventional level of self-accepted moral principles. (highest level)
Freudian. Ocurrs during the phallic stage in which the child has fantasies of sexual relations with the opposite-sex parent.
Oedipus Complex
In girls the Oedipus Complex may be referred to as
The Electra Complex
Gibson researched the matter of depth perception in children by utilizing
a visual cliff
Theorists who believe that development merely consists of quantitative changes are referred to as
empericists
An empiricist view of development would be
behavioristic
A theorist who views developmental changes as quantitative is said to be an empiricist. The anithesis of this position holds that developmental strides are qualitative. What is the name given to this position?
organicism
In Piaget's developmental theory, reflexes play the greatest role in the
sensorimotor stage
A mother hides a toy behind her back and a young child does not believe toy exists anymore. The child has not mastered
object permanence
representational thought
The schema of permanency and constancy of objects occurs in
sensorimotor stage-birth to 2 yrs.
John Bowlby has asserted that
conduct disorders and other forms of psychopathology can result from inadequate attachment and bonding in early childhood
According to Freudians, if a child is severly traumitized, he may ______ a given psychosexual stage.
become fixated at
A counselor who utilizes the term "instinctual" technically means
behavior that manifests itself in all normal members of a given species
The word "ethology" which is often associated with the work of Konrad Lorenz, refers to
the study of animals' behavior in their natural environment
A child who focuses exclusively on a clown's red nose but ignores his other features would be illustrating the Piagetian concept of
centration
Piaget felt
teachers should lecture less, as children in concrete operations learn best via their own actions and experimentation
Piaget's preoperational stage includes the acquisition of ____ _______
symbolic schema
Freud and Erikson agreed that
each developmental stage needed to be resolved before an individual could move on to the next stage
The sequence of object loss, which goes from protest to despair to detachment, best describes the work of
Bowlby
A counselor who is seeing a 15 year old boy who is not doing well in public speaking class would need to keep in mind
In general, girls possess better verbal skills than boys. Boys possess better visual perceptual skills and are more active and aggressive than girls
Two brothers begin screaming at each other during a famiy counseling session. The term that best describes the phenomenon is
sibling rivalry
A preschool child's concept of causality is said to be animistic. This means the child attributes human characterisitcs to inanimate objects. Thus, the child may fantasize that an automobile or a rock is talking to him. This concept is related to
Piaget's preoperational period, age 2 to 7 yrs
Erikson's thoughts on personality development have influenced counselors more than any other neo-Freudian. His concept of ego iedentity refers to
the ego striving to produce a unique, autonoumous self and his belief that the ego is not content with the mere assimilation of parental values.
An individual is told the Heinz story and responds with, "If I stole the drug, I'd lose respect for myself, as I would not be living up to my own standards of honesty." According to Kohlberg what level would this individual be functioning at.
Postconventional (highest level)
Erikson's middle age stage (ages 35-60) is known as Generativity versus Stagnation. Generativity refers to
the ability to do creative work or raise a family, the opposite of stagnation, and the productive ability to create a career, family, and leisure time
A person who can look back on his life with few regrets feels ego-integrity in which Erikson stage?
Integrity versus despair
Sensorimotor is to Piaget as Oral is to Freud, and as ______ is to Erikson.
Trust versus Mistrust
What theorist was most concerned with maternal deprivation?
H. Harlow
When development comes to a halt, counselors say that the client suffers from _____.
fixation
Kohlberg proposed three levels of morality. Freud, on the other hand, felt morality developed from the ____.
superego