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26 Cards in this Set

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Contractors: Are responsible for the work activity and the hazards present associated with that activity

Clients: Are responsible for hazards of the workplace

What 4 key areas do clients manage their contractors in?

1. Selection of the right contractor

2. Planning of the work

3. Co-ordination of work between client and the contractor

4. Monitoring the work to ensure contractors working to the agree'd health and safety standards
What are the factors to consider when selecting a contractor?

8
1. Copy of their health and safety policy
2. Examples of risk assessments
3. Qualifications and training records of staff
4. Membership proof or organisation or certified body
5. Records of maintenance and tests for plant and equipment.
6. Accident history records (excessive accidents, Subsequent corrective action taken)
7. Names of previous and current clients
8. Proof of adequate resources e.g access to specialist safety advice
M.E.E.P = Materials, Equipment, Environment, People

Materials - 6

Equipment - 8
Materials:
1. Hazards of different 'types' of materials
2. Controls we will have to use
3. Handling of materials
4. Consideration of transport to and from site
5. Storage specific requirements
6. Disposal of waste materials

Equipment
1. Certification
2. Inspection / Test
3. Maintenance procedures
4. Hazards and controls
5. Transport/Storage
6. Training for authorised users
7. Fit for job purpose
8. Fit for place/environment
M.E.E.P = Materials, Equipment, Environment, People

Environment - 7

People (S.K.E.T) Competence - 4
Environment
1. Air quality/from testing
2. Lighting
3. Temperature
4. Evacuation
5. Access/egress
6. Security (sign it and out procedures - I.D)
7. Welfare facilities
Joint Occupiers Premises
All employees must co-operate and co-ordinate their activities to ensure good health and safety standards

What should be established?

Leads to common approach and subsequent development to management of joint issues of what?

Additionally specific?

Employees working close together share what?
A building or site committee should be established. Consultation for development/implementation of policies and procedures necessary for building.

Leads to:
1. Fire procedures
2. Security threat response
3. Emergency spill response
4. Site rules
5. Visitor/contractor control
6. Traffic management

Additionally, if there are specific risks associated with the workplace then awareness of issue and appropriate response can be raised

Employers working closely together may need to share risk assessments to ensure both organisations are aware of possible impact of use of equipment and substances so that activities can be co-ordinated.

Also different time schedules so 2 contractors aren't in each others way
How would you define a health and safety culture?


What are the factors that could result in the deterioration of health and safety culture?
5
The Shared attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviours relating to health and safety

Deterioration factors:

1. Lack of leadership from management
2.Presence of blame culture
3. Health and safety receiving lower priority than other business issues
4. High staff turnover
5. Lack of worker consultation
What are the indicators used to assess health and safety culture?

4
1. Accident rates
2. Absenteeism, either not willing, or not able to work
3. Staff turnover. (Low - Good. High - Poor)
4. Influence of peers (peer group pressure. Social group form group behaviour. Social pressure exerted forcing individuals to comply with group behaviour)
What acronym do you associate with safety related behaviour?

J.O.I. - J

Part 1
J.O.I

Job factors: (T.E.W.E.D)

TASK: Characteristics of the work itself

ERGONOMICS: The study of the relationship between the worker, the work they are doing and the environment in which they are doing it. Main reasons = Comfort, safety and productivity

Workload: Amount, rate, deadlines of work degree to which is under their direct control or imposed externally

Environment: Air, space, lighting, noise, temperature and humidity

Displays and controls: Their design, poorly designs can contribute to human error i.e displays different to view and critical displays out of operations normal F.O.V
What acronym do you associate with safety related behaviour?

J.O.I. - O

Part 2
J.O.I

Organisational Factors: (C.C.C.P.R)

COMMITMENT and leadership from management

PEER group pressure: Extent allowed to drive bad behaviour

CONSULTATION and worker involvement

COMMUNICATION: Health and safety messages and information

Resources: Availability of equipment, machine guards, P.P.E and allocating time for training in Health and safety
J.O.I. - I (C.A.M.P) - Part 3
Individual factors: (C.A.M.P)

Competence: Is the combo of skills, knowledge, experience and training that brings a person to a level where they are able to perform to an acceptable standard whilst being aware of their own limitations. Experience or qualifications alone does not make somebody competent. They need a combination of both

Attitude: A persons point of view or way of looking at something. How they think and feel about it. Changing attitude is notoriously difficult therefore use methods such as: (H.E.E.C.)

1. Education and training - workers educated in hazards and risks associated with machines and why guards are needed.
2. High impact intervention (shock tactics) - workers shown pictures of injuries caused by failure to use guard. This may change attitude quickly.
3. Enforcement - Workers are forced to use guard by supervision and discipline. Eventually it will become habit.
4. Consultation and involvement in decision making process - Workers get ownership
J.O.I. - I (C.A.M.P) - Part 4
Motivation: A persons drive towards a goal; The thing that makes them do what they do.

Workers often behave unsafely NOT simply because they are wilful, but because they perceive a reward and think the risk is worth the reward (There unsafe behaviour is incentivised)

Therefore any reward scheme in a workplace intended to improve safety must be carefully thought through to ensure it incentivises correct behaviour
J.O.I. - I (C.A.M.P) - Part 5

Perception of risk: A way a person interprets information detected by their senses. Some hazards are not detected by human senses e.g carbon monoxide

Perception of hazards can be effected by sensory impairment (partial sightedness/colour blindness). Sensory impairment also from P.P.E e.g hearing protection reduces hearing acuity

What other factors distort perception? 5

What physical factors influence health and safety behaviour? 6
Sensory impairment from:
1. partial sightedness
2. colour blindness
3. Deaf in one ear
4. P.P.E
5. Illness
6. Stress.
7. Fatigue
8. Drugs and alcohol
9. Training and education (positive)

Health and safety behaviour influenced by physical factors:

1. Size
2. Weight
3. Strength
4. Age
5. Gender
6. Medical history
In what ways can you improve worker perception of hazards? 6

Survey / Discussion - (S.H.R.E.D)
1. Use of surveys/Discussion groups to establish why workers dont appreciate the presence of particular hazards then set about dealing with the issues by:

2. Safety awareness campaign using posters and toolbox talks.

3. Develop training programmes increases awareness of hazards and consequences.

4. Highlight hazards using safety signs, paint (yellow and black) for low objects e.g the edge of steps

5. Ensure adequate lighting

6. Remove distractions e.g noise (result in worker not hearing warning alarms) or excessive heat (causing fatigue)
Outline ways of improving health and safety culture of an organisation. Part 1

(Management commitment to leadership)

4
Management commitment and leadership:

Having management demonstrates a 'visible' commitment to health and safety

1. Behaving correctly themselves
2. Their involvement in day-to-day management of health and safety e.g attending safety meetings
3. Taking part in safety tours and audits
4. Enforcing company safety rules
Outline ways of improving health and safety culture of an organisation. Part 2

(Disciplinary procedures)

4
Disciplinary procedures:

1. 'Minor' breaks in health and safety procedure are often effectively dealt with informally e.g (discussion and coaching). However in case of breach resulting in endangerment of safety to employees and others disciplinary is used.

E.g a supervisor fails to follow a safe system of work and instructs staff to cut corners in order to save time.

Having appropriate procedures in place for discussions of such situations - Effective means improving organisations health and safety culture.
Outline ways of improving health and safety culture of an organisation. Part 3

(Having competent staff)

4
Having a positive safety culture stems from having competent staff.

All staff (S.K.E.T) to carry out work safety and without risk to health.

Employers responsibility ensure workers competent to carry out tasks safely.

Having both, manages and staff competence checked (relevant qualifications or memberships to professional bodies is important)

Furthermore, provision of any in house training has direct safety implication on tasks carried out from day-to-day in the organisation.
Outline ways of improving health and safety culture of an organisation. Part 4

(Co-operation and consultation)

4
Primary ways of improving health and safety related behaviour and subsequent safety culture of an organisation.

Often negative culture occur if worker feels dictated to.

To avoid this, it is important to actively encourage worker interest and ownership by involving them in decision making process (primarily through consultation)

Direct consultation: Employer talking directly to each worker is effective in a small organisation and in large workplaces.

Via worker representatives: Setting up a health and safety committee (key management and representatives meet regularly to discuss health and safety matters and resolve issues).
3 Principles for delivering media for communication

(Verbal, written and graphic) there are positives and negatives for all.

2
Verbal Negatives:
1. Language barrier may exist.
2. no written record as proof.

Verbal positives:
1. It's quick
2. Allows additional information to be transmitted i.e tone, facial expressions and body language.

Written Negatives:
1. Takes time to write
2. Language barrier may exist

Written positives:
1. Permanent record
2. Cheap to distribute to wide audience

Graphic negatives:
1. Convey only simple messages
2. Expensive to buy or produce

Graphic positives:
1. No language barriers
2. Conveys message to a wide audience
What items are present on a notice board?

5

What ways can you improve effectiveness of a noticeboard?

5
Items
1. The company safety policy
2. Employees liability insurance
3. Emergency procedures
4. Recent accident statistics
5. Identity of safety representatives and first aiders

Increase effectiveness
1. Appropriate use of eye catching methods (impact colours)
2. Use 'local lighting' to keep board illuminated
3. Position in high traffic areas (mess hall, toilet)
4. Allocate responsibility for updating
Broadcasting methods

5
1. Notice boards
2. Toolbox talks
3. Posters and video
4. Memes and email
5. Worker handbooks
What will the worker understand once they are trained?
3

What circumstances will trigger extra training?
5
Understand:
1. The hazards and risks inherent in their work
2. The correct rules and precautions to apply
3. Foreseeable emergencies and actions to take should these events occur

Extra training after:
1. New employees (induction training)
2. Job change or promotion
3. Process change in production
4. New technology introduced
5. New legislation

These all bring there own hazards
Typical content of a general induction training course include?
8

Induction takes place when workers join an organisation as they are at risk from day 1.
1. The organisations health and safety policy
2. Fire and emergency procedures
3. First aid facilities and personnel
4. Location of welfare facilities
5. Accident and incident reporting procedures
6. General safety rules (e.g smoking area)
7. P.P.E requirements
8. Intro to risk R.A's, S.S.O.W's, P.T.W systems
Emergency types include what?
5

Emergency procedures reduces severity of risk

There should be appropriate arrangements in place to deal with foreseeable incidents. What are they?
2
Emergency types:
1. Fire
2. Bomb threat
3. Spillage of hazardous chemical
4. Release of toxic gas (
5. Severe weather or flooding

Arrangements for contacting emergency services

Appropriate arrangements:
1. Communication equipment
2. Contact details

Responsible individuals with necessary information and knowledge to make call.

In many instances the emergency services can provide more effective response if given critical information quickly
Provision of first aid = (F.E.P)

Purpose of first aid = (P.P.P)
F.E.P Provision

F = Facilities - appropriate location where first aid treatment can be given
E = Equipment - Appropriately stocked first aid kits and other equipment as necessary
P = Personnel - Staff with appropriate training to deliver first aid

P.P.P

Preserve life
Prevent deterioration of health of casualty
Promote recovery
First aid room should be?
3

First aid equipment includes?
4 (depending of specific hazards)
First aid room:
1. Centrally located in area that can be accessed by the emergency services
2. Clean, adequately heated, ventilated and well lit
3. Provided with a hand was station, hot and cold running water, table a chair and a clinica; waste bin as a minimum

First aid equipment
As a minimum:
1 fully stocked first aid kit for small, low risk workplace

Multiple first aid kits, positioned at various locations in larger workplace

eyewash stations
Resuscitation equipment
Emergency showers
Stretchers
When determining first aid personnel numbers, what is to be considered?
4
Exact nature of first aid training normally determined by local legislation
Refresher training is usually mandatory for first aiders as skills fade over time through lack of practice

First aid coverage considerations?
6
First aiders
1. Number of workers on site
2. Distribution of workers
3. Shift patterns (adequate cover all shifts, weekends and nightshift)
4. First aid cover during absences (Holidays/illness)

First aid coverage
1. Specific hazards in the workplace
2. Accident history
3. Presence of vulnerable workers
4. Work pattern and shift systems of workers
5. Geographical location of workplace

Where there may not be emergency services close by- on site nurses and doctors should be used.