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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hindbrain

Hindbrain

- Medulla


- Cerebellum


- Pons

Midbrain

Midbrain

- Tectum


- Tegmentum

Forebrain

Forebrain

- Telencephalon


- Diencephalon

Cerebellum


 


 


​(hindbrain)

Cerebellum




​(hindbrain)

- Coordinates force, rate, direction of body movements


- Evaluates body position and momentum


(where the body is and where its going)


- Aims to ensure smooth coordinated movements


- Injury can result in loss of muscle tone, strength and coordination

Medulla (oblongata)


 


 


​(hindbrain)

Medulla (oblongata)




​(hindbrain)

- Controls force/rate of heart contractions - Regulates blood pressure


- Controls rate/depth of breathing


- Maintains respiratory rhythm


- Regulates vomiting, hiccupping, swallowing, coughing, sneezing

Pons


 


 


(hindbrain)

Pons




(hindbrain)

- Divides cerebellum into right and left halves


- Connects medulla to midbrain


- Controls gross motor coordination


- Helps maintain normal rythm of breathing

Tectum


 


 


(midbrain)

Tectum




(midbrain)

- Superior Colliculus


- Inferior Colliculus

Superior Colliculus


 


 


(tectum - midbrain)

Superior Colliculus




(tectum - midbrain)

coordinates head and eye movements when we visually follow a moving object, even if we are not consciously looking at it

Inferior Colliculus


 


 


(tectum - midbrain)

Inferior Colliculus




(tectum - midbrain)

Acts in reflex responses to sound by causing you to turn your head toward an unexpected sound

Tegmentum


 


 


(midbrain)

Tegmentum




(midbrain)

- Reticular formation


- Substantia Nigra

Reticular Formation


 


 


(Tegmentum - midbrain)

Reticular Formation




(Tegmentum - midbrain)

- Recticular Activating System (RAS)


- Arm of the RF


- Receives info from all sensory tracts (sight,sound,hear,smell,touch)


Filters the flood of sensory info going to cerebrum (repetitive,familiar, weak signals are filtered out, but unusual)


Substantia Nigra


 


 


(Tegmentum - midbrain)

Substantia Nigra




(Tegmentum - midbrain)

- Dark color reflects a high content of melanin pigment


- Releases dopamine into the Caudate Nucleus


- Degeneration of the dopamine releasing neurons is the ultimate cause of Parkinson's

Melanin Pigment


 


 


(substantia nigra - tegmentum - midbrain)

Melanin Pigment




(substantia nigra - tegmentum - midbrain)

A precursor of the neurotransmitter Dopamine which is released by these neurons

Caudate Nucleus


 


 


(substantia nigra - tegmentum - midbrain)

Caudate Nucleus




(substantia nigra - tegmentum - midbrain)

A structure of the Basal Ganglia which appears to be important in starting, stopping and monitoring the intensity of movements executed by the cortex

Red Nucleus


 


 


(Tegmentum - midbrain)

Red Nucleus




(Tegmentum - midbrain)

- Lies deep in the substantia nigra


- Reddish color is due to its rich blood supply


- Red nuclei are relay nuclei in some motor pathways that effect limb flexion


- Largest nuclei of the reticular formation

Periaqueductal Gray Matter


 


 


(Tegmentum - midbrain)

Periaqueductal Gray Matter




(Tegmentum - midbrain)

- Involved in pain suppression


- Link between fear perceiving amygdala and ANS pathways that control the "fight or flight" response


- Includes nuclei that controls two cranial nerves; the oculomotor and the trochlear nerves

Telecephalon


 


 


(Forebrain)

Telecephalon




(Forebrain)

- Cerebral Cortex


- Limbic System


- Basal Ganglia

Cerebral Cortex


 


 


(Telecephalon - Forebrain)

Cerebral Cortex




(Telecephalon - Forebrain)

- Consists of 2 hemispheres each containing 4 lobes


a. Frontal (motor)


b. Temporal (hearing)


c. parietal (sensation)


d. occipital (vision



Limbic System


 


 


(Telecephalon - Forebrain)

Limbic System




(Telecephalon - Forebrain)

- Considered to be our emotional or effective brain


- Consists of the following structures:


Hypothalamus - Amygdala - Thalamus - Hippocampus


Cingulate gyrus - Fornix - Orfactory bulb - Mamillary bodies

Basal Ganglia


 


 


(telecephalon - forebrain)

Basal Ganglia




(telecephalon - forebrain)

- Consists of the following structures:


Caudate Nucleus


Putamen


Globus Pallidus


Nucleus Accumbens

Diencephalon


 


 


(forebrain)

Diencephalon




(forebrain)

- Thalamus


- Hypothalamus

Thalamus (Relay Station)


 


 


(diecephalon - forebrain)

Thalamus (Relay Station)




(diecephalon - forebrain)

- Sensory and motor pathways from all over the body pass through it. Olfactory system is the only system that does not pass through it


Hypothalamus


 


 


(diecephalon - forebrain)

Hypothalamus




(diecephalon - forebrain)

- Controls body temperature, hunger, sleep, sexual behavior, etc