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73 Cards in this Set

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The auditory system is divided into what 2 portions?
Central and peripheral
What does the auditory periphery include?
External, middle, inner ear and Cranial Nerve VIII
What does the external ear include?
Pinna and ear canal
What does the middle ear include?
eardrum, three auditory ossicles, middle ear cavities, eustachian tube, and the middle ear muscles (stapedius, tensor tympani)
What does the inner ear include?
bony and membranous labyrinth, cochlea, vestibule (utricle and saccule), and the three semicircular canals
What does the VIII cranial nerve include?
auditory nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve
The central auditory system includes fiber tracts in the what?
low brainstem, midbrain, thalamus, and cortex
What is the primary auditory cortex? Where is it located?
Heschl's gyrus; superior surface of the temporal lobe
Where are hair cells located?
In the organ of Corti
What does the conductive portion of the auditory system include?
outer ear, and the middle ear.
How does a conductive hearing loss occur?
A conductive hearing loss occurs because of damage (i.e., a lesion) to structures in the outer and/or middle ear.
What does the sensorineural portion of the system include?
Sensory portion and neural portion
What does the sensory portion include?
the inner ear (or cochlea, Latin for "snail") which contains the sensory cells (outer and inner hair cells)
What does the neural portion include?
everything more central to the cochlea, which is the
VIII nerve, low brainstem, midbrain, thalamus, and cortex.
What is the neural portion also referred to as?
Retrocochlear
When people refer to "neural" or "retrocochlear," what are they usually referring to?
a lesion of the VIII nerve (usually a tumor).
How is a sensorineural hearing loss caused?
caused by damage to the cochlea or any retrocochlear structure, usually hair cells and/or VIII nerve fibers, but mostly by damage to hair cells
How do a bone conduction and air conduction tests differ?
Air conduction tests the whole system: conductive and cochlea; whereas, bone conduction tests only part of the system: cochlea
A hearing loss by air conduction means a lesion in what?
outer ear, middle ear, cochlea, vestibulocochlear nerve, or central auditory pathways (although hearing loss, or loss of sensitivity to sound, is not usually a symptom of damage to the auditory pathways).
A hearing loss by bone conduction means a lesion in what?
cochlea, vestibulocochlear nerve, and/or central auditory pathways.
Comparing air conduction to bone conduction is what?
Diagnostic
What causes congenital hearing loss?
genetic disorders and viral infections
How often do genetic disorders contribute to hearing loss at birth?
about half of births
Which diseases cause hearing loss in early/late childhood?
Otitis Media and viral, bacterial meningitis
Which skull fracture disrupts middle ear structures, with a bleeding tympanum?
Longitudinal Skull Fracture
Which skull fracture damages cochlea, perilymph leaks and profound loss?
Transverse Skull Fracture
Which hearing loss disease cycles of bone-dissolving enzyme causes resorption, then new bone deposition anterior to oval window fixes the stapes?
Otosclerosis
Which hearing loss disease progresses in a series of bouts, with symptom-free intervals ... resulting in fullness/pressure, rushing or roaring tinnitus, hearing loss, and vertigo?
Meniere's Disease
What is ideopathic, but suspected causes: viral, autoimmune response, microcirculation defect (thrombus or clot, embolism, artery spasm)?
Sudden hearing loss
What attacks myelin sheath of nerve, space-occupying lesion?
Vestibular schwannoma
What is audiology?
study of hearing
Audiologists are trained to do what?
evaluate hearing, and treat non-medical aspects of hearing loss.
What is usually the first activity when evaluating clients?
Case History
What is used to determine if there is hearing loss?
audiometry
What does a case history gather?
subjective information and symptoms
What does otoscopy permit?
visualization of the external and middle ear.
What measures the mobility of the middle ear system?
Tympanometry
What is impacted by ear infections and what does it cause?
The middle ear is what is impacted by ear infections which cause an accumulation of fluid in the middle ear.
provides diagnostic information about all the major divisions of the ear (including cochlea, VIII nerve).
Acoustic Reflex testing
What do pure-tone air and bone conduction tests measure our sensitivity to?
Pure tones
How does knowing where the lesion is located help someone?
helps to determine what disease might be causing the hearing loss. Knowing what disease is present helps determine appropriate treatment.
measures how the hearing loss has affected the ability to hear speech.
speech reception threshold
measures how the hearing loss has affected the ability to understand speech.
Word recognition/identification testing
uses noisemakers to detect any observable response to sound.
Behavioral Observation Audiometry
In what test is sound presented? The child's natural response is to turn the head in the direction of the sound. An animated toy reinforces the response.
Visual reinforcement audiometry and the conditioned orientation response
The child is trained to make a (more fun) response when a tone is heard (like dropping a block in a bucket).
Play audiometry
Why were diagnostic procedures developed?
as a search for where in the auditory pathway that the lesion is located
Which lesions are medically/surgically treatable? Which are treatable via hearing aids?
Conductive lesions; cochlear lesions
What does the Alternate binaural loudness balance test (ABLB) for unilateral losses determine?
how our perception of loudness changes as intensity increases; if recruitment is present (recruitment  cochlear pathology).
What does the Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) for bilateral losses evaluate?
the ability to detect small changes in loudness of a continuous tone (+SISI  cochlear pathology).
What doesThreshold tone decay, Békésy audiometry determine?
if adaptation is present (tone decay VIII nerve lesion), and Will a steady tone remain audible, or will it gradually fade away?
What does immittance audiometry screen for?
middle ear disease (ear infections, fluid in the middle ear)
What does acoustic reflex testing evaluate?
the sensorineural portion of the ear, but is also sensitive to middle ear disorders.
What does auditory evoked potentials provide info about?
neural function (like the presence of VIII nerve tumors).
What does a stimulus evoke?
electrical activity in the auditory pathway.
What is the most useful of the evoked potentials?
auditory brainstem response
What does electroneurography monitor?
facial nerve activity (Bell's palsy).
What do somatosensory evoked potentials monitor?
the integrity of the spinal cord, other peripheral nerves in the extremities.
What does Electronystagmography (ENG) evaluate?
the visual and vestibular components of the balance system.
What does dynamic posturography evaluate?
the ability of our balance system to provide motor control to maintain postural stability.
What do otoacoustic emissions determine?
the status of the sensory cells that allow us to hear soft sounds (outer hair cells)
Who is considered the "father" of audiology?
Raymond Carhart
Where was Raymond Carhart (father of audiology) a professor?
Northwestern University
When was audiology created?
50 years ago
What was it originally created for?
To assist hearing-injured WWII veterans reenter civilian life
Which two profession did audiology develop from?
Otoscopy and speech-language pathology
___% of children will have an ear infection before age ___?
90; 6
Two professional documents that govern the practice of audiology are _________ and ___________?
Code of Ethics; Scope of Practice
The two associations most closely associated with audiology are _________________ and _________________?
American Academy of Audiology; ASHA
Hearing loss in children is a concern only due to the possible impact on communication . . . true or false?
false
Ear infections in children may or may not cause hearing loss . . . true or false?
true
What 3 areas are affected by hearing loss in adults besides hearing sensitivity?
general health, psychosocial well being, generated income
Start on Page 9 -- Still need to do acoustics power points
Chapter 1