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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Thorndike believed that his cats were not consciously aware of what response opened the door. The crucial evidence for him was the
gradual improvement over trials
Attempts to modify children's misbehavior in school by having teachers ignore it, while instead paying attention only to good behavior, have
sometimes failed because teachers have not applied learning principles properly
A rat in a skinner box receives a continuous low level of electric shock. Every time is presses a bar, the shock is turned off for 10 seconds. This procedure is
negative reinforcement
Punishment is most likely to be effective if it is
delivered by a variety of individuals in a variety of situations
a stimulus which is innately effective in increasing the probability of the responses that precede it is called a
primary reinforcer
Indirect evidence that the use of material reinforcers might encourage greed has come from studies of
amount contrast
Lepper, Green, and Nisbett gave children a good player award for drawing pictures. They found that the probability of drawing
The principles of punishment in children appear to be __________ as in animals
the same except for language
The Premack principle incorrectly states that
a low probability response will not reinforce higher probability responses
Grice compared the effects of immediate reinforcement with reinforcement after a delay of 0.5 second. Rats in the 0.5 second delay group required _________ trials to learn.
five times as many
To encourage a child to enjoy practicing the piano, which of the following strategies would probably be the least effective for a parent to follow?
reinforce practicing with money
Two rats given electric shock begin to fight each other. This is an example of
pain-elicited aggression
Ludwig and Geller found that the best way to improve the safety records of the pizza delivery drivers was to
involve the drivers in setting targets
In a study by Madsen, first grade children were punished when they left theirs seats. The frequency of this behavior
In a VI60 schedule, a reinforcer is presented
following the first response after the current time requirement has elapsed
One group of rats is given 10 reinforcements on a CRF schedule; the other is given 10 reinforcements on an FR schedule. During extinction,
the FR 20 group will respond more
A group of rats are trained to run down an alley containing 256 food pellets. After speed has stabilized, the number of food pellets is reduced to 16. How fast should that run?
Same or faster
Reinforcement based programs for dieting have generally produced
large losses initially but much of the weight is regained
Which of the following statements best captures the relationship between learning and motivation?
Learning and motivation affect each other
A group of rats received a sequence of trials in a runway that terminated either in reward R or non reward N. According to Capaldi's model, which of the following produces the most persistent responding?
The most robust intracranial self stimulation behavior is observed when the tip of the electrode is placed just inside the
medial forebrain bundle at the level of the lateral hypothalamus
Stimuli that originate in muscular movement are called ________ stimuli.
A pigeon is required to peck a key an average of ten times to obtain food. This is an example of which schedule?
VR 10
A subject is reinforced every time five seconds elapses without a response. This is an example of which schedule?
Slot machines are based upon which schedule of reinforcement
variable ratio
To increase the likelihood that a learned behavior will persist after a reinforcement program is terminated, which of the following techniques is LEAST useful?
using a large amount of reinforcement during training
Radical behaviorism rejects explanations that refer to
Bandura, Blanchard, and Ritter found the most effective treatment for snake phobias to be
a live model holding the snake together with the subject
If you wanted to increase the time you spent studying, current research suggests that you should NOT
set yourself a target for how long you will study and remain at your desk until you reach it
In Skinner's experiment on punishment, the aversive stimulus was
a paw slap
The relative rate with which responses are made equals or almost equals the relative rate with which responses are reinforced. This statement summarizes
the matching law
Williams advised the parents of a young boy to ignore him when he had tantrums at bedtime. Observations over a 2 year period revealed
a reduction in tantrums with no harmful side-effects
Intermittent reinforcement during training increases the level of responding during extinction. This phenomenon is referred to as
the partial reinforcement effect
An increase in the probability of a response due to the removal of an aversive stimulus is called
negative reinforcement
Parents must rely on a variety of strategies to get their children to eat a balanced diet. When parents provide access to ice cream contingent upon their children eating all of the vegetables on their dinner plate, they are applying the
Premack principle
In the terminology of associative learning, electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the lateral hypothalamus is
Thorndike summarized his findings in the Law of
_______ motivation derives from performing an activity, rather than from any consequences that might follow
An increase in the probability of a response due to the removal of an aversive stimulus is called
negative reinforcement
An increase in the effectiveness of a reinforcer due to previous experience with a less attractive reinforcer is called
positive contrast
Skinner referred to the performance of one response in order to alter the probability of a subsequent as
T/F Thorndike called the apparatus he used an operant chamber
T/F To increase the effectiveness of sports coaching, Allison and Ayllon introduced immediate reinforcement in the form of praise
T/F If punishment is necessary, the best strategy is to use an intense punisher
T/FI n the terminology of conditioning, the money is a primary reinforceer for humans in every day life
T/F Intrinsic motivation refers to motives derived from performing an activity, rather than from any consequences that may follow
T/F The main difference in the effects of punishment on children compared to the effects on animals is that delayed punishment is more effective for children
T.F Olds and Milner were the first to provide a complete report of intracranial self-stimulation behavior