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113 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Unexercised and optimally exercised abilities are both components of
practical intelligence.
Which statement concerning how grandparent-grandchild relationships have changed over the past few decades is accurate?
More grandparents now live lives independent from their grandchildren.
Jacques is interested in studying the cultural conservator style of grandparenting. Who are most likely to be the participants in his study?
Native Americans
Which comment is best associated with an unexercised ability?
"I have never done this before."
Type A is to Type B as
intense is to calm.
Since she has what Costa and McCrae would classify as an "agreeable" personality, you would expect that Marcy would be described by others as a
"joy to be around."
Osteoporosis is best thought of as involving a loss of bone
mass
Misha often experiences severe swelling and joint pain in her fingers and wrists each morning. This pattern of symptoms is most likely due to
the climacteric.
Which of these individuals is most likely to be a "kinkeeper"?
Evelyn, a 45-year-old mother
What are the five factors in the five-factor model?
traits
How is expert problem solving different from problem solving by a novice?
Novices follow more rules.
What conclusion is most accurate regarding the research on ethnic differences in practical intelligence?
There are no ethnic differences in practical intelligence.
Max exercises regularly. Relative to those who do not exercise, Max is likely to
function better cognitively.
Joy reads a note on her desk that says, "Joy, come to my office immediately. Signed, The Boss." Joy immediately interprets this message as a threat to her job and her livelihood and is not sure she can deal with it. Joy's interpretation of this note exemplifies
an appraisal.
Shelly is a 46-year-old woman whose menstrual cycle has changed and is now more irregular and infrequent. Which term best describes Shelly's condition?
perimenopause
According to Denny's model, the highest performance would most likely occur on a(n)
optimally exercised ability.
Research on Type A and Type B personalities provides support for the notion that
psychological factors can be related to physical health.
Regis is asked to describe what it is like to work with Kathy Lee. In response he says, "She is mean, anxious, and really tough to be around." This description best matches a person scoring high on Costa and McCrae's ____ personality dimension.
neuroticism
Expert performance tends to peak ____ and ____.
in middle adulthood; drop off slightly thereafter
Filial obligation is based on a sense of
responsibility.
Which personality variable is most associated with cardiovascular disease?
Type A
What is the major role of a "kinkeeper"?
keeping family members in touch with one another
What appears to be the main reason why an individual's Type A or Type B behavioral pattern influences their recovery rate following a heart attack?
It appears to influence one's motivation to follow postattack health suggestions.
Some males experience an age-related decline in ____ resulting in menopause-like symptoms (e.g., hot flashes).
testosterone
What are the "pieces of bread" on either side of the "sandwich generation"?
parents and children
Aerobic exercise is defined as a pulse rate between ____ of a person's maximum rate.
60% and 90%
The ____ of intelligence is most likely to be affected by the culture in which you were raised.
pragmatics
Which incident would be best described as a hassle for Tom?
running out of peanut butter while making a sandwich
Kevin is described by friends as having a great imagination and being willing to try anything once! Given this description, Kevin would most likely score very high on a scale of
openness to experience.
"Processes of thinking" would be most associated with
the mechanics of intelligence.
A low score on the ____ personality dimension has been associated with having a Type A personality.
agreeableness
Forty-five-year-old Marilyn, who is very concerned about osteoporosis, seeks medical advice from her physician. Which advice would her physician be least likely to give?
"Let's try increasing your alcohol consumption."
As women reach the climacteric, their menstruation cycles
become irregular and gradually stop altogether.
Type A is to Type B as
intense is to calm.
How is expert problem solving different from problem solving by a novice?
Novices follow more rules.
What are the five factors in the five-factor model?
traits
Which statement concerning rheumatoid arthritis is true?
Symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis come and go.
Compared with his 70-year-old grandfather, Sullivan, 25-year-old Gilbert is more likely to
have a significantly higher sperm count.
An individual characterizing what Erikson called "stagnation" is unable to
contribute to a society's continuation.
While Jess and Marge are not Alex's real grandparents, they are fulfilling that role. Their behavior best exemplifies
fictive grandparenting.
Research on Type A and Type B personalities provides support for the notion that
psychological factors can be related to physical health.
Which statement concerning how grandparent-grandchild relationships have changed over the past few decades is accurate?
More grandparents now live lives independent from their grandchildren.
Which statement best reflects Erikson's concept of generativity?
"Help the children for they are our future."
Joy reads a note on her desk that says, "Joy, come to my office immediately. Signed, The Boss." Joy immediately interprets this message as a threat to her job and her livelihood and is not sure she can deal with it. Joy's interpretation of this note exemplifies
an appraisal.
What is the most effective parenting method for ensuring that a child's transition from child to young adulthood is as smooth as possible?
foster independent thinking and behavior
Which personality variable is most associated with cardiovascular disease?
Type A
Which comment is best associated with an unexercised ability?
"I have never done this before."
Research has indicated that a woman's employment status has ____ impact on her decision to become a caregiver for a parent.
no
Expert performance tends to peak ____ and ____.
in middle adulthood; drop off slightly thereafter
Some males experience an age-related decline in ____ resulting in menopause-like symptoms (e.g., hot flashes).
testosterone
Some of the signs of aging appearing in middle age include
wrinkles, gray hair, and weight gain.
Starting in the ____ the protective cartilage in joints deteriorates. This can result in osteoarthritis or ____ arthritis.
20's; rheumatoid
Middle age results in transitions in the ______
reproductive system
climacteric
loss of the ability to bear children by natural means
menopause
cessation of menstruation
climacteric and menopause
occurs in the 40’s and 50’s, and constitute a major change in reproductive ability in women
Symptoms related to climacteric and menopause include ___-related symptoms and ______ symptoms
estrogen; somatic
The estrogen-related symptoms are associated with increased risk of some diseases, such as
cardiovascular disease. (physicians recommend hormone replacement therapy.)
Most women _____ have severe physical symptoms associated with the hormonal changes.
do not
results when you appraise an event as taxing one’s resources.
stress
viewed as the primary source of stress
Daily hassles
refers to our attempts to deal with stress
Coping
viewed as the primary source of stress
Daily hassles
more important for young and middle-aged adults
Family and career issues
refers to our attempts to deal with stress
Coping
more important for older adults.
health issues
more important for young and middle-aged adults
Family and career issues
Stress affects physical health directly
causing specific disease
more important for older adults.
health issues
Stress affects physical health indirectly
raising corticoid levels which make people more susceptible to disease.
Stress affects physical health directly
causing specific disease
characterized by intense competitiveness, anger hostility, restlessness, aggression, and impatience, and is linked with first heart attack and cardiovascular disease
Type A behavior
Stress affects physical health indirectly
raising corticoid levels which make people more susceptible to disease.
associated with lower risk of first heart attack, but poorer prognosis afterward should one occur.
Type B
characterized by intense competitiveness, anger hostility, restlessness, aggression, and impatience, and is linked with first heart attack and cardiovascular disease
Type A behavior
Following an initial heart attack, Type ___ behavior pattern individuals have a higher recovery rate.
A
associated with lower risk of first heart attack, but poorer prognosis afterward should one occur.
Type B
unrelated to serious psychopathology, it is related to social isolation and distrust.
stress
Following an initial heart attack, Type ___ behavior pattern individuals have a higher recovery rate.
A
unrelated to serious psychopathology, it is related to social isolation and distrust.
stress
people are more motivated to solve them, personal experience is used to solve them, and they have more than one correct answer
Tests of practical intelligence
appears not to decline appreciably until late life
Practical intelligence
cognitive analysis, problem-focused action, passive-dependent behavior, and avoidant thinking and denial
Practical problems can be solved using one of four styles
use the problem-focused style more than adolescents and young adults when dealing with instrumental problems
Middle-aged adults
tend to become experts in some areas and not in others
People
tend to be more flexible thinkers than novices and are able to skip steps in solving problems.
Experts
tends to peak in middle age
Expert
people are more motivated to solve them, personal experience is used to solve them, and they have more than one correct answer
Tests of practical intelligence
postulate five dimensions of personality
Costa and McCrae
appears not to decline appreciably until late life
Practical intelligence
neuroticism, extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
five dimensions of personality
show long-term stability
personality traits
cognitive analysis, problem-focused action, passive-dependent behavior, and avoidant thinking and denial
Practical problems can be solved using one of four styles
use the problem-focused style more than adolescents and young adults when dealing with instrumental problems
Middle-aged adults
tend to become experts in some areas and not in others
People
tend to be more flexible thinkers than novices and are able to skip steps in solving problems.
Experts
tends to peak in middle age
Expert
postulate five dimensions of personality
Costa and McCrae
neuroticism, extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
five dimensions of personality
show long-term stability
personality traits
argue that findings of stability are due to statistical artifacts and that this model ignores the sociocultural context of personality development
Critics of the five-factor model
middle-aged adults become more concerned with doing for others and passing social values and skills to the next generation
Erikson
middle-aged adults become more concerned with doing for others and passing social values and skills to the next generation
set of behaviors and beliefs labeled generativity
results from the interconnections of societal and inner forces, creating a concern for the next generation
According to McAdams, generativity
There is some evidence that gender-role identity converges in
middle age
personality resource that enables people to handle midlife stress.
Ego resilience
more likely to experience stagnation and decline.
low ego resilience
keep in fairly frequent contact with their parents
Middle-aged children
results from adult children having trouble coping with declines in their parents’ functioning and from the situation being perceived as confining or infringing on the adult child’s responsibilities.
Caregiver stress
The stress of caring for a parent may be especially difficult for women because it coincides with
women’s peak employment years.
tends to vary with the age of the grandchild and where grandparents fall on the social and personal dimensions of grandparenting.
grandparenting styles
report positive relationships with grandparents
Most children and young adults
An ______ of grandparents serve as surrogate parents for their grandchildren.
increasing number