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77 Cards in this Set

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What is the lymphatic system?
The tissues and organs that produce, store, and carry white blood cells that fight infection and disease. This system includes the bone marrow, spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes and a network of thin tubes that carry lymph and white blood cells. These tubes branch, like blood vessels, into all the tissues of the body.
What are the major glands of the lymphatic system?
Partoid, sublingual, mandibular, and zygomatic
What are the major lymph nodes of the dog?
Parotid, submandibular, prescapular, axillary, inguinal, popliteal
What do lymphatic vessels do?
Connect various parts of the body and carry lymph fluid THRU passive movement
What is lymph?
The fluid that is formed when interstitial fluid enters the initial lymphatic vessels of the lymphatic system.
The tonsils are a part of the lymphatic system, but are they connected?
No
Lymph fluid
Formed interstitially and from excess fluid from the blood vessels
Vessels terminate in the thoracic cavity in large thoracic ducts and return back to the bloodstream
Fluid is transparent- looks like skim milk
Carries various cells- lymphocytes and monocytes-- lymphocytes in bone marrow, lymphnode, and spleen
What is lymphoma?
lymphatic disease (cancer) that gets circulated in ducts
What is a Chylothorax?
Refers to the presence of lymphatic fluid in the pleural space secondary to leakage from the thoracic duct or one of its main tributaries. No reason, idiopathic- reabsorbs and circulates again--- feed heavy cream, it makes fluid bright white
Movement of lymph
System of one way valves
In the circulatory system, blood flows from the heart to arteries to capillaries that surround all cells. At the capillaries, a portion of blood plasma seeps out of the capillaries and into the space surrounding cells. That plasma is then known as tissue fluid. Some tissue fluid returns to blood capillaries by osmosis. But some tissue fluid is also diverted into a second network of tubes: the lymphatic vessels. Tissue fluid that enters this network is known as lymph. Lymph is a clear, colorless, somewhat sticky liquid. The liquid formed in a blister is lymph.
Which carries more protein:
Lymph or plasma?
Plasma
Functions of lymph fluid?
Removal of excess tissue fluid (obese- too much pressure on vessels, can’t remove fluid = pitted edema)
Waste material transport for elimination
Filtration of lymph fluid
Protein transport for larger molecules too large for capillaries
Lymph nodes - cranial to caudal
Submandibular
Prescapular
Axillary
Popliteal
Inguinal
Movement of lymph one more time - where does it end up?
Tissue fluid passes out of the space between cells and through the walls of lymph capillaries. Now called lymph, it follows a pathway back to the heart that is somewhat similar to the venous system for blood. It passes from lymph capillaries into larger tubes, the lymph vessels. Like veins in the blood circulatory system, lymph vessels have valves that help push lymph slowly back towards the heart. Eventually the lymph enters a large collecting tube, the thoracic duct, located near the heart. From the thoracic duct the lymph empties into the blood circulatory system itself at the left subclavian vein.
What does TCC stand for?
Transitional cell carcinoma
Which carries more protein:
Lymph or plasma?
Plasma
Functions of lymph fluid?
Removal of excess tissue fluid (obese- too much pressure on vessels, can’t remove fluid = pitted edema)
Waste material transport for elimination
Filtration of lymph fluid
Protein transport for larger molecules too large for capillaries
Lymph nodes - cranial to caudal
Submandibular
Prescapular
Axillary
Popliteal
Inguinal
Movement of lymph one more time - where does it end up?
Tissue fluid passes out of the space between cells and through the walls of lymph capillaries. Now called lymph, it follows a pathway back to the heart that is somewhat similar to the venous system for blood. It passes from lymph capillaries into larger tubes, the lymph vessels. Like veins in the blood circulatory system, lymph vessels have valves that help push lymph slowly back towards the heart. Eventually the lymph enters a large collecting tube, the thoracic duct, located near the heart. From the thoracic duct the lymph empties into the blood circulatory system itself at the left subclavian vein.
What does TCC stand for?
Transitional cell carcinoma
Which carries more protein:
Lymph or plasma?
Plasma
Functions of lymph fluid?
Removal of excess tissue fluid (obese- too much pressure on vessels, can’t remove fluid = pitted edema)
Waste material transport for elimination
Filtration of lymph fluid
Protein transport for larger molecules too large for capillaries
Lymph nodes - cranial to caudal
Submandibular
Prescapular
Axillary
Popliteal
Inguinal
Movement of lymph one more time - where does it end up?
Tissue fluid passes out of the space between cells and through the walls of lymph capillaries. Now called lymph, it follows a pathway back to the heart that is somewhat similar to the venous system for blood. It passes from lymph capillaries into larger tubes, the lymph vessels. Like veins in the blood circulatory system, lymph vessels have valves that help push lymph slowly back towards the heart. Eventually the lymph enters a large collecting tube, the thoracic duct, located near the heart. From the thoracic duct the lymph empties into the blood circulatory system itself at the left subclavian vein.
What does TCC stand for?
Transitional cell carcinoma
Name the parts of the lymph node
-cortex is tissue center
-medulla is mainly made of macrophages
-nodules located in intestinal tract within the omentum
Know the locations of lymph nodes from cranial to caudal
Submandibular
Prescapular
Axillary
Popliteal
Inguinal
Organs of the lymphatic system
Tonsils
Spleen
Thymus
Tonsils
Nodules of lymphoid tissue
Not considered a lymph node because it HAS NO DUCTS
In folds (called crypts) - if swollen they get pushed out
Spleen
Large, tongue shaped organ in abdomen
Made up of reticular fibers
Associated with monocyte production
Can be removed by splenectomy and supplemented by drugs (not often)
Cats rarely have spleen issues
German shepherds have big spleens
Spleen: Red pulp vs White pulp
White pulp contains lymphocyted
Red pulp is for RBC (etc) storage
Monocytes in the lymphatic system
Removes damaged RBC's by phagocytosis
Normally stationary
Thymus
Glandular organ located in the thoracic cavity
Important for maturation of specialized lymphocytes which may give rise to antibody production (T and B cells)
Bigger in young animals - shrinks with age
Different forms of immunity
Physical barriers- i.e. skin in Moist dermatitis -- skin leaking serum (WBC's) that's why it's wet
Fever - too hot for pathogens to survive, sweat to release toxins and waste, vasodilation to increase blood flow
Pyrogen released from brain controlled by hypothalmus (Prostoglandin E2)
Interferons - slows the speed of disease (virus) increases/boosts immune system
Compliment systems - proteins that aid in destruction of target cell membranes
Pyrogen
A pyrogen is a substance that induces fever. These can be either internal (endogenous) or external (exogenous) to the body.
Physical Barriers to immunity
Epithelial covering
Secretions to flush surface
Digestive acids and other secretions
Phagocytes aid in immunity
Operate by breaking down and ingesting invaders
Janatorial and police servicing in peripheral tissues
Removes cellular debris
Responds to invasion by foreign compounds
Types of phagocytes
Microphages - Neutrophils (abundant & quick, can cross vessel walls) and eosinophils (slower, fewer & target parasitic pathogens)
Macrophages - Monocytes (large, still able to cross vessel walls, chemotaxis aids in attraction to foreign bodies)
Chemotaxis
The characteristic movement or orientation of an organism or cell along a chemical concentration gradient either toward or away from the chemical stimulus.
Immunological Surveillance
Natural Killer Cells (NK) will attack everything-including it's own cells (This disorder is called IMHA)
Golgi body in NK cells secrete perforins
Perforins
Toxins that break down cell walls
Also have some limited effect against viruses
Interferons
Small antiviral proteins released by activated lymphocytes and macrophages, interferes with viral replication
Types of interferons
Alpha interferons: attract and stimulate NKs
Beta interferons: work to slow inflammatory response caused by viral presence
Gamma interferons: stimulate macrophage activity
Types of interferons
Alpha interferons: attract and stimulate NKs
Beta interferons: work to slow inflammatory response caused by viral presence
Gamma interferons: stimulate macrophage activity
Compliment systems
Proteins that aid in destruction of target cell membranes by making pores for penetration
Stimulate inflammatory response by accelerating circulation to the region
Perform temporary repair and prevent entry and spread of additiobal pathogens
Proteins of the compliment systems aid in
Attracting phagocytes of all shapes and sizes
Enhancement and attraction of opsonin for ID
Classic pathway is where complement proteins act as reaction enzyme
EX Fever - raising of body temp in an attempt to kill invaders (pyrogens can reset the thermostat at the hypothalmus)
Forms of Immunity

Inate
Genetically determined at birth (not a response to exposure)
Forms of Immunity

Acquired
Not present at birth
Forms of Immunity

Active
Appears after exposure to antigens - immune system builds up (Colds) Not from vaccines
Forms of Immunity

Naturally Active
Builds up as one is exposed to new antigens through life (gettin outside :)
Forms of Immunity

Artificially Active
Induces stimulation via innoculation
Forms of Immunity

Passive
Produced by transfer of antibodies from one individual to another (colostrum)
Forms of Immunity

Naturally Passive
Via mother's blood across placenta or via colostrum
Forms of Immunity

Artificially Passive
Antibodies administered to fight disease. (Vax passed inutero to baby, tetanus in horses, IgG given for immune disease)
Properties of Immunity

Specificity
Against one antigen and others, builds up from exposure, Builds up B cells as exposure builds
Properties of Immunity

Versitility
Ability to resist many antigens via lymphocytes - each can resist more than one type
Properties of Immunity

Memory
Ability of cells to remember antigens and respond greater a second time
Properties of Immunity

Tolerance
When the immune system does not respond to a specific antigen
T cells & Cell mediated immunity

General T Cell
Inactive T Cells
Thymus derived and static number at birth. (Only time in development is inutero)

General T Cells: activation can only recognize antigens bound with glycoprotein molecule called MHC (Major histocompatibility complex)

Inactive T Cells: recognize antigens and bind to antiben site at protection site (bully blob)
T cells & Cell mediated immunity

Cytotoxic T Cells
DIRECTLY ATTACK

Enter peripheral tissues and subject antigens to a direct attack

When CTcells encounter target antigen bound to certain proteins -> immediately destroys that cell by rupture -> secretion of lymphotoxin or by activating genes witin abnormal cell that tells it to self destruct
T cells & Cell mediated immunity

Helper T Cells
Stimulate both T and B responses
Work via type of Cytokine messenger called Interleukin that helps with memorization and cell division (but have no desctructive capability on their own)
T cells & Cell mediated immunity

Supressor T Cells
MODERATES RESPONSE

Moderate T and B activity and moderate response

Depresses the responses of other T and B cells via supression factors

Supressor cells react after the initial immune response
B Cells
Circulate in the lymphatic system and will launch a chemical attack via production of antibodies if stimulated by infection/injury near a lymph node with clear lymph vessel

Activation occurs when helper T cells bind to MHC complex and secrete their cytokine protein that promotes B cell activation and eventual cloning
Primary Response
Antigen activates T and B cells
They move into plasma and begin circulation

This initial response may not peak for 1-2 weeks
What is lymphadenitis
Inflammation of 1 or more lymph nodes

Caused by:
Infectious agents
Bacteria
(dental disease, submandibular, prescapular become inflamed)
Secondary Response
Exposed a 2nd Time

The response of cloned B cells which will not move into the region unless exposed a second time

Massive response with much higher antibody titers

Titer is the actual number of Memory B cells after cloning
IgM
Immunoglobulin M

Most common

Largest in size
First to arrive in primary response
No memory capability
Numbers will decline when IgG
antibodies arrive
Function: bacterial toxin neutralization, activation of Complement and enhancement of phagocytic abilities
IgG
Immunoglobulin G

2nd most common

Can cross placental barrier or be present in colostrums

Function: High activation of memory cells
IgA
Prevents Infection from spreading

Binds to antigen to make it too large for crossing into other parts of the body
This allows NK and Cytotoxic cells to attack
Agglutination
Antibodies bind o toxins and then bond to each other basically surrounding the toxin
Opsonization
Coating of antibody-antigen complement to increase effectiveness of phagocytosis (softening up the outer layer)
Lymphosarcoma
Harder to deal with in cats than dogs

Malignant transformation of lymphocytes that reside in lymph tissue

Cause - FeLv
FIV
Similar to human AIDS

Retrovirus
Immunological disease
Loss of Helper T Cells
Contracted by Bite!
Vaccines vs antibody titers?
Titers test for levels of antibodies present
Types of humoral or serological tests
ELISA tests: Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbant Assay (uses monoclonal antibodies)

CELISA tests: Competitive to elisa
These can test how progressive the infection is by color intensity
ex: FIP, Distemper, Parvo
Latex agglutination tests
Uses small latex particles coated with antibody or antigen
Agglutination results in a positive test
Ex: Coomb's & Burcellosis
Immunodiffusion
Patient serum samples and and antigen to the antibody combined on an gel agar plate

If positive, a chemical reaction will create a color change