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113 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Business Functions
specialized tasks performed by business organizations (sales, marketing, manufacturing, production, finance, accounting, HR)
Business Model
describes how a company produces, delivers, and sells a product to create wealth
Business Processes
set of logically related tasks and behaviors that organizations develop over time to produce specific business results
Complementary assets
assets required to derive value from a primary investment
Computer hardware
physical equipment used for input, processing, and output
Computer literacy
– primarily knowledge of information technology
Computer software
detailed, preprogrammed instructions that control and coordinate the computer hardware components in an IS
Culture
– fundamental set of assumptions, values, and ways of doing things, that has been accepted by most of its members
Data
streams of raw facts representing events occurring in organizations or physical environment before they can be organized in a way people can understand
Data Management technology
software governing the organization of data on physical storage media
Data workers
assist with paperwork at all levels (secretaries or clerks)
Digital firm
nearly all of the organizations significant business relationships are digital
Extranets
private intranets extended to authorized users outside the org.
Feedback
output that is returned to appropriate members of the org. to help them evaluate or correct the input stage
Information
data that has been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful
Information system
a set of interrelated components that collect, process, store, and distribute information
Information systems literacy
understanding of the management and organizational dimensions of systems as well as the technical dimensions of systems
Information technology (IT)
consists of all the hardware and software that a firm needs to use in order to achieve its business objectives
Information technology infrastructure
provides the foundation on which the firm can build its specific information systems
Input
captures or collects raw data from within the org. or from its external environment
Intranet
– internal corporate networks based on internet technology
Knowledge workers
design products or services and create new knowledge for the firm (i.e. scientists, engineers, architects)
Management information systems
– tries to achieve the broader information systems
Middle Management
carries out the programs and plans of senior management
Network
links two or more computers to share data or resources (printer)
Networking and telecommunications technology
links the various pieces of hardware and transfers data from one physical location to another
Operational Management
– responsible for monitoring the daily activities of the business
Organizational and management capital
investments in organization and management
Output
transfers the processed information to the people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be used
Processing
converts raw input into a meaningful form
Production or service workers
produce the product and deliver the service
Senior Management
makes long-range strategic decisions about products and services as well as ensures the financial performance of the firm
Sociotechnical view
optimal organizational performance is achieved by jointly optimizing both the social and technical systems used in production
World Wide Web
service provided by the internet that uses universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying info. In a page format
Chief information officer (CIO)
senior manager who oversees the use of information technology in the firm
Customer relationship management
help firms manage their relationships with customers
Decision-support systems
support non-routine decision making for middle management
Electronic business
the use of digital technology and the internet to execute the major business processes in the enterprise
Electronic commerce
part of e-business that deals with the buying and selling of goods and services over the internet
E-government
the application of the internet and networking technologies to digitally enable government and public senior agencies’ relationships with citizens and businesses
End users
– representatives of departments outside of the information systems group for whom applications are developed
Enterprise applications
systems that span functional areas, focus on executing business processes across the business firm and include all levels of management
Enterprise systems
collect data from various key business processes in manufacturing and production, etc. and store data in a single central data repository
Executive support systems
help senior management make non-routine decisions with no agreed on procedure
Finance and accounting information systems
establish long-term investment goals for the firm and to provide long-range forecasts of the firm’s financial performance
Human resources information systems
support HR activities
Information systems department
the formal organizational unit responsible for information technology services
Information systems managers
leaders of teams of programmers and analysts
Inter-organizational system
systems that automate flow of information across organizational boundaries
Knowledge management systems
enable organizations to better manage processes for capturing and applying knowledge and expertise
Management information systems
provide middle managers with reports on the organization’s current performance
Manufacturing and production information systems
support manufacturing and production processes
Portal
– uses a web interface to present integrated personalized business content
Programmers
specialists within the information systems department
Sales and marketing information systems
support sales and marketing processes
Supply chain management systems
– help businesses manage relationships with their suppliers
System analysts
principal liaisons between the information systems groups and the rest of the organization
Transaction processing systems
computerized system that performs and records the daily routine transactions necessary to conduct business
Agency theory
firm is viewed as a “nexus of contracts” among self-interested individuals rather than a unified, profit-maximizing entity
Benchmarking
– comparing the efficiency and effectiveness of your business processes against strict standards and then measuring performance against those standards
Best practices
the most successful solutions or problem-solving methods for consistently and effectively achieving a business objective
Business ecosystem
loosely coupled but interdependent networks of suppliers, distributors, outsourcing firms, transportation service firms, and technology manufacturers
Competitive forces model
provides a general view of the firm, its competitors, and the firm’s environment (most generally used)
Core competency
an activity for which a firm is a world-class leader
Efficient customer response systems
directly links consumer behavior to distribution and production and supply chains
Mass customization
ability to offer individually tailored products or services using the same production resources as mass production
Network economics
adding another participant has zero marginal meaning but can create substantial marginal gain
Organization
stable, formal social structure that takes resources from the environment and processes them to produce outputs
Primary activities
most directly related to the production and distribution of the firm’s products and services
Routines
precise rules, procedures, and practices that have been developed to cope with virtually all expected situations
Support activities
make the delivery of the primary activities possible and consist of organization infrastructure, HR, technology, and procurement
Switching costs
the cost of switching from one product to a competing product
Transaction cost theory
– firms and individuals seek to economize on transaction costs
Value chain model
highlights specific activities in the business where competitive strategies can best be applied and where information systems are most likely to have a strategic impact
Value web
collection of independent firms that use information technology to coordinate their value chains to produce a product or service for a market collectively
Virtual company
uses networks to link people, assets, and ideas without being bound by traditional physical boundaries
Accountability
a feature of systems and social institutions to find out who is responsible
Carpal tunnel syndrome
pressure on the median nerve through the wrist’s bony structure
Computer abuse
the commission of acts involving a computer that may not be illegal but that are considered unethical
Computer crime
the commission of illegal acts through the use of a computer or against a computer system
Computer vision syndrome
any eyestrain related to computer display screen use
Cookies
tiny files deposited on a computer hard drive when a user visits certain web sites
Copyright
statutory grant that protects creators of intellectual property from having their work copied by others for any purpose during the life of the author plus 70 years after author’s death
Descartes’ rule of change
if an action cannot be taken repeatedly, it is not right to take at all
Digital divide
large disparities in access to computers and the internet among different social groups and different locations
Digital millennium copyright act
– makes it illegal to circumvent technology-based protections of copyrighted materials
Due process
laws are known and understood and there is an ability to appeal to higher authorities to ensure that the laws are applied correctly
Ethical “no free lunch” rule
assume that virtually all tangible and intangible objects are owned by someone else unless there is a specific declaration otherwise
Ethics
refers to the principles of right and wrong that individuals, acting as free moral agents, use to make choices to guide their behaviors
Fair information practices
– set of principles governing the collection and use of information about individuals
Golden rule
do unto others as you would have them do unto you
Immanuel Kant’s categorical imperative
if the action is not right for everyone to take, it is not right for anyone
Information rights
the rights that individuals and organizations have with respect to information that pertains to themselves
Informed consent
consent given with knowledge of all the facts needed to make a rational decision
Intellectual property
considered to be intangible property created by individuals or corporations
Liability
a feature of political systems in which a body of laws is in place that permits individuals to recover the damages dome to them by other actors, systems, or organizations
Non-obvious relationship awareness
takes information about people from many disparate sources to find obscure hidden connections that might help identify criminals or terrorists
Opt-in
a business is prohibited from collecting any personal information unless the consumer specifically takes action to approve information collection and use
Opt-out
permits the collection of personal information until the consumer specifically requests that the data not be collected
P3P
provides a standard for communicating a web site’s privacy policy to internet users
Patent
grants the owner exclusive monopoly on the ideas behind an invention for 20 years
Privacy
claim of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance or interference
Profiling
use of computers to combine data from multiple sources and create electronic dossiers of detailed information on individuals
Repetitive stress injury
occurs when muscle groups are forced through repetitive actions often with high-impact loads or tens of thousands of repetitions under low-impact loads
Responsibility
key element of ethical action
Risk aversion principle
take the action that produces the least harm or the least potential cost
Safe harbor
a private, self-regulating policy and enforcement mechanism that meets the objectives of government regulators and legislation but does not involve government regulation or enforcement
Spam
junk e-mail sent by an org. or individual to a mass audience of internet users who have expressed no interest in the product or service being marketed
Spyware
installs itself by piggybacking on large applications, can log keystrokes, report movements, etc.
Technostress
stress induced by computer use
Trade secret
any intellectual work product
Utilitarian principle
take the action that achieves the higher or greater value
Web bugs
tiny graphic files embedded in e-mail messages and web pages that are designed to monitor who is reading the e-mail message or web page and transmit that information to another computer