Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/45

Click to flip

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Smallpox

hasbeen eliminated as a naturally occurring infection in human beings, AND wasdealt with by vaccination.


Microorganismsare involved in


A.



causing disease.





B.



curing/treating disease.





C.



preparing food.





D.



cleaning up pollutants.


The structures present in the hay infusions used in experiments on SpontaneousGeneration that made them difficult to sterilize are

endospores.

Bacteria are good models to use because they

B.


share many biochemical/physiological properties with more complicated organisms.

domain

bacteria, archaea, and eucarya

Eukaryote

organism composed of one or more eukaryotic cells, members of the domain Eucarya

EUKARYOTIC cell

Cell type characterized by a membrane bound nucleus

Prion

A non-living infectious agent consisting only of protein

Prokaryote

Single-celled organism consisting of a prokaryotic cell, member of the domain Bacteria and Archaea

Viroid

A non-living infectious agent consisting only of RNA

Virus

A non-living infectious agent consisting of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat

endospores

heat resistant bacteria

microbes

infectious agents and microorganisms

normal microbiota

normal flora

Amino acid

A subunit of protein

hydrophilic

water loving

hydrophobic

water fearing

pH

measure of their acidity

Proteins

Catalyling reactions, transporting molecules, motility, cell framework, sensing and responding to conditions outside the cell, and regulating gene expression

Carbohydrates

include sugars and starches

Carbohydrates

they are energy source, energy storage, they are components of DNA and RNA, and source of carbon for biosynthetic products

Monosaccharides

are simple sugars

Disaccharides

are two monosaccharides put together

Nucleic acids

carry genetic information

Lipids

a very diverse group pf non-polar, hydrophobic molecules

Simple Lipids

contain only carbon,hydrogen, and oxygen

Compound Lipids

contain only fatty acids and glycerol

Contrast

affects how easily cells can be seen

Capsule

gel like layer that surrounds certain microbes

Simple diffusion

molecules move from a region of high concentration to one of low concentration

Osmosis

the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

Facilitated diffusion

form of passive transport that does not require energy

Peptidoglycan

material found only in bacteria

Teichoic acids

Gram-positive cell walls also have this

Lysozyme

an enzyme found in tears, saliva, and many other body fluids

Slime layer

the layer is diffuse and irregular

Gas vesicles

small, rigid, protein bound compartments that provide bouyancy to the cell

Germinate

exit the dormant state

Sporulation

endospore formation

Germination

can be triggered by a brief exposure to heat or certain chemicals

Actin filaments

allow the cell cytoplasm to move

Binary fission

how prokaryotes generally multiply

Generation time

The time it takes for a population to double

Colony

a distinct mass of cells

Agar

a polysaccharide extracted from marine algea