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212 Cards in this Set

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What is the order of taxonomy?
Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
Dumb kings play chess on fat Greek sculptures
Spherical shapes
coccus
Rod shaped
bacillis
Bacteriophages
A virus that infects and lyses certain bacteria
Microscopes for living creatures
Dark field, phase contrast, differential, interference, atomic force
What is the difference between catabolic and anabolic?
catabolic- breaks down
anabolic- builds up
What is the oil immersion objective?
How much can it magnify?
How much can the microscope magnify total?
It causes the light to not refract, it increases resolution
objective is 100x
total is 1000x
What are the primary metric units used to measure the diameters of microbes?
nanometers and micrometers
Define microscopy
Using light or electrons to magnify objects
Explain the relevance of electromagnetic radiation to microscopy
Has to do with the wavelength-
.2 micrometers
Empty magnification
use too many lenses and can't see it
List and explain two factors that determine resolving power
The wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation.
The numerical aperture of the lens, the ability to gather light.
Explain the relationship between staining
see the difference
Simple vs. compound micro
simple- 1 lens
compound- multiple lenses
both under bright field
Confocal
uses ultraviolet lasers and dyes
best at showing resolution and contrast
artifacts
structures that appear in the electron image that aren't really present
(like nargals)
Difference between transmission and scanning electron microscopes
transmission 2D- goes through the specimen
scanning 3D- only the outside
probe microscopes
use microscopic probes that move over the surface of the specimen
negative stains
reveal the presence of negative stains
flagellar stains
reveal the presence of cilia and flagella
gram stains
positive- purple- thicker cell wall
negative- pink
acid fast stain
stain alkaline (basic) structures
endospore stain
done with heat to get through outside
basic dyes
combine with and stain acidic structures, used more often
Lennaeus
only had 2 kingdoms
used binomial nomenclature
Whittaker
used the 5 kingdoms
5 ways to differentiate
chemical
Which of the follwing is smallest: micro, nano, deci
nanometer
nanometer is _____ to a micrometer
a thousand times smaller
Resolution is best described as
C
Curved glass lenses
Refract/Bend
What is important in making an image look bigger?
thickness
curvature
speed of the light
what is the difference between light and the electron microscopy
D
Which microscope produces a 3d image with a shadowed appearance?
Differential Interference Contrast microscope
which fothe following microscopes...
confocal
negative stains are also called
capsule stains- forms a white capsule around it
in the binomial system of nomenclature what is lowercase
species
What is the role of lenses in microscopy?
Lenses focus either light or electrons to create a magnified image of a specimen.
Why do electron microscopes have higher resolving power than light microscopes?
Electrons have a smaller wavelength than visible light, leading to higher resolution.
Which of the following is a lens found on electron microscopes but not on light microscopes?
Projector lens
Which type of microscope would allow the viewer to see ribosomes inside a cell?
A transmission electron microscope
Which of the following is a characteristic shared by both electron and light microscopes?
They both employ the use of objective lenses.
What is the fate of the electrons that interact with a specimen in an electron microscope?
They may be absorbed, reflected, or refracted by the specimen.
Why is a specimen smaller than 200 nm not visible with a light microscope?
Anything smaller than 200 nm cannot interact with visible light.
What happens to the light rays when they hit the specimen?
They are reflected, refracted, or absorbed by the specimen.
What is the role of the ocular lens?
To recreate the image in the viewer’s eye
What is meant by light rays being divergent?
It is spreading out
In a typical brightfield microscope (seen in the animation), at which point does magnification begin?
The objective lens
How are negative stains different from other types of stains?
They stain the background, leaving the cells colorless.
Which of the following is an example of a dye used in a simple stain?
Methylene blue, crystal violet, etc.
How does the malachite green stain enter an endospore?
It is heated.
Following an endospore stain, how does one distinguish endospores from vegetative cells?
Vegetative cells are pink, endospores are green.
What is the fundamental purpose of staining in light microscopy?
To increase the contrast and visibility of the specimen
How does a noncompetitive inhibitor reduce an enzyme’s activity?
The inhibitor binds to the enzyme in a location other than the active site, changing the shape of the active site.
What would be the likely outcome if you increased the concentration of substrate for an enzyme in the presence of a noncompetitive inhibitor?
No change in enzyme activity would be observed.
How is nevirapine used to treat HIV infections?
It alters the active site of reverse transcriptase, decreasing that enzyme’s activity.
How does a competitive inhibitor slow enzyme catalysis?
They compete with the substrate for the enzyme's active site.
What enables competitive inhibitors to bind to a specific enzyme?
Competitive inhibitors have structures that resemble the enzyme’s substrate.
If high amounts of sulfanilamide are in the presence of an enzyme whose substrate is PABA, what outcome is expected?
PABA products will increase in concentration
Which of the following statements regarding competitive inhibitors is true?
Competitive inhibitors decrease the rate of enzyme activity.
Why do all enzymatic reactions need activation energy?
Energy is required to disrupt a substrate’s stable electron configuration.
What is meant by the statement “Enzymes are biological catalysts”?
Enzymes speed up the chemical reactions in living cells.
Why are enzymes important to biological systems?
Enzymes decrease the amount of activation energy required for chemical reactions to occur.
What is the fate of an enzyme after it dissociates from the products of the reaction?
The enzyme returns to its original configuration, ready to bind more substrate
Which of the following features of a substrate can be accommodated by an enzyme's active site?
The shape, size, and electron configuration of the substrate
The first step of any enzymatic reaction is
binding of the substrate by the enzymes.
The amino acids in an enzyme can facilitate the reaction by
accepting or donating electrons.
Define wavelength
The distance between two corresponding parts of a wave
Should wavelengths be larger or smaller to enhance microscopy?
Smaller wavelength
Define magnification
The apparent increase in size of an object
Magnification results when a beam of radiation __________ as it passes through a lens.
refracts (bends)
Does light travel faster or slower through the lens compared to the air
Slower through the lens
What is the shape of the lens?
Why is this significant?
Convex
It gathers light rays from the periphery and it focuses on the focal point then spread apart to produce an enlarged image
Define resolution
the ability to distinguish between objects that are close together
Define numerical aperture
ability of a lens to gather light
Do modern microscopes use longer or shorter wavelength radiation?
shorter
Define contrast
The differences in intensity between two objects, or between an object and its background.
When is light in phase?
All of the waves' crests and troughs are aligned
What is unique about he bright-field microscopes?
What are the two types?
The background/field is illuminated.
Simple and compound
______ microscopes use the alignment or misalignment of light waves to achieve the desired contrast between a living specimen and the background
Phase
Define fluorescent microscopes
use invisible ultraviolet light to cause specimens to radiate visible light, a phenomenon called fluorescence
What kind of microscopes use lasers to illuminate fluorescent chemicals in a thin plane of a specimen?
Confocal microscopes
To what are simple microscopes similar?
Magnifying glasses
Define compound microscope
A series of lenses for magnification
Define objective lens
the lens immediately above the object being magnified, does the magnification
Oil immersion lenses increase what two things?
Magnification and resolution
Define working distance
distance between the lens and the specimen
Define ocular lenses
What is the name of a microscope with one, with two?
Lenses closet to the eyes
monocular, binocular
How do you find total magnification?
Multiply the magnification of the objective lens by the magnification of the ocular lens
Define condenser lens
Directs light through the specimen
What is a photograph of a microscopic image called?
Micrograph
What does a dark-field microscope do?
Utilizes a dark-field stop in the condenser that prevents light from directly entering the objective lens
Which has more contrast a dark-field or light-field microscope?
Dark-field
What are phase microscopes used for?
Examining living microorganisms or specimens that would be damaged or altered by attaching them to slides or staining them
What kind of microscope is useful for observing cilia and flagella?
Phase-contrast microscope
What is unique about a differential interference contrast microscope?
It splits the light beams into their component wavelengths, which enhances contrast and produces more unnatural colors.
Dyes used for light microscopy are usually _______
why
salts
because one of the two ions is colored
What is the colored portion of a dye known as?
Chromophore
What are acidic dyes also known as?
Where do they work best and what do they stain best?
Anionic chromophores
Stain alkaline structures best in an acidic environment
Are acidic or basic dyes used more often?
Basic because most cells are negatively charged
What are the three simple dyes?
Crystal violet, safranin, methylene blue
Define differential stain
More than one dye is used so that different cells, chemicals, or structures can be distinguished
What are the three types of differential stain?
Gram stain, acid-fast, and endospore stain
Define mordant
substance that binds to a dye and makes it less soluble
Define decolorizing agent
breaks down the cell wall of gram-negative cells, allowing the stain and mordant to be washed away
What do endospores need in order to be dyed?
heat
Breaks a large molecule into smaller ones
anabolism
includes dehydration synthesis reactions
catabolism
is exergonic
catabolism
is endergonic
anabolism
involves the production of cell membrane constituents
anabolism only
includes hydrolytic reactions
catabolism
includes metabolism
both anabolism and catabolism
redox reactions
transfer energy, transfer electrons, involve oxidation and reduction
a reduced molecule
has gained electrons
activation energy
is lowered by the action of organic catalysts
Coenzymes
are organic cofactors
_______ process RNA molecules in eukaryotes
Ribozymes
What affects the function of enzymes
substrate concentration, temperature, competitive inhibitors
What are the four toxic forms of oxygen?
singlet oxygen, superoxide radical, peroxide anion, hydroxyl radical
superoxide radical
toxic form of oxygen that is detoxified by superoxide demutase
peroxide anion
toxic form of oxygen which is detoxified by catalase or peroxidase
hydroxyl radical
most reactive of the toxic forms of oxygen
singlet
toxic neutralized by pigments (carotenoids)
autotrophs
inorganic, self
heterotrophs
organic, others
chemotrophs
chemicals
phototrophs
light
CFU?
Colony Forming Unit
What are the four stages of microbial growth
Lag, log, stationary, death
What are the six types of media
transport, defined, complex, selective, differential, anaerobic
Complex media
contains a variety of nutrients, the exact chemical composition is unknown
Selective media
favors one type of growth over another
Defined
the exact chemical composition is known
Differential
visible changes in the medium for different types
anaerobic
no oxygen in the medium
transport media
carry clinical specimens of bodily fluids
Fungi
eukaryotic, chytin for walls
molds, yeast
Protozoa
eukaryotes, known for movement
psuedopodia, cilia, flagella
Algae
eukaryotic, photosynthetic, not pathogenic (except red tides)
What are the types of eukaryotes?
Fungi, Protozoa, Algae, plants, animals
What is a eukaryote?
any organism made up of cells containing a nucleus composed of genetic material surrounded by a distinct membrane. Classification includes animals, plants, algae, fungi, and protozoa
Define microbiology
The study of microorganisms, how they work, interact with the environment, and interact with us.
What is a prokaryote?
smaller than a eukaryote
doesn't have a nucleus, no membrane bound organelles
bacteria-cell wall is peptidoglycan
Any unicellular microorganism that lacks a nucleus. Classification includes bacteria and archaea.
Linnaeus
naming and classification system
Leeuwenhoek
father of microscopy
Aristotle
spontaneous generation
life springs out of nowhere (wrong)
Redi
disproved spontaneous generation
Needham
tried to reprove spontaneous generation
didn't clean properly
Spallanzi
proved Needham did experiments wrong
Pasteur
swan neck flask, germ theory
Koch
father of laboratory, created petri dishes
Semmelweis
handwashing
Lister
clean instruments, sterile, antiseptics
Snow
father of epidemiology
Jenner
father of vaccinations
Ehrlich
magic bullet- wanted to kill bacteria
Fleming
Penicillin- magic bullet
Waksman
coined antibiotic, streptomycin
Domagk
sulfanilamides
Runs and tumbles
run-going toward attractant
tumble-changing direction
Woese
3 domains- bacteria, archaea, eukarya
Glycocalyces
gelatinous, sticky substance surrounding the outside of the cell
composed of polysaccharides, or polypeptides
Capsule (tight) & slime layer (adhesion)
Flagella
responsible for movement
long, propeller-like structures that extend beyond surface of cell
for prokaryotes, these are rigid, protein helices that rotate
magically go through and attach at tip
What is unique about spirochetes
axial filaments/endoflagella
Fimbrae
short flagella
used for adhesion
Pili
exchange genetic material
Gram positive cells
stain purple
thick layers of peptidoglycan
teichoic acid
Gram Negative cells
stain pink
thin layer of peptidoglycan
LPS-endotoxin lipopolysaccharide
Lipid A- can make you sick even if you kill it
NAG-NAM polymer
makes up peptidoglycan
connected by tetrapeptide crossbridges
Acid fast cells
Contain layers of wax-like lipid
Up to 60% of cell wall can be mycolic acids
What is a prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane?
phospholipid bilayer
maintains an electrochemical gradient
Gram staining process
1. crystal violet- everything is purple
2. mordant- still purple
3. alcohol and acetone- positive-purple & negative-clear
4. safranin-positive-purple, negative-pink
Acid fast staining
stains red, rest blue
Endospore staining
endospore is in suspended animation until conditions are right
spore: green
vegetative: red
Diffusion
goes through the phospholipid bilayer
Facilitated Diffusion
through a nonspecific channel protein
Specific Facilitated Diffusion
through a permease specific for one chemical, binding of substrate causes shape change in channel protein
Osmosis
diffusion of water through phopholipid bilayer or through protein channel
Which cells go through crenation
lysis
plasmolysis
crenation-animal
lysis-animal
plasmolysis-plant
uniport
moving one molecule
antiport
one in one out, same concentration different types
symport
two coming in together
Ribosome
involved in protein synthesis
cytoskeleton
forms cell's basic shape
eukaryotic flagella
a ‘9+2’ arrangement of microtubules encased in the cell membrane and undulate
Prokaryotic ribosomes are ___________
70S (50S+30S)
eukaryotic ribosomes are
80S (60S+40S)
Endosymbiotic Theory
mitochondria and chloroplasts used to be alone, now they work together as part of the cell
How do prokaryotes reproduce
asexually
Binary fission (most common)
Reproductive structure formation
Spores or buds
special stains
capsule and flagella
antibodies are __________
serological
metric units of length
meter 10^1 m
decimeter 10^-1 m
centimeter 10^-2 m
millimeter 10^-3 m
micrometer 10^-6 m
nanometer 10^-9 m
picometer 10^-12 m
Three types of phosphorylation
substrate level
oxidative
photophosphorylation
Six types of enzymes
hydrolases-hydrolysis of polymers
isomerases-rearrange atoms in a molecule
ligases/polymerases- join molecules
lyases- split molecules without adding water
oxidoreductases-remove or add electrons
transferases- transfer functional groups
Three types of enzyme inhibitors
competitive
noncompetitive
feedback (negative) inhibition
Two ways glucose is catabolized
cellular respiration
fermentation
What are the three stages of glycolysis
energy-investment stage
lysis stage
energy-conserving stage
endproducts of glycolysis
net 2 ATP
2 NADH
2 pyruvic acid
endproducts of fermentation
NAD+
CO2
Lactic acid/ethanol
acetyl CoA
Kreb's cycle endproducts
GTP
FADH2
3 NADH
2 CO2
Intermediate step endproducts
2 CO2
2 acetyl CoA
2 NADH
What are the four carrier molecules of the Electron Transport Chain
Flavoproteins
Ubiquinones
Metal-containing (iron-sulfur) proteins
Cytochromes
FADH2 = ____ ATP
2 ATP
NADH = _____ ATP
3 ATP
Amount of ATP made by eukaryotes?
prokaryotes?
E- 36
P- 38
chemiosmosis
membrane maintains electrochemical gradient by keeping one or more chemicals in higher concentration on one side
Beta oxidation
cut every 2 carbon --> acetyl CoA
1 GTP = _____ ATP
1 ATP
Each turn of the Kreb's cycle starting with acetyl CoA results in how much ATP?
12 ATP
Each turn of the Kreb's cycle starting with pyruvate results in how much ATP?
15 ATP
How many net ATP equivalents are produced from the complete oxidation of 1 molecule of glucose, substrate-level phosphorylation
41 ATP