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86 Cards in this Set

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Chemistry

the science that deals with the composition, structure, and properties of matter and how matter changes under different conditions

Organic

All living things, whether they are plants or animals, contain carbon.

Organic Chemistry

the study of substances that contain the element carbon

Examples of organic substances

Gasoline, plastics, synthetic fabrics, pesticides, and fertilizers




why? made from natural gas and oil

Inorganic chemistry

branch of chemistry dealing with compounds that do not contain the element carbon, but may contain the element hydrogen

inorganic or organic: substances that are not flammable and will not burn because they don't have carbon

inorganic

Matter

any substance that occupies space and has mass (weight).

Forms of matter

solid, liquid, gas

everything known to exist in the universe is either made of matter or what?

energy

Elements

the simplest form of chemical matter. cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without loss of identity

How many elements are there

90

Atoms

particles from which all matter is composed. It is the smallest particle of an element that still retains the property of that element.

Atoms consist of smaller particles. What are they?

Protons- positive electrical charge


neutrons- neutral charge


electrons- negative charge

Molecule

formed by joining two or more atoms chemically

What are the 2 types of molecules

elemental molecules


compound molecules

Elemental Molecules

contain two or more atoms of the same element that are united chemically.




example oxygen

Compound molecules

also known as compounds, are chemical combinations of two or more atoms of different elements that are united chemically




example- sodium chloride- table salt

Solids

one of three types of matter. they have a definite size (volume) and a definite shape.




example- ice

Liquids

one of three types of matter. they have a definite size but not definite shape




example- water

Gases

one of three types of matter. they do not have a definite size or definite shape




example- steam

Physical Properties of Matter

characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and that do not cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance.


physical properties include color, odor, weight, density, specific gravity, melting point, boiling point, and hardness

Chemical Properties of Matter

characteristics that can be determined only with a chemical reaction and that cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance.


examples: rusting iron and burning wood. the iron is chemically changed to rust and the wood turns to ashes

Physical Change

is a change in the form or physical properties of a substance without the formation of a new substance


example- solid ice undergoes a physical change when it melts to water

Chemical Change

is a change in the chemical composition of a substance, in which a new substance or substances are formed having properties different from the original.


example- iron to rust

Chemical Compounds

a combination of two or more atoms of different elements united chemically with a fixed chemical composition, definite proportions, and distinct properties (pg165)

Physical Mixtures

are a combination of two or more substances that are united physically, in any proportions with combined properties

Hydrogen

(H) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas and is the lightest element known. elemental hydrogen is flammable and explosive when mixed with air

Oxygen

(O) the most abundant element found on earth, is colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. it comprises about 1/2 the earths crust, 1/2 or the rock and 90% of the water. one of the chief chemical characteristics of this element is its ability to support combustion

Nitrogen

(N) is a colorless, gaseous element. It makes up about 4/5 of the air in our atmosphere and is found chiefly in the form or ammonia and nitrates

Air

is the gaseous mixture that makes up the earths atmosphere. it is odorless, colorless, and generally consists of about 1 part oxygen and 4 parts nitrogen by volume.

Water

(H20) is the most abundant of all substances, comprising about 75% of the earths surface and about 65%of the human body.

The most commonly used ingredient

water

Hydrogen Peroxide

(H202) a chemical compound of hydrogen and oxygen, is a colorless liquid with a characteristic odor and a slightly acid taste.

Danish biochemist Soren Sorensen invented this for measuring the acidity and alkalinity of a substance

pH scale

Range of the pH scale

0-14

A pH above 7 is alkaline or acidic?

alkaline

What does pH stand for

potential hydrogen

The higher the number on the pH scale...

the more alkaline

the relative degree of acidity or alkalinity

the pH of a substance

Ion

an atom or molecule that carries an electrical charge

Ionization

causes an atom or molecule to split in two, creating a pair of ions with the opposite electrical charges.

Anion

an ion with a negative electrical charge

Cation

an ion with a positive electrical charge

Hydroxide Ions

an anon (negatively charged ion) with one oxygen and one hydrogen atom

The more hydroxide ion there is in a substance, the more _____ it will be

acidic

The more Hydroxide ions there are in a substance, the more _____ it will be?

alkaline

Only products that contain ______ can have a pH?

Water

What pH does pure water have and why?

neutral because it contains the same number of hydrogen ions as hydroxide ions. It is equal balance of 50/50.

As acidity rises, what happens to the alkalinity?

It lowers. As alkalinity rises, Acidity lowers as well.

Acids

substances that have a pH below 7.0, taste sour, and turn litmus paper from blue to red

Alkalis

also known as bases, have a pH above 7.0, taste bitter, and turn litmus paper from red to blue

What is the natural pH of the skin?

5.5. slightly acidic

Acid Mantle

The skin produces both sebum and sweat to create barrier on the skin's surface. It is a protective barrier against certain forms of bacteria and microorganisms.

When the skin is exposed to extremes inch levels, what happens

dryness, dehydration, inflammation, and even bacteria can grow

Problems with mixing products from more than one line

pH values can differ from line to line and might have different delivery systems within the ingredients.

Why use products with lowest viscosity first?

products that are heavier, such as creams, may have larger molecules, varying pH values, and could potentially block a product from penetrating into the skin.

Acid- Alkali neutralization reactions

occur when an acid is mixed with an alkali, also called a base, in equal proportions to neutralize each other and form water and a salt.

Oxidation reduction

also known as redox, is a chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized. Its an exchange: the oxidizing agent takes oxygen and oxidizes it while the substance that lost the oxygen is reduced

Oxidizing agent

substance that releases oxygen


example hydrogen peroxide.

Reduction

is the subtraction of oxygen or the addition of hydrogen

Redox reaction

the chemical reaction involved in oxidation reduction

Can oxidation reactions happen without oxygen?

Yes. Oxidation also can occur when hydrogen is subtracted from a substance

Oxidation

the result of either the addition of oxygen, or the subtraction of hydrogen

Combustion

The rapid oxidation of a substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light.




example- lighting a match

______ are used to stabilize skincare products by preventing oxidation that would otherwise cause a product to turn rancid and decompose

Antioxidants

Antioxidants prevent oxidation by _____

neutralizing free radicals

Free Radicals

super oxidizers that cause an oxidation reaction and produce a new free radical in the process.

Why are free radicals unstable?

Because they are created by highly reactive atoms or molecules (often oxygen), free radicals are unstable.

If left alone, free radicals will...

create inflamation, damage DNA, and eventually cause disease and death.

What can stop free radicals

Antioxidants are free radical scavengers that stop the oxidation reaction from continuing.

Solutions

a uniform mixture of two or more mutually miscible (capable of being mixed) substances.




example- air, salt water, hydrogen peroxide

Solute

any substance that is dissolved by a solvent to form a slution

Solvent

any substance that dissolves the solute to form a solution

Miscible liquids

liquids are mutually soluble.




example- water and alcohol

Immiscible liquids

are not mutually soluble




example- water and oil

Suspensions

unstable mixtures of two or more immiscible substances. they contain larger particles than solutions do. the particles are large enough to be visible to the naked eye. have a tendency to separate over time.




example- oil and vinegar

Emulsions

mixtures of two or more immiscible substances united with the aid of an emulsifier. when stored correctly, they should last 3 years.

Surfactants

are used to emulsify oil and water to create an emulsion. They are able to wet the skin and emulsify oil and water

Two parts of a surfactant molecule

hydrophilic (water loving)


lipophilic (oil loving)




"like dissolves like" hydrophilic dissolves in water and the lipophilic end dissolves in oil

How surfactant works

this type of molecule dissolves in both oil and water and joins them together to form an emulsion

Two types of emulsions used in most skin care products

oil in water (O/W)


water in oil (W/O)

How does a skin moisturizer emulsion work

to apply a uniform layer of the emulsion's oil phase is deposited on the surface. the oil phase acts as an external lubricant to smooth and protect the surface of the epidermis. the water phase restores the natural moisture content of the epidermis, making the skin soft and smooth

O/W emulsions

often milky, free-flowing liquids, although thickeners may be added to form gels or thick creams

Micelles

droplets of oil

Oil in water emulsions

droplets of oils are dispersed in the water. they are then surrounded by surfactants with their lipophilic ends pointing in and their "heads" (hydrophilic ends) pointing out, which keeps the oil dispersed in water. Water is the continuous or external phase and oil is the discontinuous or internal phase. Salons and spas primarily use o/W emulsions

Water in Oil emulsions

droplets of water are dispersed in oil. The droplets of water (inverse micelles) are surrounded by surfactants with their "heads" (hydrophilic ends) pointing in and their "tails"( lipophilic ends) pointing out. In W/O emulsions, the oil is the continuous or external phase and the water is the discontinuous or internal phase.