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20 Cards in this Set

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What are the signs and symptoms of flaccid dysarthria?
Weakness-reduced force of muscle contraction and range of individual + repet. movements, reduced reflexes, atrophy, fasciculations (only seen with LMN lesions)
What are the most common causes of flaccid dysarthria?
physical trauma, brainstem stroke, myasthenia gravis, gullain-barre syndrome, polio, tumors, muscular dystrophy, progressive bulbar palsy
What is progressive bulbar palsy?
a type of ALS that mostly affects LMN's
What is bell's palsy?
irritation of facial nerve that can cause weakness to facial muscles
What are the most common speech production errors of 30 individ with FD?
hypernasal, imprecise consonants, breathiness(continuous), monopitch, nasal emission, audible, inspiration, harsh vocal quality, short phrases, monoloudness
What are the Upper Motor Neuron Pathways?
the direct activation pathways and the indirect
What is the direct activation pathway?
it projects from the cortex to the corticobulbar (cranial nerves) and corticospinal (spinal nerves) tracts project and end in the frontal lobes including the primary and pre motor cortices and supplementary motor areas
What is the indirect activation pathway?
a critical pathway from regulating reflexes and maintaining posture, muscle tone and associated activities that provide framework for skilled movementa
What is the indirect activation pathway 2?
it projects from the cortex with numerous synapses before reaching cranial and spinal nerves, it interweaves with the direct activation pathways
What are the confirmatory signs of Spastic Dysarthria?
paresis/spasticity of other body parts, hyperactive reflexes (e.g. gag), pathologic reflexes (e.g. suck, babinski), dysphagia, drooling, pseudobulbar affect (unable to control emotion, crying, etc.) results in bilateral UMN dysfunction
What is Spastic Dysarthria?
a perceptually distinct motor speech disorder resulting from bilateral damage to the UMN's (pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems) which results in imprecise articulation, monotonous pitch and loudness, harsh voice, poor prosody, stiff muscles with limited ROM
What is the neurological basis of SD?
increased muscle tone of spasticity in various muscles of the vocal tract, results in weakness, reduced range of motion, decrease fine motor control, cause by bilateral damage to UMN's
What are UMN's?
they are part of the CNS and originate in the cortex and brainstem, they are grouped into the pyramidal and extrapyramidal , UMN's are divided into corticobulbar and spinal tracts
What is the pyramidal system?
UMN's of the pyramidal system originate in the primary motor cortex and course down to the LMN's with then innervate muscles, UMN's are responsible for transmitting discrete skilled movements to the LMN's; damage results in weakness and slowness of speech mechanism
What is the extrapyramidal system?
complex network of pathways, has numerous interconnections throughout the brain (red nucleus and reticular formation)
What does damage to the extrapyramidal system cause?
increased muscle tone, abnormal reflexes, ROM limited
What are the 3 requirements for spastic dysarthria?
bilateral damage, damage to the UMN's, damage to the pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems
What speech areas are most effected by SD?
laryngeal muscles (hyperadduction) and velum (can have hypernasality but no nasal emission, tend to have low pitch, slow rate speech
What can cause SD?
Stroke, TBI, Multiple Sclerosis, brainstem tumor, cerebral anoxia, viral or bacterial infections, Binswanger's subcortical encephalopathy, inflammatory disease
What are the speech characteristics of SD?
laryngeal-strainedstrangled, harshess, decreased pitch and loudness variability, decreased pitch, pitch breaks, and voice stoppages, short phrases, decreased rate, prolonged phonemes and intervals, short phrases, excess/equal stress, slow/regular AMR's