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698 Cards in this Set

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Frontalis muscle?
Lift the eyebrows and wrinkles forehead, opposing orbital portion of orbicularis especially when looking up. Fibers directed upwards and joins Galea Aproneurotica below coronal suture
Occipitalis muscle?
Depresses skin on back of scalp
Galea Aponeurotica?
Causes scalp to move from front to back over head
STERNOHYOID-
Pulls the hyoid bone downward
Temporalis-
Closes the lower jaw, and elevates and retracts the mandible. Triangular or fan-shaped muscle. Origin: Temporal Fossa Insertion: Coronoid Process of Mandible.
Auricular Superior
Raises the ear.
Splenius Captitus a prime mover for +++++++++
can also allow lateral flexion and rotation of the ________
head extension.
cervical spine.
Trapezius-superficial muscle of posterior thorax. Very broad origin and insertion. Origin:
Elevates the shoulder joint and abducts the scapula. Most Occipital bone, spines of C7 and all thoracic vertebrae. Insertion: Acromion and spinous process of scapula lateral third of clavicle.
Buccinator-
tightens the cheek region, compression of teeth against molar teeth, as in chewing.
Mentalis-
Wrinkles skin of chin and Raises and protrudes lower lip.Origin: mandible below incissors. Insertion: skin of chin One of muscle pair forming V shape
Platysma:
Tightens the skin of the neck and helps lower the mandible.Unpaired, thin sheetlike muscle of head but also role in facial expression. Origin: fascia of chest lower pectoral and Insertion: lower margin of mandible skin and muscle and corner of mouth
Depressor Labii Inferioris
Pulls lower lip downward.
荒らす
/(v5s) (1) to lay waste/to devastate/to damage/(2) to invade/to break into/(P)/
[あらす]
Zygomaticus Minor
Origin: _____ ______ Insertion: Skin and muscle at corner of mouth.
Raises the upper lip.Both smiling muscles. Both major and minor extend diagnonally from corner of mouth to cheekbone. Zygomatic Bone Insertion: Skin and muscle at corner of mouth.
Zygomaticus Major
Raises the corner of the mouth
Corrugator Supercilli
Pulls the eyebrows toward each other, medially and inferiorly. Wrinkles skin of forehead vertically. Small muscle associated with orbicularis oculi. Origin: Arch of Frontal Bone above the nasal bone. Insertion: Skin of Eyebrow.
Levator Palpebrae Superioris
Raises the upper eyelid
Nasalis
Transvere Part closes the nostrils. Alar part helps open the nostrils
Levator Scapulaeis situated at the back and side of the neck. If the head is fixed, the levator scapulæ If the shoulder is fixed, the muscle inclines the neck to the corresponding side and rotates it in the
The levator scapulae, along with the trapezius muscle, makes a____ possible.
raises the medial angle of the scapula.
same direction.The levator scapulae, along with the trapezius muscle,
shrug
Pectoralis Major
Abducts and rotates the shoulder joint inward.Prime mover of arm.
Origin: Clavicle, Sternum, and Cartilage of Ribs 1-6
Insertion: Inserts by tendon into intertubucular sulcus of humerus.
.Pulls chest upward. Arm flexion and rotation. Fan shaped or Triangular Muscle covers upper chest.
Sternum, and Cartilage of Ribs 1-6 Insertion: intertubucular sulcus of humerus.
Pectoralis minor
Origin: Anterior surface of ______ near costal cartilage and Insertion: Coracoid Process of )))))))
With ribs fixed, draws scapula forward and inferiorly. With scapula fixed, draws rib cage superiorly. Flat thin muscle. Origin: Anterior surface of ribs 3=5,
Insertion: Scapula
serratus anterior
Abducts the scalpula
External intercostals
Pulls ribs toward one another to elevate rib cage. Aids in inspiration. Origin: Inferior Border of Ribs Above Insertion: Superior Border of Ribs below.
Middle Scalene
Laterally Flexes the neck and helps lift the first rib. More on lateral than anterior neck. Deep to Platysma and Sternocleidomastoid. Origin: Transverse Process of Cervical Vertebrae Insertion: Anterolaterally on ribs 1 and 2
Sternocleidomastoid
Flexes and rotates the head.
Diaphragm
Increase volume in thorax to assist with inspiration. Broad muscle forms floor of thoracic cavity. Dome shaped when relaxed. Origin: Inferior Border of Rib and SternumCostal cartilage and lumbar vertebrae. Insertion: Central Tendon
Orbicularis Oris
For Puckering, Pressing the lips. Multi-layered muscle with fibers that run in many different directions, most circularly. Origin: Maxilla and Mandible Insertion: Muscles and skin at angles of mouth
Risorius-
Pulls the corners of the mouth laterally. Tenses Lip. Zyogomaticist synergist. Slender muscle runs inferior and lateral to Zygomaticist. Origin: Fascia of Masseter Insertion: Skin at angle of mouth
Middle Scalene
Laterally Flexes the neck and helps lift the first rib.
Pectoralis Major
Abducts and rotates the shoulder joint inward.
Rectus Abdominus Flexes the Lumbar
Increases abdominal pressure and fixes and depresses
From pubis to ribcage. Ensheathed by aponeurosis of oblique muscles.
Origin: pubic crest and symphysis
nsertion: Xiphoid Process and
vertebral column.
the ribs. Stabilizes pelvis while walking. Used in situps and curls. .
oblique muscles.
symphysis I
Costal Cartilage
Internal Intercostals
Draws Ribs together to depress rib cage.Aids in forced expiration. Antagonist to external Intercostals. 11 pairs at right angles to external intercostals. Origin: Superior Border of Rib below. Insertion: Inferior Border of Rib above.
Transverse Abdominus
is a muscle layer of the anterior and lateral abdominal wall which is just deep to (layered below) the internal oblique muscle The transversus abdominis (TVA) helps to compress the ribs and viscera, providing thoracic and pelvic stability. This is explained further here. The transversus abdominis also helps pregnant women deliver their child.
External Oblique
The external oblique functions to pull the chest downwards and compress the abdominal cavity, which increases the intra-abdominal pressure. It also has limited actions in both flexion and rotation of the vertebral column
Internal Intercostals
Pulls Ribs together. Expands thoracic cavity. In expiration, depresses and contracts ribs and compresses thoracic cavity expelling air. Only in forced expiration
Temporalis
Closes the jaw. Elevates or Retracts the Mandible. Fan-shaped or triangular muscle. Origin: Temporal Process. Insertion: Coronoid Process of Mandible.
Orbicularis Oris
For Puckering or Pressing Lips together. Protrude lips for kissing and speech.
Platysma
Tightens the skin of the neck and helps lower the mandible. Draws lower lip and angle of mouth downward in expressions of horror and surprise. May aid in opening mouth widely. A facial muscle.
Masseter
Closes the lower jaw and elevates the mandible.Origin: Zygomatic arch and maxilla. Insertion: Angle and ramus of mandible.
Zygomaticus Major and Minor
Zygomaticus Major raises the corners of the mouth as in laughing. Zygomaticus Minor raises the upper lip, exposes the teeth as in smiling, sneering.Major and Minor are 7 and 8.
Mentalis
Wrinkles skin of chin and raises and protrudes lower lip.On e of muscle pair forming V shaped mass on chin. Origin: Mandible below incisors. Insertion: Skin of chin
fr = frontalis, pr = procerus, cs = corrugator supercilli, ooc = orbicularis oculi, lsan = levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, lls = levator labii superioris, na = nasalis, zy = zygomatic major, ca = caninus, ri = risorius, oom = orbicularis oris, dao = depressor anguli oris, dl = depressor labii inferioris, m = mentalis, oa = orbito-auricularis, sa = superior auricularis, ia = inferior auricularis
fr = frontalis, pr = procerus, cs = corrugator supercilli, ooc = orbicularis oculi, lsan = levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, lls = levator labii superioris, na = nasalis, zy = zygomatic major, ca = caninus, ri = risorius, oom = orbicularis oris, dao = depressor anguli oris, dl = depressor labii inferioris, m = mentalis, oa = orbito-auricularis, sa = superior auricularis, ia = inferior auricularis
dl= depressor labii inferioris
cs= corrugator supercilli ooc- orbicularis oculi lls= levator labii superioris Ri= Risorius M= mentalis Zy= Zygomaticus Major OOM= Orbicularis Oris
What does Depressor Labii Inferioris do?
Pulls lower lip downward
Levator Palpebrae Superioris
Raises the upper eyelid
Functions of Pectoralis Major and Pectoralis Minor
Pectoralis Major, with Serratus anterior, Abducts and rotates the shoulder joint inward, and is a prime mover for arm flexion. Pectoralis Minor Abducts the Scapula.
Trapezius
Trapezius elevates the shoulder joint and abducts the scapula.
Origin
Site of attachment of tendon usually to a bone at stationary end
Insertion
Site of attachment of tendon usually to a bone at the mobile end
Belly- fleshy portion of _____
muscle
Aponeurosis attaches muscles, like tendons. If muscle is tapering, ____ is more appropriate.
tendon
Blunt end to muscle, ____ not appropriate.
tendon
Galea Aponeurotica flat broad sheet of connective tissue attaches frontalis and occipitalis cause end of muscle is ______
blunt
Bones act as _____. Must have point of attachment that you can move about.
levers
Effort is a force exerted by _______ contraction.
muscular
There is always resistance in movement. Resistance is the ____ or weight of the body part being moved.
load
The fulcra is the point of _____.
attachment
A lever is a ____ object that rotates around a fixed point called a fulcrum.
rigid
Rotation occurs when ____ overcomes resistance.
effort
The resistance arm and the effort arm are described relative to the ______
fulcrum
The first-class lever has a fulcurm in the middle between effort and ______.
resistance
The fulcrum of the atlantooccipital joint lies between the muscles on the back of the neck and the weight of the ______
face
The Second-Class Lever has resistance in the middle between the fulcrum and _____
effort
Example of _______Lever: resistance from temporalis muscle lies between jaw joint and pull of diagrastic muscle on chin
Second-Class because the resistance of temporalis muscle lies between the jaw joint (fulcrum) and the effort of digrastic muscle on chin
A third-class lever has effort in the middle between resistance and the ______
fulcrum
Example of _____lever is the biceps muscle applied between elbow joint and weight of hand and forearm. Muscles insert across joint.
third-class because effort of biceps between elbow joint (fulcrum) and weight of hand and forearm (resistance)
In First-Order the fulcrum is in the middle, In Second-Order, the resistance is in the miiddle, and in Third-Order, ____ is in the middle.
effort
Muscle power and motion depends upon the arrangement of fasicles with respect to _______
tendons
Fascicular patterns include: Parallel or long, parallel and uniform in _____ and width. An example of a parallel muscle is the biceps brachii
length
Fascilular patterns include Fusiform or thick in middle and _____ at the end. An example: digastric muscle
tapered
Circular patterns form ____around the body opening. Examples: sphincter muscle.
rings
Triangular fascicular patterns are _____. Example: Pectoralis Major.
fan-shaped
______ muscles are feather shaped, in bi or multipennate patterns also. Ex of multipennate pattern is deltoid. Also, orbicularis oris
Pennate
Triangular = Convergent ____
muscles
Antagonistic pairs of muscles work in ______ to each other such as the flexor and extensor.
opposition
The agonist is the prime mover or the muscle _____ at the time.
contracting
The antagonist opposes the agnonist and prevents excessive ______ and injury.
movement
Synergist aid the prime mover by contracting to prevent movement at a joint that is not involved in _______ of a body part.
movement
Fixators prevent movment of bone to which ______ _____ is attached. Holds bones that serve at origins of movement firmly.
prime movers
Fixators are really _________ because they are helping too.
synergists
The prime mover or the agonist if biceps brachii. Its agonist is ________
triceps brachii
A _____ is a muscle that holds the scapula firmly in place such as rhomboideus.
fixator
The muscles of facial expression lie within layers of superficial _____ that are protective, strengthening, and supportive.
fascia
The facial muscles originate in the fascia or _____ of skull and insert into the skin.
bones
The facial muscles move the ____ rather than the joint.
skin
The orbicularis oculi closes the ______.
eye. Blinking, quinting, and draws eyebrows inferiorly. Tripartite sphincter muscle of eyelids. Origin: Frontal and Maxillary bones Insertion: Encircles orbit and inserts in tissue of eyelid
The ______ includes the frontalis and occipitalis held by the galea aponeurotica.
Epicranius
The Galea Aponeurotica attaches muscle to _____.
bone
The buccinator forms the ______.
cheeks
Draws mouth laterally and compresses cheek as in chewing and whistling. Buccinator is the principal muscle of the cheek.
Buccinator is the principal muscle of the cheek. Horizontal and deep to masseter. Origin:Molar region of Mandible and Maxilla. Insertion: Orbicularis Oris
Elbow Flexion- Prime mover or agonist is biceps ______ Antagonist is triceps brachii m
Fixator is muscle that holds scapula in place or rhomboideus m..
brachii m.
Muscles named for the direction in which the fibers run. Rectus = straight, ----------
parallel
Orbicularis = --------- orifice
encircles
Action: flexor, extensor, or _______
abductor
Size and shape: Major, Minor, or ________
Trapezoid
Muscles can also be named for number of origins or location. Ex: Frontalis and _______
Occipitalis
Origin: Number of Heads, such as biceps 2 heads; triceps or ____ heads
3
Muscles of Facial Expression are protective, supportive, and strengthening and lie within the layers of the superficial _____
fascia
The muscles of facial expression usually originate in deep fascia or _____ of skull and insert into the _____
bones
skin
The muscles of facial expression move the _____, rather than the joints.
skin
Orbicularis Oculi closes the _____ Orbicularis Oris closes the _______
eye.
mouth
The epicranus includes the frontalis and _______ held by the galea aponeurotica.
occipitalis
The galea aponeurotica attaches muscle to _______
bone
The buccinator is a deep muscle from the ____ cavity.
buccal
Muscles that move the eyeballs originate _____ the eyeballs.
outside
Muscles that move the mandible or lower jaw include: massater, temporalis, ____ pterygoid, and lateral______.
Medial
pterygoid
The muscles that move the mandible ae muscles of _________.
mastication
The ________ is the strongest muscle of mastication.
masseter
Extrinsic muscles move the _____ tongue.
entire
Intrinsic muscles alter the _____ of the tongue.
shape
Genioglossus depresses and ______ the tongue.
protracts. Also draws tongue to one side
Styloglossus elevates and _______ the tongue.
retracts
Palatoglossus elevates the posterior part of the ______
tongue
Hypoglossus __________ the tongue.
depresses
Muscles of the floor of the oral cavity include: digastric, stylohoid, mylohoid, and ______
geniohyoid
The digastric muscle elevates the hyoid bone and depresses the _______
mandible
Muscles that move the head include the sternocleidomastoid that flexes the ________ portion of the vertebral column and extends the ______.
cervical
head
Muscles that move the head include -------- --------that acts with longissimus capitis to extend head and singally to laterally rotate and flex the head.
splenius capitis
Semispinalis Capitis acts with sternocleidomastoid to extend the head and singly to _____ the head.
rotate
Abdominal muscles include the rectus abdominus, external oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominis, and ________ _________.
Quadratus Lumborum
Rectus abdominis flexes the lumbar region of the vertebral column
The rectus abdominis compresses the abdomen to aid in defecation, urination, expiration, and childbirth
The muscles of the perineum are located between the pubic symphysis and the _________
coccyx
The superficial muscles of the perineum are: superficial transverse perineus, Bulbospongiosus, and _______
Ishiocavernosus which maintains erections
The deep muscles of the perineum are: the deep transverse perineum, the external anal sphincter which keeps the anal canal and ___ closed. Also the _____ _____ _____
anus
external urethral sphincter
The external urethral sphincter helps expel the last drops of urine and semen in males and urine in females.The external urethral sphincter is a deep muscle
The external urethral sphincter is a deep muscle of the Perineum.
Skeletal muscle is composed of relatively long large cylindrical cells called _____
fibers
The plasma membrane in a muscle cell is called the ______
sarcolemma
Alternating light and ____ bands give the muscle fiber its _____ appearance.
striated
The myofibrils of the muscle are made of smaller threadlike structures called ______
myofilaments
Myofilaments are composed of 2 types of contractile proteins: actin and
myosin
Actin and Myosin slide past each other to produce shortening or _____ of the muscle cells
contraction
The actual contractile units of muscle are called
sarcomeres
Sarcomeres extend from one I band to++++.
Z disc
At each junction of the A and I bands the sarcolema indents into the muscle forming a transverse tubule or _______
T tubule
The T Tubules run deep into the muscle cell between cross channels called
terminal cisternae
The terminal cisternae are of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cell called
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum or SR
Regions where the SR terminal cisternae abut a T tubule on each side are called
triads
Functions of Muscular Tissue: Facilitation of body movement, regulation of organ volume, heat production, and
movement of substances within the body such as: blood, lymph, food, bile, digestive enzymes, gametes, and urine.
Properties of muscular tissue: electrically excitable, contractile, extensible, elastic, vascular, and
regenerative
A _____ is a cord of dense regular connective tissue that attaches a muscle to the periosteum of a bone.
tendon
An _______ is a broad, flat layer of dense regular connective tissue like a tendon, such as galea aponeurotica
Aponeurosis
A broad band of fibrous connective tissue that surrounds muscles and other organs.
Fascia
Superficial fascia is the _____ layer that separates muscle from skin.
superficial
The superficial fascia contains areolar connective tissue and ______ tissue.
andipose
The deep fascia is composed of irregular connective tissue and lines the wall and ____
limbs.
The ____ _____ holds muscles with similar functions together.
deep fascia
Skeletal muscle is composed of fibers or elongated cells bundled into _____
fasciles
The epimysium covers the _____ muscle.
whole
The perimysium surrounds the _______
fasciles
The endomysium surrounds individual fibers within _____
fasciles
The nuclei of skeletal muscle cells are pushed peripherally by the longitudinally arranged ______ that nearly fill the sarcoplasm.
myofibrils
In a first class lever the fulcrum is in the middle between effort and resistance; therefore the ______is in the middle.
joint
Fulcra function as ______
joints
A scond class lever has ______ in the middle between fulcrum and effort. Resistance from the temporalis muscle between jaw joint and effort of digrastic muscle opens mouth.
resistance
In a third class lever, effort is in the middle between resistance and fulcrum. Biceps effort between joint and ______of arm
weight
Occipitofrontalis is found in the _____. Frontalis raises the eyebrows and occipitalis fixes the ______ _______
scalp
galea aponeurotica
Muscles of the Mouth
_____ ______ encircles the mouth.
Orbicularis Oris
Movement of ____: Depressor Anguli Oris (angle of mouth), Depressor Labii Inferioris, and Levator Labii superioris
LIp
Occipitofrontalis is found in the scalp. What does occipitis do and what does frontalis do?
Occipitis fixes the Galen Aponeurotica and the Frontalis raises the eyebrows.
The Orbicularis oris closes the eyes and the Corrugator supercilli draws the eyebrows closer together. What about Procerus?
Procerus pulls down the skin of the forehead, and Nasalis widens the nostrils
Orbicularis oris encircles the _____ and Levator labii superioris and Depressor labii inferioris raise and lower the ____
mouth
lip
Depressor anguli oris changes the agnle of the +++++++
Risorius is the synegist of _________
mouth
Zygomaticis Major
Buccinator keeps food on top of the teeth, blowing, and
sucking
Some of the muscles used in ++++++ ______are: Frontalis, Levator palpebrae superioris, zygomaticus major and minor, Levator anguli oris, levatator anguli oris, Levatator labili superioris, and depressor labii inferioris.
facial expression
Levator Labii Superioris
Muscle in Facial Expression
Elevates Upper Lip
Origin: Zygomatic and Maxilla
Insertion: Blends with muscles of upper lip. Antagonist: Depressor Labii Inferioris: lowers lip
Levator anguli oris causes
depression of angle of mouth or grimace. Origin: Mandible Insertion: Blends with muscles of angle of mouth
Zygomaticus Minor what type of muscle
Muscle used in facial expression to raise upper lip. Orign: Zygomatic Bone. Insertion Blends with fibers of Levator labii superioris as both muscles enter and blend with superior lip
Zygomaticus Major is it a muscle of facial expression?
Yes, because it raises the corner of the mouth. Origin at mandible. Insertion Blends with fibers of Levator anguli oris and Orbicularis Oris
Is the Levator palpabrae superioris another muscle of facial expression
Yes, It raises the upper eyelid. Origin: Inferior surface lesser wing of sphenoid Insertion: Skin of superior eyelid
Risorius is a
muscle of facial expression because it raises tthe corners of mouth laterally.
Platysma is a muscle of
facial expression.because it tightens skin of neck and lowers mandible.
The _______ _______ push food down the throat.
Pharyngeal constrictors
Dark A bands anisotropic regions alternate with ---------- I bands isotropic regions.
lighter
A band has thick _________
filaments
Lighter central H band area contains no _____ filaments.
thin
The _____ band has thin filaments.
thin
The I band, which has thin filaments is bisected by the ____ disc protein called connectin, anchoring elastic and thin filaments.
Z
The region between two Z discs or lines is a ________
sarcomere
In a cardiac muscle, overlapping thick ______ filaments and thin actin filaments produce striations.
myosin
Fibers connnect to each other through __________discs that contain desmosomes and gap junctions.
intercalated
A smooth muscle fiber has thick, thin, and +++++++++ filaments.
intermediate
A smooth muscle fiber contains _____- bodies.
dense
Smooth muscle contains visceral (single unti) fibers that connect to each other by _____ _______
gap junctions
Mulit-unit smooth muscle has individual fibers. Few_____ _____ exist.
gap junctions
Somatic motor neurons __________ skeletal muscles.
stimulate
The _________ __________ is the point of contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
neuromuscular junction
External intercostals extend downward and anteriorly from rib to rib; while, ________ _______ extend upward and antreiorly from rib to rib
internal intercostals
Internal intercostals pull the ribcage ______ during forced expriation: while the external intercostals pull the ribcage up and outward during expiration.
downward
The Internal intercostals extend ++++++ and anteriorly from rib to rib. They pull the ribcage _______during forced expiration.
extend upward
pull ribcage downward
Serratus Posterior Superior muscles elevate
Ribs 2=3 during inspiration
Serratus Posterior Inferior depresses
Ribs 9=12 during inspiration
Superficial muscles of the back include Trapezius and Latissimus dorsi, semispinalis, splenius, levator scapulae, ________
rhomboideus
Superficial muscles of the back include rhomboideus, spraspinatus, teres major, gluteus maximus, and __________ +++++++
gluteus medius
The errector spinae group represent some muscles of the ++++++
back
Erector Spinae group
3 columns of muscle that extend from sacrum to ribs
Responsiveness- When stimulated by neurotransmitters, muscles respond with ________ charges across the plasma membrane
electrical
Conductivity- Stimulation of a --------- fiber triggers a wave of excitation that travels rapidly across the fiber and intiates muscle contraction.
muscle
Contractibility- Muscle fibers are unique in their ability to shorten when ---------This enables them to ____ on bones
stimulated
pull
In order to contract, skeletal muscles must be able to be extensible or _________again between contractions.
stretch
Muscles are elastic in that, when stretched,and the tension released the muscle _______ to its original resting length.
recoil
The Perimysium bundles +++++ _____ together into fasicles and the
Perneurium encloses fasciles of
muscle fibers
axons
The plasma membrane of a muscle fiber is called the _____
sarcolemna
The muscle cytoplasm is called the ________
sarcoplasm
The muscle cytoplasm contains long protein bundles called _____
myofibrils
The smooth ER of the muscle is called ________ reticulum, forming a network around a myofibril.
sarcoplasmic SR
The sarcoplasmic reticulum exhibits dilated end-sacs called ______ ________
terminal cisternae
terminal cisternae cross the ++++++ fiber from one side to another.
muscle
The Sarcolema have tubular infoldings called transverse or ____ tubules which penetrate the cell and emerge on the other side.
T
Each myofibril is a bundle of parallel ====== filaments.
protein
Thick filaments are made of _________
myosin
Thin filaments are made of ________
actin
Myosin and actin are called contractile proteins because they +++++ the muscle fiber.
shorten
Striated muscle has dark A bands alternating with _____ I bands.
lighter
Lighter region of A band is ____ band where thin filaments do not reach
H
Thin filaments are made of ________
actin
Each light I band is bisected by a dark narrow Z disc or line which provides _______ for thin filaments and elastic filaments.
anchorage
Myosin and actin are called contractile proteins because they +++++ the muscle fiber.
shorten
Striated muscle has dark A bands alternating with _____ I bands.
lighter
Lighter region of A band is ____ band where thin filaments do not reach
H
Each light I band is bisected by a dark narrow Z disc or line which provides _______ for thin filaments and elastic filaments.
anchorage
A t tubule is a _________extension of the sarcolemna from one side to another. Conveys electrical signals.
tunnel-like
A Z disc is a protein disc to which thin filaments and elastic filaments are anchored at each end of a ++++++++
sarcomere
A Z disc appears as a narrow ______ line in the middle of an I band.
dark
The point at which a nerve fiber meets its target cell is a +++++++++
synapse
When a target cell is a muscle fiber, the synapse is called a +++++ ________
neuromuscular junction
Difference between Risorius and Depressor Anguli Oris.
Depressor Anguli Oris draws angle of mouth laterally as in sad expressions, but Risorius same lateral mouth movement but in expressions of laughter, horror, or disdain
Difference between Depressor Anguli Oris and Depressor Labii Inferioris
Depressor Labii Inferioris draws lower lip downward as in chew, and sad or doubt. Depressor Anguli Oris draws angle of mouth laterally as in sad expressions
Platysma
Aid in opening mouth widely, draws lower lip and angle of mouth downward as in shock or surpise. Tenses skin of neck
Muscles of tongue: Hypoglossus ______. Styloglossus draws upward and posteriorly. Genioglossus- Pulls tongue. Palatoglossus- Elevates roof of tongue and closes off_________
depresses

To one side or protrudes
oral cavity from pharynx
Differentiate Eyebrow Muscles: Procerus, Levator Palpabrae Superioris, Corrugator Supercilli, and Orbicularis Oculi
Orbicularis Oculi- closes eye in blinking, squinting, and sleeping. Levator Palpabrae Superioris opens eyelid. Corrugator Supercilli draws eyebrows together medially. Procerus- Pulls skin between eyebrows downward which assists in flaring nostrils
Distinguish between genioglossus, hypoglossus, styloglossus, and palatoglossus. Genioglossus draws tongue to one side.Genioglossus draws ______ to one side.Hypoglossus ______ tongue. Styloglossus draws tongue upward and _______.
Palatoglossus elevates root of tongue and closes ____ _____from larynx
tongue
depresses
.Hypoglossus depresses tongue.
posteriorly.
oral cavity
Differentiate muscles of the neck. Sternocleidomastoid is a prime mover of ______
Scalenes tilts head toward same shoulder or rotates head away. Elevates rib ____ if shoulder fixed.
Trapezius laterally extends and
neck flexion. Rotation of head to left or right. Draws head straight down. Scalenes tilts head toward same shoulder or rotates head away.
Rib 1
flexs the neck.
Diaphragm Muscle Function?Prime mover of
contracts in preparation for
inspiration (air intake)
coughing, crying, . Aids in childbirth.
Differentiate external from internal intercostal muscles
When scalenes fix rib, external elevate and protract ribs 2-12 expanding thoracic cavity so expiration not abrupt. Internals elevate and expand thoracic cavity only in inspiration.In expiration, the external intercostals depress and retract the ribs
Differentiate Internal Intercostals from External
Internal elevates ribs and expands thoracic cavity in inspiration. In expiration, internal depresses and retracts ribs and compresses cavity. Externals elvate and protract ribs when scalenes fix rib.
Function of Rectus Abdominis
Flexes lumbar region of vertebral column producing forward bending at waist. Origin at pubic symphysis and superior margin of pubis. Insertion: Xiphoid Process
What does the external oblique do?
Supports abdominal viscera. Stabilizes vertebral column. Aids in forceful expiration in childbirth, urination, defecation, and vomiting.
The transverse abdominal compresses the abdominal contents but does not
Does not contribute to movements of vertebral column
The external oblique compresses abdominal organs as does the transverse abdominal. What else does external oblique do?
It does not contibute to vertebral column movement
'The Erector Spinae Group are ____ columns of muscle extending from the sacrum to the ______.
3
ribs
The Erector Spinae extends throught the ______ column
vertebral
The SemiSpinalis Group functions as a neck +++++++ and starts from vertebrae to vertebrae.
extendor
The Quadratus Lumborum begins at the _____ and ends at 12th rib. It functions for ==== flexion.
ilium
flexion
The pelvic diagphragm is the deepest compartment of the _______. There are ___ muscles in the pelvic diapragm: Levator Ani and Coccygeus
perineum
2
Latissimus Dorsi what does it do?
abducts and extends the shoulder joint and arm
Infraspinatus rotates the ________ joint laterally. Orgin: Infraspinous fossa of scapula and Insertion: greater tubercle of humerus
shoulder
The muscles that act on the Pectoral Girdle have an nnterior and ++++++ group.
posterior
The muscles that acto on the pectoral girdle originate on the ______ skeleton and insert into the clavicle or ________
axial
scapula
Scapular movments of the pectoral girdle muscles include medial and _____ rotation of the scapula, elevation and _______ of the scapula, and protraction and _______ of the scapula.
lateral
depression
retraction
The anterior muscle group effecting the pectoral girdle is represented by _______ minor.
Pectoralis
Pectoralis Minor protracts and ++++++ the scapula
depresses
The muscles that act on the Pectoral Girdle have an nnterior and ++++++ group.
posterior
The muscles that acto on the pectoral girdle originate on the ______ skeleton and insert into the clavicle or ________
axial
scapula
Scapular movments of the pectoral girdle muscles include medial and _____ rotation of the scapula, elevation and _______ of the scapula, and protraction and _______ of the scapula.
lateral
depression
retraction
The anterior muscle group effecting the pectoral girdle is represented by _______ minor.
Pectoralis
Pectoralis Minor protracts and ++++++ the scapula
depresses
Pectoralis Minor lifts the _____ during forced expiration. Also ++++++ and depresses the scapula
ribs
Protracts
Pectoralis Minor originates at ribs +++++++ to coracoid process of scapula
3=5
Pectoralis Minor protracts and +++++++ the scapula
depresses
Pectoralis Minor lifts the ________ during forced expiration.
ribs
Distinguish Pectoralis Major from Pectoralis Minor
Major is a prime mover of arm flexion. Flexes, abducts, and medially rotates the humerus. Aids in deep inspiration. For minor, it is scapula and expiration.
Part of Anterior Scapular Muscle Group= SERRATUS ANTERIOR = a throwing muscle because
It abducts, rotates, or depresses scapula. Origin: ribs 1-9 to medial border of scapula
The Posterior Scapular Muscle group consists of the Trapezius, Rhomboids, Levatator Scapulae, and +++++ _______
Serratus Anterior
Trapezius, part of the Posterior Scapula Group rotates the _____ upward retracts and +++++ the scapula.
scapula
depresses
The Rhomboids and Levator Scapulae are part of the Posterior Muscle Group along with _____ and Serratus Anterior. The Rhomboids and Levator Scapulae elevate the ++++++
Trapezius
Scapula
Serratus Anterior is part of the +++++ and anterior Scapular Muscle Group. Serratus Anterior depresses the ______
posterior
scapula
The Rhomboideus muscle from the Posterior Scapular Group orginates from the medial border of the scapula to C7=
T1
The Deltoid is a prime mover for flexion, extension, and abduction of the _______
humerus
Coracobrachialis assists in flexion and Teres Major assists in +++++
extension
Fascicular patterns include: parallel (uniform in L and W), triangular or _______shaped, circular or forms _____, fusiform (thick in middle and tapered at ends), pennate (_____shaped.
fan
rings
feather
An agonist is a ____ ____ or intiator of action.
prime mover
Biceps Brachii is an agonist for _____ flexion. Brachialsis is its synergist. Triceps Brachii is an ________ because it extends the elbow.
elbow
antagonist
Procerus pulls down skin of forehead. Corrugator Supercilli draws the ______ together.
eyebrows
Muscles with corners of lip: Levator Labii Superioris, Depressor Anguli Oris, and _______________________.
Depressor Labii Inferioris
The muscles of facial expression insert within the layers of _______ _______.
superficial fascia
External intercostal extend downward and anteriorly from rib to rib. Internal intercostals extend _____ and _____ from rib to rib.
upward
anteriorly
External intercostals for inspiration and internal intercostals for forced ______
expiration
The ______ is the strongest muscle of mastication.
massater
Other muscles of mastication are the medial and lateral
pterygoid.
The genioglossus depresses and _____ the tongue.
protracts
The styloglossus elevates and ____ the tongue. Origin on Styloid Process of Temporal
retracts
The hypoglossus inserts below tongue and +++++
depresses
Palatoglossus elevates ____ part of tongue.
posterior
The muscles of the floor of the oral cavity include ______, stylohyoid, mylohyoid, and geniohyoid (origin of last 2 chin)
digastric
The digastric, a muscle of the floor of the oral cavity elevates the _____ bone and depresses the _______
hyoid
mandible
Muscles that move the head include sternocleidomastoid, semispinalis capitis, --------- ---------- and Longissimus Capitis.
Splenius capitis
The Semispinalis Capitis act together to extend the head and singly to +++++++ head.
rotate
Splenius capitis- act together to extend head - act singly to laterally flex &
rotate head
Longissimus capitis - act together to _____ head - act singly to laterally flex & rotate head
extend
Rectus abdominis - flexes lumbar region of vertebral column - _______abdomen to aid in defecation, urination, forced expiration, ________
compresses
childbirth
Abdominal muscles include: Rectus abdominis _____oblique •Internal oblique Transversus abdominis •Quadratus lumborum
external
The transverse abdominis is the ____ of abdominal muscles and compresses the abdominal contents.
deepest
The quadratus lumborum is in the lower ____.
back
The internal intercostals are antagonists of the _______ ______.
external intercostals
The diaphragm is located between the ____ and abdomen.
thorax
Muscles for breathing: _______, internal and external intercostals.
diaphragm
Serratus posterior muscles are deep muscles of the back. Serratus Posterior Superior elevates ribs 2-5 during inspiration and Serratus Posterior Inferior ______ ribs 9-12 during _______
depresses
inspiration
Superficial muscles of the back include Trapezius, Latissimus Dorsi, Semispinalis, Spenlinus, and ______ major.
Teres
Superficial Muscles of the back include Gluteus ____ and Gluteus Medius, Infraspinatus, Supraspinatus, Rhomboideus and Levator _______.
Maximus
Scapulae
The Erector Spinae Group extends the vertebral column. It is ------ columns of muscle and extends from sacrum to ----------
3
ribs
The Semispinalis Group extends the _____
and is vertebrae to vertebrae
neck
Multifidis rotates the +++++++ column and is vertebrae to vertebrae.
vertebral column
Quadratius Lumborum is responsbille for lateral -----------
and extends from ilium to 12th rib.
flexion
The muscles of the pelvic diaphragm are in the deepest compartment of the _____
The pelvic diaphragm has ___ muscles.
Perineum
2
The 2 muscles of the pelvic diaphragm are Levator Ani which supports viscera and functions during defecation and ______ which supports and elevates pelvic floor.
coccygeus
The muscles that act on the pectoral girdle include the anterior and posterior _________muscle group.
scapular
The muscles that act on the pectoral girdle originate on the _____ skeleton and insert in the scapula or +++++
axial
clavicle
The anterior scapular muscle group includes the Pectoralis Minor and the _____ ______
Serratus Anterior
The Pectoralis Minor protracts and _____ the scapula. It lifts the ribs during forced ++++++
depresses
expiration
The Pectoralis Minor originates at Ribs 3-5 and inserts in the Coracoid Process of the _______
Scapula
The Serratus Anterior abducts and ______ or depresses the _______. It is a throwing muscle.
rotates
scapula
The Serratus Anterior originates at ____ 1-9 and inserts at the medial _____.
ribs
scapula
The Posterior Scapula Group includes the Trapezius, Serratus Anterior, Levator Scapulae, and ________
Rhomboids
Trapezius rotates _______upward and retracts and ______ scapula.
scapula
depresses
Rhomboids and Levator Scapulae _______ scapula.
elevates
Serratus Anterior ________ scapula.
depresses
The Rhomboids originate at the medial border of ______and insert C7-T
scapula
1
Levator Scapulae originates superior angle of scapula to C1-
C4
The Delotid is the agonist of flexion, ______, and abduction of the humerus
extension
The Coracobrachialis assists in ______. Teres Major assists in _______. Rotator cuff muscles reinforce the shoulder joint capsule
flexion
extension
Extending from posterior scapula to _______ they are: supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and _____ minor. Extending from the anterior scapula to humerus, is _________
humerus
teres
subscapularis
Supination is the palm facing anteriorly. ______ muscle.
supinator
Pronation is palm facing posteriorly. Pronator ____ and Pronator ______
teres
quadratus
Muscles of the forearm flex and _____ the wrist and _____
extend
fingers
Muscles of the forearm adduct and abduct the _____
wrist
Digitorum inserts in _______
fingers
Carpi inserts on _____ bones
carpal
Pollicis inserts on ______
thumb
Muscles of the Posterior Forearm
______ the wrist and fingers abduct and adduct wrist.
extend
Muscles of the Posterior Forearm
Brevis = short, Ulnaris =
on ulna side of forearm
Intrinsic Hand Muscles = Thenar group = ____ base of thumb muscles
fleshy
The intrinsic hand muscles include the thenar, ______, and midpalmar groups.
hypothenar
The thenar group is a ____ base of thumb muscles.
fleshy
The hypothenar group is a base of little _____ muscles.
finger
The midpalmar group includes the interosseus and ______ muscles.
lumbrical
Anterior muscle acting on hip is the Illopsoas, a major ____ flexor.
hip
Posterior muscles acting on the hip include the Gluteus Maximus, Gluteus ____, and the Iliotibial band.
Medius
Deep gluteal muscles include the Gluteus ______, Piriformis, and Quadratus ______.
minimus
femoris
Quadratus femoris is an _____ of the hip. Piriformis and Gluteus ___ are abductors of hip.
adductor
Minimus
Adductors of the hip joint include Adductor _____ which is also an extensor of the hip joint.
magnus
Adductors of the hip joint include Adductor magnus, and Gracilis which is also a ____ of the knee. Pectinueus, Adductor _____, and Adductor _____ adduct the _____.
flexor
brevis
longus
femur
The muscles acting on the knee include: the anterior compartment of the leg. They include: Extensor Digitorum ____(extends toes and ankle), Extensor Hallucis Longus (extends toe and ankle), Fibularis ______ which dorsiflexes and everts foot, and Tibialis Anterior which dorsiflexes and inverts the foot.
longus
tertius
Extensor Hallucis Longus, of the anterior compartment of the _____ (extends toe and ankle),
leg
The muscles acting on the knee include: the anterior compartment of the leg and the ______ compartment of the leg.
posterior
The posterior compartment of the leg is a ______ group of plantar flexors.
superficial
The posterior compartment of the leg, a superficial group of plantar flexors, includes Gastrocnemius, Soleus, and _______.
Plantaris
The posterior compartment of the leg (superficial)includes Gastrocnemius, which ____ knee and plantar flexes _____.
knee
ankle
Soleus, of the posterior compartment of the leg (superficial) plantar flexes _____.
ankle
Plantaris, of the posterior compartment of the leg (superficial) flexes knee and _____ ______ ankle.
plantar flexes
The posterior compartment of the leg also has a deep group of ______ _______.
Plantar flexors
The posterior compartment of the leg's deep group of plantar flexors are: Tibialis and P_____.
Popliteus
The posterior compartment of the leg deep group of Plantar Flexors includes Tibialis Posterior, Flexor digitorum longus, which are both
plantar flexors
The Posterior compartment of the leg deep group of plantar flexors also includes Tibialis Posterior, Flexor Digitorum, Flexor Hallucis Longus, and Popliteus, which unlocks the ____ joint for knee flexion.
knee
The intrinsic muscles of the sole include ____ muscle layers.
4
The intrinsic muscles of the sole provide support for the arches. They abduct and ____ the toes and flex the toes.
adduct
The intrinsic muscles of the sole include one dorsal muscle, extensor digitorum brevis which extends the ____
toes
There is a posterior, anterior and lateral compartment of the leg. The lateral compartment of the leg has ____ muscles.
2
The 2 muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg both plantar flex and evert the foot. They are Fibularis ------- and Fibularis --------.
longus and brevis
The lateral compartment of the leg, Fibularis longus and Fibularis brevis both provide lift and ______ thrust.
forward
The hamstrings include Biceps _____, Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus, Tibialis Anterior, and Fibularis ______
femoris
longus
Biceps femoris, a hamstring muscle is a ____ flexor and hip extensor and laterally rotates the tibia and femur. Orign: ischial tuberosity or linea aspera of _____. Insertion: _______
Femur
Head of fibula
Another hamstring muscle, Semitendinous, is a ____ flexor and medially rotates the femur and tibia. Origin: ______tuberosity and Insertion: Medial Upper Tibia.
knee
ischial
Another hamstring muscle, Gastrocnemius, plantar flexes the _____ and flexes the ____. Orign: knee joint and popliteal surface femur. Insertion: Calcaeus
knee
foot
Origin of Sartorius is
ILLIUM
Insertion of Sartorius is
Medial Tibia
Sartorius is a ____ and ____flexor and abducts laterally rotating thigh.
knee and hip
biceps brachii is a powerful flexor of forearm; origin is of scapula, insertion is radial tuberosity
glenoid cavity
Areolar and andipose connective tissue that separates muscle from skin
Superficial fascia
Primary regulatory protein in smooth muscle
Calmodulin
Muscle that helps from abdominal wall
Rectus Abdominis
Irregular connective tissue that lines body wall and limbs and holds muscles together with similar functions
Deep Fascia
Inner most layer of meninges
Pia matter thin innermost layer
Muscle that has its origin on the sternum and the clavicle and its insertion on mastoid process of temporal bone
sternocleidomastoid
Substance that occupies the epidural space in the spinal column
FAT
Impulse conduction that appears to jump from one Node of Ranvier to the next.
Saltatory
The region of the vertebral column wer ventral rami of the spinal nerves do not form nerve plexuses
thoracic
Muscles that depress the size of an opening
Sphincter muscles
The effort in an anatomical lever system is
muscular contraction
The fulcrum in an atomical lever system is
joint
Term that refers to shortest muscle
brevis
Organ on which the superior and inferior rectus muscles insert:
Schlera of eyeball
Muscle that closes and protrudes the lips
orbicularis oris
The current model of how a muscle fiber contracts
Sliding Filament
The CNS is composed of the brain and
spinal cord
The nervous system is comprised of the PNS and
CNS
The PNS are the nerves and the
ganglia
The PNS is divided into the sensory afferent and _______
the somatic sensory division carries info to muscles, bones, joints, and skin. The visceral somatic division carries signals from abdominal and ______
motor efferent systems.
thoracic viscera or organs, such as heart, lungs, urinary bladder
The peripheral nervous system PNS is composed of the the somatic and autonomic divisions. The somatic is concerned with and the automomic with homeostasis or ______. The ANS is composed of parasympathetic and +++++++
voluntary
involuntary
sympathetic divisions
The sympathetic division is based upon rapid response to stress and the parasympathetic upon
slowing down, reflection rumination
Location of the frontalis muscle
forehead
Location of Rectus Femoris muscle
anterior thigh
A sarcomere is a unit of muscle contraction. The space from
one Z disc to another
Location of smooth muscle
Hollow internal organs
Structure of bipolar neuron
Cell body in middle between dendrite and axon. Rare. 2 processes.
Epinysium covers the whole muscle. Epineurium covers one whole
nerve cell
Endoneurium covers one whole axon or nerve fiber or cell. Endomysium covers on whole
muscle fiber or cell
Perimysium covers a fascile of muscle fibers. Perineurium covers a fascile of
axons
In a unipolar neuron the processes are
fused
Differentiate the structure of skeletal, cardiac, and muscle fibers: Skeletal is striated and
multi=nucleated
attached to bones
Cardiac muscle is striated with
interacalated discs. Lines wall of heart
Pumping blood under involuntary control
Smooth muscle. Nonstriated. Propels substances in body under involuntary control. What shape?
Fusiform
What events occur in the depolarization phase of the action potential.In a localized area, ___ moves in and ___ moves out.
Inside turns positive and outside negative. After repolarization and then hyperpolarization.
Na
K
The primary function of the CNS is sensory, integrative, and
motor
The sensory function is from the receptor to the
CNS
The motor function is from the CNS to the
effector
The integrative function is within the association or
interneurons
The neurons do what
conduct impulses
The neuroglia are supportive, protective
cells
Afferent neurons
From receptor to brain or spinal cord
Efferent neurons
From CNS to effectors at muscles and glands
Effectors receive information from the CNS and send to
muscles and glands
Receptors receive stimulation and send impulses to the
CNS
Transmission along an axon. Impulse hits Depolarized in local region. Becomes Positive on_________
Impulse travels from +++++++
Reversal of charge or ++++++++
Reversal of resting _______
on inside and Neg on outside.
neg to pos adjacent to neg. as proprapated
depolarization
Transmission across a chemical synapse. Requires ________ coming from presynaptic neuron. _______vessicles store neurotransmitter. Impulse travels through ______ ______.Neurotransmitter in terminal ending of _______neuron.
neurotramsmitter
synaptic
synaptic cleft. Neurotransmitter in terminal ending of presynaptic
The brain and spinal cord are
organs of CNS
Cranial nerves are axons associated with the
brain
Spinal nerves are axons of the spinal cord associated with the
brain
Ganglia are cell bodies of neurons outside the
brain and spinal cord or CNS
Enteric plexus
network of nerves
Axons bundle to form fasciles of _____; while cell bodies bundle to form________
nerves
ganglia
Ganglia are
outside of brain and spinal cord
Enteric plexus
network of nerves and refers to intestine
Functions of the CNS: thought, emotion, memory and
integration and information processing
The somatic nervous system SNS is voluntary and typically involved with
skeletal muscles
The automomic nervous system ANS is involuntary and involved with
smooth and cardiac muscles
The functions of the ANS is sensory or detecting impulses regarding
change
The functions of the ANS is motor or
impulses regarding action and response
The sympathetic division of the ANS is concerned with speeding up the
metabolism and stress
The parasympathetic division of the ANS is concerned with slowing down
metabolism
Nervous system functions: sensory, motor, integrative, and
homeostatic regulation
Neurons conduct impulses; while, neuroglia do not
conduct impulses
Interneurons are what percent of all neurons
90%
Interneurons are located only in the
CNS
Purkinje cells located in the
cerebellum
Renshaw cells located in the
spinal cord
Pyramid cells located in the
brain
Sensory or afferent neurons transmit information from receptord to the brain or
spinal cord
Interneurons or assocation neurons are located in
the CNS
Interneurons or assocation neurons process store and
retrieve information
Motor or efferent neurons send signals from the CNS to muscles and
gland cells (effectors)
Close to brain goes to
brain
Close to spinal cord goes to
spinal cord
A multipolar neuron has several dendrites Example:
motor neuron
Bipolar neuron has one main dendrite and one
axon
Unipolar has an axon and dendrite that fuse inot a
Example: Sensory Neuron
single process
Anaxonic has several dendrites but
no axon
Astrocytes are shaped like
stars
Astrocytes are in the CNS and contribute to the blood brain barrier and
regulate composition of brain tissue fluid
Oligodendrocytes are in the CNS and produce ______. _______ cells in PNS produce myelin.
myelin
Schwann
Ependymal cells in the CNS line cavities and produce.
Made of columnar epithelia
cerebrospinal fluid
Satellite cells are located in the and have an uncertain function.
PNS
Dendrites receive or
input portions of neuron
Dendrites are the branches and their impulses go towards
cell body
Cell body= soma=
Perikaryon (name refers to nucleus)
Neurofibrils are bundles of actin
filaments (part of the cytoskeleton)
The neurofibrils provide
shape and may help with movement like cytoskeleton
Axon takes away from
cell body
Dendrite sends signal to
cell body
Axon is a long, thin, cylindrical impulse propagative
portion of neuron
The Myelin Sheath is an insulating layer around a
nerve fiber
The synapse is a junction between two neurons or between a neuron and
effector
The synapse is a space between the terminal end of one and the
dendritic end of another
The terminal end is
presynaptic
The dendritic end is pre or postsynaptic
postsynaptic
What is a neurolemocyte?
A Schwann Cell is but look up
Properties of neurons:
electrical impulses stimulate them
Properties of neurons: Communicate via
electrical signals
Properties of neurons: generate action potentials for short and
long distance communication
Properties of Neurons: Generate local graded potentials only for
short distance communication
Properties of neurons: limited regenerative
ability
Local graded potential is action potential
Have or don't have
Polarized means a resting potential of -70 mV or
inside of a nerve cell membrane is negative charge relative to outside at rest.
Specific ion channels allow flow of
ions
Leakage channels are
always open
Gated channels open and
close only under specific circumstances
The resting membrane potential is due to an unequal distribution of
ions across the membrane. Negative inside and pos outside to start.
Relative permeability of membrane to sodium and potassium ions 50 to 100 times greater to
K than to Na in a resting neuron
Na really causes positive when
outside membrane
Why does an electrochemical gradient exist? Na does not enter as
readily as K. Causes an unequal distribution of ions. Neg inside Pos outside. Na more on outside in ECF.
Na concentrated in the ECF, but K concentrated
in the ICF
All or nothing events occur if depolarization reaches a certain
threshold about -55V always have same amplitude
Can only have action potential if
Impulse travels from pos to neg
membrane depolarized
Impulse travels from positive on the inside (after depolarization) to neg on outside as it propates. What is this called?
reversal of charge
The depolarizing phase leads to the
repolarization phase going back to negative on inside. Later may hyperpolarize
After repolarization there is a refractory period which means
Absolute and relative action potential cannot be generated
Depolarization of the membrane is _____ and a reversal of the
local
resting potential
Repolarization is back to the
polarized state
There are gated ion channels and ligand-
gated channels
Action potentials are all or nothing events and occur if depolarization reaches a certain threshold which is
-55V
The refractory period is absolute and relative which means
an action potential cannot be generated.
In myelinated axons impulses jump quickly from one node of Ranvier to the next. This type conduction called
SALTATORY
How many kinds of conduction across synapses
2
Two kinds of conduction across synapses
electrical and chemical synapses
Connexons or tubular proteins allow ionic current to spread directly between adjacent cells through gap junctions What kind of synapse?
Electrical synapses
Gap junctions found where
nervous system and cardiac muscle
Neurotransmitters allow impulse conduction between neurons. What type of synapse
Chemical
The neuotransmitter is a bridge between neurons in what type of synapse
Chemical
EPSP or Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential occurs if
postsynaptic membrane becomes depolarized (less negative)
What are excitatory EPSP neurotransmitters?
Glutamate and Aspartate
IPSP
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential
IPSP occurs if postsynaptic membrane becomes hyperpolarized or
more negative than necessary on inside
Glycine and y=aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Inhibitory neurotransmitters
Events after synaptic conduction: diffusion of transmitter from
synaptic cleft
Events after synaptic conduction: active uptake of transmitter substance by neurotransmitter transporters in
neuron
Events after synaptic conduction: Spatial and temporal summation
Adding up of action potentials
Chemical Transmission across synapse: synaptic vesicles from presynaptic neuron axon store
neurotransmitter
Chemical Transmission across synapse: Impulse travels through synaptic cleft to
receptors on postsynaptic neuron
Neurotransmitters made of protein and some
hormones
Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter
Amino acid neurotransmitters include: monoamines such as cateholamines
( epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine)
Amino acid neurotransmitters include indolamines such as
serotonin and histamine
Neurotransmitters include
neuropeptides
Temporal Summation occurs when a single synapse receives many EPSP's in
a short period of time
Spatial Summation occurs when a single synapse receives many EPSP's from
many presynaptic cells. Also called EPSP
How many pairs of spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord
31
A cylinder of nerve tissue within the vertebral; canal
spinal cord
ventral rami of the spinal nerves branch and anastomose or merge repeatedly to form
5 nerve plexuses
nerve plexuses
networks of nerves
Central area consists of gray matter shaped like a butterfly and surrounded by
white matter in 3 columns
Gray matter= neuron cell bodies with little
myelin
White matter
mylenated axons
White matter
mylenated axons
Ascending and descending tracts of spinal cord
Go up and down
Decussation
Fibers cross sides
Ascending and descending tracts of spinal cord
Go up and down
Decussation
Fibers cross sides
Contralateral means origin and destination
Are on opposite sides
Contralateral means origin and destination
Are on opposite sides
Ipsilateral means origin and destination on
same side
Ipsilateral means origin and destination on
same side
White matter
mylenated axons
Ascending and descending tracts of spinal cord
Go up and down
Decussation
Fibers cross sides
Contralateral means origin and destination
Are on opposite sides
Ipsilateral means origin and destination on
same side
Spinal Cord Functions: Process
Reflex actions
Spinal Cord Functions: Nerve impulse
integration
Spinal Cord Functions:Communication with brain via
Sensory and motor tracts
Meninges singular meninx Dura Mater
tough outermost layer covers brain and spinal cord
Meninges singular meninx
Arachnoid
Avascular and has collagen fibers Covers brain and spinal cord
Spinal Cord Functions: Process
Reflex actions
Spinal Cord Functions: Nerve impulse
integration
Spinal Cord Functions:Communication with brain via
Sensory and motor tracts
Meninges singular meninx Dura Mater
tough outermost layer covers brain and spinal cord
Meninges singular meninx
Arachnoid
Avascular and has collagen fibers Covers brain and spinal cord
Meninges Singular Meninx Pia Mater
thin innermost layer Very vascular
Spaces in CNS epidural
fat filled
Spaces in CNS Subdural
contains interstitial fluid
Spaces in CNS Subarachnoid contains
cerebrospinal fluid
An axon is a nerve
fiber
Nerves are composed of axons bundled into
fascicles
Nerves are composed of axons bundled into
fascicles
The perineurium surrounds the
fascicles
The perineurium surrounds the
fascicles
The epineurium surrounds the
entire nerve
The epineurium surrounds the
entire nerve
The endoneurium wraps individual axons within
fascicles
The endoneurium wraps individual axons within a
fascicle
Features of spinal nerves: anterior rami except for the thoracic or intercostal T2-T12 form
plexuses or networks
Features of spinal nerves: anterior rami except for the thoracic or intercostal T2-T12 form
plexuses or networks
Features of Spinal Nerves: Intercostal nerves T2-T12 innervate structures in
intercostal spaces
Features of Spinal Nerves: Mixed Contain Sensory or afferent and
motor or efferent
Features of Spinal Nerves: Branched at Anterior and Posterior
Ramus
Features of Spinal Nerves: Branched at Meningeal
Branch and Rami Communicants
Features of Spinal Nerves:Supplies skin and muscles of the head and neck
Cervical Plexus
Features of Spinal Nerves: Intercostal nerves T2-T12 innervate structures in
intercostal spaces
Features of Spinal Nerves: Mixed Contain Sensory or afferent and
motor or efferent
Features of Spinal Nerves: Branched at Anterior and Posterior
Ramus
Features of Spinal Nerves: Branched at Meningeal
Branch and Rami Communicants
Features of Spinal Nerves:Supplies skin and muscles of the head and neck
Cervical Plexus
Features of Spinal Nerves: Intercostal nerves T2-T12 innervate structures in
intercostal spaces
Features of Spinal Nerves: Mixed Contain Sensory or afferent and
motor or efferent
Features of Spinal Nerves: Branched at Anterior and Posterior
Ramus
Features of Spinal Nerves: Branched at Meningeal
Branch and Rami Communicants
Features of Spinal Nerves:Supplies skin and muscles of the head and neck
Cervical Plexus
Features of Spinal Nerves: Phrenic Nerves Arise from cervical plexus and innervate
motor fibers of the diaphragm
Features of Spinal Nerves: Sensory neurons of spinal nerves and cranial nerve V trigeminal
serve dermatones or specific segments of the skin
Features of Spinal Nerves: Brachial Plexus
Supplies shoulders and upper limbs
Features of Spinal Nerves: Lumbar Plexus
Supplies anterolateral abdonimal wall, external genitals, and part of lower limbs
Features of Spinal Nerves: Sacral Plexus supplies
buttocks perineum and lower limbs
A ganglion is a cluster of
neuron cell bodies. In the PNS only.
Dorsal root ganglion associated with the dorsal rootof a spinal nerve
consists of sensory cell bodies
The PNS has a sensory afferent division composed of the somatic sensory and
visceral sensory division
The sensory afferent division of the PNS carries sensory signals from receptors in the _____
CNS
The PNS sensory afferent division is composed of the somatic sensory and _______________
The somatic sensory division carries the signals from the ______in the skin, muscles, bones, and joints. The division that carries signals to visceral organs is the ____________
receptors
visceral sensory division
The visceral sensory division carries singlas from the
visceral organs
heart, lungs, stomach, etc.
The motor efferent division of the PNS is composed of the somatic motor division and the ________ or ANS
visceral motor division
The somatic motor division of the motor efferent division of PNS carries signals to
skeletal muscles
The visceral motor division or ANS of the motor efferent division of PNS carries signals to _______________
glands, smooth muscles, and cardiac muscles
Involuntary muscle contraction produced by somatic motor divsion of PNS motor efferent division. They are somatic _____
relexes
The PNS motor efferent's visceral motor division or ANS is not _______ controlled
volunarily
The PNS motor efferent division"s ANS or visceral motor division has a sympathetic and _______
parasympathetic division
Sympathetic has arousing effect and parasympathetic has
calming affect
Sympathetic has arousing effect and parasympathetic has
calming affect
Sympathetic has arousing effect and parasympathetic has
calming affect
Neurofibrils are bundles of actin filament from rough ER and form
Nissl bodies
cytoplasm of axon
axolemna
Multipolar neurons have one axon and multiple
dendrites
Bipolar neurons have one axon and one
dendrite
Unipolar have one one
Fused axon and dendrite
process
Anaxonic neurons have multiple dendrites but no
axon or action potential
Anaxonic neurons communicate through their dendrites and do not have
action potentials
Anaxonic neurons have multiple dendrites but no
axon
Anaxonic neurons have multiple dendrites but no
axon
Ependymal cells produce CSF or
cerebrospinal fluiid
Anaxonic neurons communicate through their dendrites and do not have
action potentials
Anaxonic neurons communicate through their dendrites and do not have
action potentials
_____ has greatest influence on resting membran potential because plasma membrane more permeable to it.
K
Ependymal cells produce CSF or
cerebrospinal fluiid
Ependymal cells produce CSF or
cerebrospinal fluiid
K diffuses down its concentration
gradinet
_____ has greatest influence on resting membran potential because plasma membrane more permeable to it.
K
_____ has greatest influence on resting membran potential because plasma membrane more permeable to it.
K
K diffuses down its concentration
gradinet
K diffuses down its concentration
gradinet
The local potential is brief and the action potential a
spike
Ganglia the cell bodies of neurons are
outside in CNS. Ganglia and nerves in PNS
Gaps in Myelin sheath
Nodes of Ranvier
The CNS and PNS make up the _____. The PNS is has a sensory(affector) and _____ (effector) divison. The PNS sensory division has a _____and somatic division. The PNS sensory somatic division carries signals from skin, muscles, bones, and joints.The PNS sensory visceral division carries signals from the _____ organs. The PNS motor (effector) somatic divison carries signals to the _____ muscles.The visceral motor division of PNS is the _____ which is divided into Parasympathetic and ______
nervous system\
motor
visceral
skeletal
ANS
Sympathetic
Ascending tracts of spinal cord carry+++++information
sensory
Descending tracts carry ______ information
motor
Spinal cord functions: process _____ actions, nerve impulse ____ and communication with the brain via sensory and motor _____
reflex
integration
tracts
Epidural =
subdural=
subarachnoid=
fat
interstital fluid
cerebrospinal fluid
Phrenic nerves arise from cervical plexes and inervate motor fibers of
diapraghm
Phrenic nerves arise from cervical plexes and inervate motor fibers of
diaphragm
Dermatomes
Specific segments of skin
Sacral Plexus supplies buttocks, perineum, and
lower limbs
Lumbar Plexus supplies anterolateral abdominal wall, external genitals, and
parts of lower limbs
FEATURES OF SPINAL NERVES Mixed - contain sensory (afferent) &
motor (efferent) neurons
FEATURES OF SPINAL NERVES Mixed - contain sensory (afferent) &
motor (efferent) neurons
FEATURES OF SPINAL NERVES Mixed - contain sensory (afferent) &
motor (efferent) neurons
FEATURES OF SPINAL NERVES Mixed - contain sensory (afferent) &
motor (efferent) neurons
FEATURES OF SPINAL NERVES Mixed - contain sensory (afferent) &
motor (efferent) neurons
FEATURES OF SPINAL NERVES Branched - anterior and________ramus - meningeal branch • and ______communicants
posterior
rami