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27 Cards in this Set

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1. Development is BEST defined as a pattern of growth that: ___________.
a. begins at birth and continues throughout childhood.
b. begins at conception and continues until the person is fully grown.
c. begins at birth and ends when the person begins to decline due to age.
d. begins at conception and continues throughout the human life span.
d. begins at conception and continues throughout the human life span.
The theory that was created by Erik Erikson is known as the ________ theory of development.
a. psychobiological
b. psychoeducational
c. psychosocial
d. psychoanatomical
c. psychosocial
Which of the following of Erikson’s stages would most accurately describe the developmental phase of a preschooler?
a.trust versus mistrust
b.initiative versus guilt
c.industry versus inferiority
d.identity versus identity confusion
b.initiative versus guilt
According to the sociocultural theory of Vygotsky, knowledge is: ________.
a.mobile and fluid.
b.fluid and crystallized.
c.situated and collaborative.
d.trial and error.
c.over the first 6 months
John Bowlby’s work in attachment showed that an infant’s attachment to a caregiver has important influence over the life span. When, according to Bowlby, should attachment take place?
a.within the first 2 years
b.immediately after birth
c.over the first 6 months
d.over the first year
d.over the first year
One implication of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory is that to understand development, one must: ________.
a.focus on the biological factors involved.
b.separate the individual from his or her context.
c.focus exclusively on the cultural settings in which the individual actively participates.
d.consider the individual and the different levels of sociocultural contexts with which he or she interacts.
d.consider the individual and the different levels of sociocultural contexts with which he or she interacts.
Jean Piaget used detailed observation of his own children to develop his theory of: _______.
a. personality development.
b. emotional development.
c. physical development.
d. cognitive development.
d. cognitive development.
Piaget believed that children: _______.
a.actively construct their own cognitive world.
b.passively react to their environments.
c.absorb their knowledge from the environment.
d.gain their view of the world from their parents.
a.actively construct their own
Piaget believed that children’s thinking in one stage is _______ that in another stage.
a.qualitatively different from
b.quantitatively different from
c.qualitatively similar to
d.quantitatively similar to
a.qualitatively different from
Which statement most accurately summarizes the long-term outcomes of positive or negative resolution of Erikson’s trust-versus-mistrust stage of development?
a.A developed sense of trust is difficult to undo in later childhood, but a developed sense of mistrust is permanent.
b.Whether an infant develops a sense of trust or mistrust has little influence on later personality development.
c.Later experiences can modify the sense of trust or mistrust that develops during infancy.
d. An individual’s sense of trust or mistrust is unstable and changes markedly in response to contextual factors at each stage of the life span.
c.Later experiences can modify the sense of trust or mistrust that develops during infancy.
According to Erik Erikson, which of the following is true concerning children and autonomy?
a. Children can never have too much autonomy.
b. Children need to develop a sense of shame before they understand autonomy.
c. Children develop autonomy first and learn shame and doubt later in life.
d.Children need a small but healthy amount of shame and doubt to go along with their general sense of autonomy.
d.Children need a small but healthy amount of shame and doubt to go along with their general sense of autonomy.
The Strange Situation is an observational measure of infant attachment developed by Mary Ainsworth. It requires the infant to: _______.
a.crawl through a dark tunnel with his or her mother and a stranger waiting on the other side.
b.move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions with his or her mother and a stranger.
c.experience loud noises in a room with only a stranger present.
d. choose between his or her mother and his or her father in a strange situation.
b.move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions with his or her mother and a stranger.
Piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 and 7 years are in a stage called preoperational thought, so named because he believed that: ________.
a. children at this age do not yet use mental operations in their thought.
b. children’s ability to think with concepts is not yet operational at this age.
c. children’s ability to use symbols in thinking is not yet operational at this age.
d. children at this age do not yet understand the basic concept of object permanence.
a. children at this age do not yet use mental operations in their thought.
According to Lev Vygotsky’s concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD), learning is: ________.
a.achieved by discovering which answers will lead to rewards.
b.achieved by assimilating new understandings to accommodate the demands of the world.
c.affected by how the environment and genetically programmed learning ability interact during a critical period.
d.a social activity between a less knowledgeable child and another adult or child who is more knowledgeable.
d.a social activity between a less knowledgeable child and another adult or child who is more knowledgeable.
According to David Elkind, the biggest danger in encouraging early childhood education is the tendency to: ________.
a.overemphasize social interactions and make children less socially confident.
b.underemphasize academic achievement and make children less goal-directed.
c.underemphasize classroom management and encourage aggressiveness in children.
d.overemphasize academic achievement and place children under high levels of stress.
d.overemphasize academic achievement and place children under high levels of stress.
Which statement below summarizes Erik Erikson’s view of how guilt, initiative, and conscience operate during the early childhood period?
a.Children’s consciences makes them feel guilty for some of the initiatives they take.
b.Children feel guilty when they do nothing, so their consciences tell them to take more initiative.
c.Children’s consciences tell them they are guilty, so they take the initiative to prove that they are not guilty.
d.Children’s consciences are not mature enough at this age to distinguish between guilt and initiative.
a.Children’s consciences makes them feel guilty for some of the initiatives they take.
Which of the following parenting styles has high demandingness and low responsiveness?
a. authoritarian
b. authoritative
c. indulgent
d. neglectful
a. authoritarian
Which of the following parenting styles has low demandingness and high responsiveness?
a.authoritarian
b.authoritative
c.indulgent
d.neglectful
c.indulgent
Sternberg’s triarchic theory and Gardner’s theory of intelligence are examples of the idea that: _______.
a. intelligence is a general ability.
b. there are three types of intelligence.
c. intelligence consists of a number of specific abilities.
d. there are separate information-processing components of intelligence.
c. intelligence consists of a number of specific abilities.
What does Kohlberg emphasize as important in moral development?
a.consequences of behavior
b.perspective of others
c.intentions
d.guilt and remorse
b.perspective of others
Lawrence Kohlberg studied moral development by: _______.
a.analyzing patterns of children’s responses to items about moral decisions on questionnaires.
b.classifying children’s solutions to difficult moral problems.
c.observing children interact with each other when they were in conflict.
d.interviewing families about how they have taught moral principles to their children.
b.classifying children’s solutions to difficult moral problems.
According to Erik Erikson, an adolescent’s crisis is based on the need to: ________.
a. form an identity.
b. develop trusting relationships.
c. be independent.
d. explore their sexuality.
a. form an identity.
23.According to Victor Frankl, the three most distinct human qualities are freedom, responsibility, and: __________.
a. meaning.
b. spirituality.
c. religion.
d. faith.
b. spirituality.
According to Erikson, what is the central core of development across the adult years?
a. generativity
b. identity
c. disclosure
d. integrity
b. identity
25. Cognitive training research is valuable in that it helps us understand: ________.
a. ways in which older adults are better performers than younger adults.
b. at which age older adults are best suited for retirement from their careers.
c. better ways to help older adults live successfully on their own.
d. how to avoid the physiological changes that underlie cognitive decline.
c. better ways to help older adults live successfully on their own.
Kübler-Ross divided the behavior and thinking of dying people into five stages. Which of the following lists these stages in the correct order?
a. denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
b. denial, bargaining, anger, depression, acceptance
c. denial, anger, grief, bargaining, acceptance
d. anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance, grief
a. denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
Horn (1980) studied all of the following except
a. crystallized intelligence
b. fluid intelligence
c. intelligence through adulthood
d. sex behavior and practices across the lifespan
d. sex behavior and practices across the lifespan