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47 Cards in this Set

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The basal ganglia is a "disinibitory" movement gating circuit. What happens to the striatum, globus pallidus, VA/VL complex of thalamus and motor cortex when

A. the striatum is at rest?
B. the striatum is excited?
A.
When the striatum is at rest, the globus pallidus is tonically active inhibiting the VA/VL complex of the thalamus thus no excitation of motor cortex.

B. Excitatory input signals come in from all around the cortex to the striatum. Striatum will transiently inhibit the globus pallidus thereby uninhibiting the VA/VL complex of thalamus allowing other inputs to excite it thus leading to excitation of motor cortex.
When the cortex sends excitatory signals to the striatum to request movement, ___________ of striatum inhibit tonic inhibition of globus pallidus interna (GPi) neurons.
medium-spiny neurons
Striatum is subdivided by the internal capsule into two: putamen and caudate. Which does eye/head movement and which does limb/trunk movement?
Caudate : eye/head (multimodal association cortices and eye movement motor areas)

Putamen: limbs/trunk (1st and 2nd somatosensory, visual, premotor and motor, and auditory cortices)
What do the dopanergic projections from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) do?
They modulate the receptiveness of the medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Note: Substantia nigra area is affected severely in Parkinson's disease.
Regarding circuitry within the basal ganglia system, where does the caudate project to and where does the putamen project to? (hint: 2 each)
Within the basal ganglia itself, the caudate project to the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the globus pallidus internal (GPi). The putamen projects to the GPi and globus pallidus externa (GPe).
True or False:
A single medium spiny neuron will receive input from thousands of corticostriatal axons.
True
True or False:
A single corticostriatal axon will excite many medium spiny neurons.
True
True or False:
Medium spiny neurons exhibit high spontaneous activity.
False.

They exhibit LOW spontaneous activity.
Differentiate the courses of the direct pathway and the indirect pathway.
Direct pathway: Caudate/Putamen --> GPi --> thalamus

Indirect pathway: Caudate/ Putamen --> GPe --> subthalamic nucleus --> GPi --> thalamus
The [ direct / indirect ] pathway focuses striatal input to specific unit of pallidal neurons for desired movement while the [ direct / indirect ] pathway focuses striatal input to specific unit of pallidal neurons to limit undesired movement.
Direct = desired ; Indirect = limit undesired movement
Medium spiny neurons all have dopamine receptors. Those that reach the GPi and activate pathways are [ D1 / D2 ] receptors that reinforce the direct pathway.
D1
Medium spiny neurons all have dopamine receptors. Those that reach the GPe and support and reinforce the indirect pathways are [ D1 / D2 ] receptors that inhibits the spiny motor neuron response to stimulation to cortical excitation.
D2
D1 receptors effectively modulate [ down / up] the direct pathway while D2 receptors effectively modulate [ down / up ] the direct pathway via the indirect pathway.
D1 up ; D2 down
The neurodegeneration of substantia nigra pars compacta is known as

A. Huntington's disease
B. Parkinson's disease
C. ALS aka Lou Gehrig's disease
B. Parkinson's disease, a HYPOkinetic disease
How is the ability to drive motor programming to the frontal cortex's upper motor neurons decreased in an individual with Parkinson's Disease?
With less D1 and D2, there will be a diminished responsiveness of the medium spiny neurons. They will not have the ability to turn off the tonic inhibition of the GPi. Also, with regards to the indirect pathway, the decreased D2 will lower the inhibition going to the subthalamic nucleus which will then drive up the excitation it is sending to Gpi which will further limit the ability to transiently quiet the tonic activity of the GPi neurons thus decreasing the ability to drive the motor programming thru to the upper motor neurons.
Name the symptoms that occur with Parkinson's Disease. (hint: ~ 7 mentioned in lecture)
Dyskenesia. Tremor. Involuntary movements. Inability to drive intended movements. Gait is shuffling. Reduced arm swing. Hard time turning.
What is the first line of therapeutics for individuals with Parkinson's Disease? What is it's drawback?
L-dopa therapy. L-dopa does not stop the underlying loss of neurons. Eventually there will be no neurons left to respond to L-Dopa therapy. Deep brain stimulation is the next/an alternative surgical step.
The neurodegeneration of the caudate and putamen is known as

A. Huntington's disease
B. Parkinson's disease
C. ALS aka Lou Gehrig's disease
A. Huntington's disease, a HYPERkinetic disease
In Huntington's Disease, the spiny motor neurons located in the striatum, especially those projecting to the external segment (though both external and internal are effected). How does that lead to Huntington's being a HYPERkinetic disease?
So we are quieting down the control signal coming from striatum’s external segment. No longer able to modulate the tonic activity of external segment neurons. This will drive up the inhibition that will be sent out to the subthalamic nucleus and internal segment. This will diminish the ability of the subthalamic nucleus to keep the tonic ability of the internal segment. Less tonic activity leads to increase of the sensitivity of internal segment neurons to stimulate. You get involuntary movements that overlay the voluntary movement.
There are also two non-motor pathways that involve the basal ganglia. What are they and name some of the processes they are in charge of.
Which of the following are associated with COGNITIVE processes of the basal ganglia?

A. Emotional control
B. Planning
C. Motivation and behavior
D. Paranoia
E. Thought organization
B. Planning
E. Thought organization
Which of the following diseases are associated with the COGNITIVE processes of the basal ganglia?

A. Depression
B. OCD
C. Schizophrenia
D. Tourette Syndrome
C. Schizophrenia
D. Tourette Syndrome
Which of the following is a disease of the EMOTIONAL processes of the basal ganglia?

A. Depression
B. OCD
C. Schizophrenia
D. Tourette Syndrome
A. Depression
B. OCD
C. Schizophrenia
___________ has to do with planned motor movements,
___________ for motor execution, and __________ has to do with balance and posture.

A. Primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, vestibular nuclei
B. Premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, vestibular nuclei
B. Premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, vestibular nuclei
True or False:

The cerebellum cortex is the integration processing part of the cerebellum that corrects and adjusts motor and nonmotor functions.
True
The cerebellum can be divided into three major sections. Name em.
- Cerebrocerebellum (for skilled movement, planning/ executing complex movement, critical to speech and writing)
- Spinocerebellum (medial vermis controls proximal muscles, lateral paravermis controls distal muscles. also rate, rage, force and direction)
- Vestibulocerebellum (posture and balance, fixed gaze)
Deep cerebellar nuclei can be divided into three groups: fastigial and interposed, and the dentate nucleus.
A.what are the inputs?
B. what are the outputs?
C. which is for motor execution and which is for motor planning?
Input and output for cerebellum is via cerebellar peduncles.
Which is efferent, afferent, bidirectional?
Superior is efferent (to dorsal thalamus --> pre and primary motor cortex and superior colliculus)
Middle is afferent (from pontine nuclei in brainstem)
Inferior is bidirectional (from brainstem and spinal cord; to brainstem).
What projection(s) to the cerebellum are involved in planned motor events?

A. input from throughout the cerebral cortex via pontine nuclei to middle peduncle
B. sensory information from vestibular, spinal and trigemeinal inputs via inferior peduncle
C. modulatory signals from inferior olive
A. input from throughout the cerebral cortex via pontine nuclei to middle peduncle
What projection(s) to the cerebellum are involved in monitoring position and motion of the body?

A. input from throughout the cerebral cortex via pontine nuclei to middle peduncle
B. sensory information from vestibular, spinal and trigemeinal inputs via inferior peduncle
C. modulatory signals from inferior olive
B. sensory information from vestibular, spinal and trigemeinal inputs via inferior peduncle
What projection(s) to the cerebellum are involved in learning and memory?

A. input from throughout the cerebral cortex via pontine nuclei to middle peduncle
B. sensory information from vestibular, spinal and trigemeinal inputs via inferior peduncle
C. modulatory signals from inferior olive
C. modulatory signals from inferior olive
Regarding projections from the cerebellum to the cortex, which pathway listed is for planning of volitional movement?

A. Cerebrocerebellum ---> dentate nucleus --> thalamus --> primary/premotor & association cortex
B. Spinocerebellum --> interposed nuclei --> thalamus --> primary/premotor cortex
A. Cerebrocerebellum ---> dentate nucleus --> thalamus --> primary/premotor & association cortex
Regarding projections from the cerebellum to the cortex, which pathway listed is for executive control of movement?

A. Cerebrocerebellum ---> dentate nucleus --> thalamus --> primary/premotor & association cortex
B. Spinocerebellum --> interposed nuclei --> thalamus --> primary/premotor cortex
B. Spinocerebellum --> interposed nuclei --> thalamus --> primary/premotor cortex
Regarding projections from the cerebellum to the brainstem, which of the following paths are for regulation of trunk and limb muscle movement?

A. Spinocerebellum --> fastigial nuclei --> reticular formation --> spinal cord
B. Spinocerebellum --> dentate/interposed nuclei --> superior colliculus-->spinal cord
C. Vestibulocerebellum --> vestibular nuclei --> spinal cord
D. Cerebellum --> reticular formation --> spinal cord
A. Spinocerebellum --> fastigial nuclei --> reticular formation --> spinal cord
Regarding projections from the cerebellum to the brainstem, which of the following paths are for posture/ balance control?

A. Spinocerebellum --> fastigial nuclei --> reticular formation --> spinal cord
B. Spinocerebellum --> dentate/interposed nuclei --> superior colliculus-->spinal cord
C. Vestibulocerebellum --> vestibular nuclei --> spinal cord
D. Cerebellum --> reticular formation --> spinal cord
C. Vestibulocerebellum --> vestibular nuclei --> spinal cord
Regarding projections from the cerebellum to the brainstem, which of the following paths are for head/eye movement?

A. Spinocerebellum --> fastigial nuclei --> reticular formation --> spinal cord
B. Spinocerebellum --> dentate/interposed nuclei --> superior colliculus-->spinal cord
C. Cerebrocerebellum --> dentate/interposed nuclei --> superior colliculus
D. Cerebellum --> reticular formation --> spinal cord
C. Cerebrocerebellum --> dentate/interposed nuclei --> superior colliculus
The cortex of the cerebellum is the integrating unit. The layers of the cerebellum cortex are the granule layer cells, mossy fibers and purkinje cells. How are they connected?
The granule layer is VERY dense. Mosee cells comes into granule layer and excites them. Purkinje dendrites from granule cells go up to molecular layer. Purkinje cells also are important because they are responsible for conveying the eventual output.
Regarding circuits within the cerebellum, ________ per pontine nuclei deliver excitatory input primarily from cerebral cortex for planned movement.

A. climbing fibers
B. mossy fibers
C. purkinje cells
B. mossy fibers
Regarding circuits within the cerebellum, _______ per inferior olive deliver excitatory modulator from senses per detected error.

A. climbing fibers
B. mossy fibers
C. purkinje cells
A. climbing fibers
Regarding circuits within the cerebellum, these cells receive mossy fiber input, conveyed to Purkinje cells by parallel fibers (axons).

A. Granular cells
B. Molecular cells
A. Granular cells
These cells integrate excitation from 200,000 parallel fibers in the circuit within the cerebellum.
Purkinje cells
Deep cerebellar nuclei are actually recieving the same stimulation from the cerebrum by the mossy fibers as well as stimulation from the inferior olive via the climbing fibers. Deep cerebellar nuclear cell is tonically active, firing back to the thalamus inhibitory information. Via the deep excitatory loop, if tonically active, they maintain what is happening.

BUT if there is a perceived error, that info will come through the ________ and then what will happen?
inferior olive climbing cells. Purkinje cell responds more to the intended movement programming info coming in through parallel fibers. Purkinje cell inhibits the deep cerebellar nuclear cell which reduces its tonic current movement. Thus we get on-the-fly adjustment
Cerebellar coordination of ongoing movement is via purkinje cell response to ....
mossy fiber intended movement input by climbing fibers that indicate an error in actual movement


Purkinje then rectify (adjust gain) of deep cerebellar nuclei neurons that then drive correction of movement
True or False:

You cannot correct vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) if cerebellum is damaged.
True
What are some symptoms of cerebellar lesions?

(hint: in lecture, gave 5)
- delayed onset of movement
- ataxia (jerky movement, imprecise rate, range, force, direction)
- dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid alternating movment)
- dysmetria (over/undershooting movement)
- intention tremors
True or False:

Spongiform encephalopathies illnesses like mad-cow disease are rapid neurodegenerative disorders affecting cerebellar and cerebro cortex.
True

symptoms: cerebellar ataxia, myoclonic jerks, muscle atrophy, seizures and dementia
True or False:

Congenital cerebellar malformations like Dandy Walker disease is du eto an enlarged 4th ventricle that displaces cerebellum and occipital cortex causing significant malformation.
True

Post-natal symptoms include enlarged cranium, irritability, vomiting, slow vestibular/motor development, vision problems, speech issues.