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122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what percent of body is muscle?
60 percent
name three types of smooth muscle
cardiovascular tissue
digestive tissue
respiratory tissue
what is cardiac muscle?
roughly define what an antagonistic muscle is
a muscle whose action opposes another designated muscle
what are three of the primary functions of the skeletal system?
protects vital organs, provides for bodys vertical shape, allows for motion via muscle attachment to bones, builds blood cells
what does a tendon do?
attaches muscles to bones
what does a ligament do?
attaches bones to bones
primarily, how goes the perimysium and epimusium differ from the endomysium?
endomysium surrounds the individual fiber
left ventrical of the heart muscle adapts to weight training by getting _____/_____ while adapting to aerobics by getting ____/_____ ______.
thicker/ stronger
thinner/ increased volume
what is a motor unit?
a bundle of like-fibers; example: bundle of white fast twitch fibers is a "white fast twitch motor unit"
list how blood flow differs-

white fast twitch -
red fast twitch-
red slow twitch-
least blood flow
average blood flow
greater blood flow
how does strength differ?-

white fast twitch
red fast twitch
red slow twitch
greatest strength
moderate strength
least strength
how does endurance differ-
white fast twitch
red fast twitch
red slow twitch
least endurance
moderate endurance
greatest endurance
what rep ranges optimize their effect on-

white fast twitch:
red fast twitch:
red slow twitch:
function of mitochondria
powerhouse of the cell creating ATP energy
function of myofibril
structural fibers providing for movement and strength
where can ribosomes be found and what do they do?
rough sarcoplasmic reticulum; the "assembly line" that produces actin and myosin in the myofibrils (performs protein synthesis)
what is the order of motor unit recruitment in a high rep set?
red slow twitch
red fast twitch
white fast twitch
is the pump good for size and strength training?
no, inhibits contractions causing failure prior to optimally damaging myofibrils (required for growth)
what is one example of a hinge joint?
elbow, knee
what is an eccentric contraction?
the negative part of the repititionl movement returns levers to the starting position of the "concentric" exercise
what is an isotonic contraction?
any contraction that results in the movement of a joint
the sartorius is part of which muscle group?
what does a muscle spindle do?
causes a contractile response just short of tearing tissues during stretching that is too extreme
name the planes in the below graphic
1. parallel sagittal plane
2. frontal plane
3. transverse plane
4. sagittal plane
a weight loss client who isn't losing weight may have a slow metabolism: true of false
how do you speed up someones metabolism?
increase lean weight, eat ,ore small meals more often
your size and strength client on a low calorie diet needs to eat plenty of protein to keep building muscle. true or false
what type of training can objectively determine athletic potential?
holistic training
fat loss is always more rapid in the early stages of a new fitness program. true of false
true or false: your size and strength client on a low calorie diet needs to eat plenty of protein to keep building muscle..
what type of training can objectively determine athletic potential
holistic training
fat loss is always more rapid at the early stages of a fitness program: true or false
how do you best cause fat loss around the waist?
basic weight training and effective diet program
why should aerobic athletes train with weights?
more mitochondria, maintain muscle, improve muscle glycogen stores
is it safe for teens to lift weights?
how is it possible for a smaller client to be stronger than a visibly larger client both being on a size and strength program?
how does short term high rep training increase lean body weight?
water uptake
can intense aerobic activity over long periods cause muscle loss?
stamina can be defined as "the ability to sustain a load over long periods": true/false
use the ____ chart when deciding the initial level of intensity with a new client that has never lifted weights
rep range
duration of high intensity training should be shorter than that of low intensity training, t/f
the lower the recovery heart rate the great the aerobic affect, t/f
take the pulse at the ____ by counting the beats in a ____ second period and multiplying by 4
wrist, 15
recovery heart rate is mostly for beginners t,f
prescribed total sets are based on which of the below
intensity, size of the muscle group
are compound exercises preferred over simple exercises? t/f
why can't you shape a muscle?
genetics, innervation
how do you best isolate a muscle?
you can't..
in which plane of motion is the military press performed?
in cases where progress is desired, the client should advance to 100 percent intensity as soon as WHAT happens
DOMS is gone, form is correct
a client with a heavy build who eats very little could be considered which of the below
an ectomorph needs more calories than a mesomorph and a mesomorph needs more calories than an endomorph? T/F
maintenance calories are dictated most by which of the below?
LBW + activity
calculate the BMR for a client with a LMW of 175 IB
1925 (LBW x 11)
adjust calories both up and down by what number?
how many calories make up one pound of body fat?
expending 500 calories is = to cutting 500 calories from the diet with exercise increase being the preferred to dieting, TF
calipers are the most valuable tool a personal trainer can have TF
when either weight loss dieting or weight gain dieting always adjust which of the below?
how many calories are there in a gram of fat?
how many calories are in both a gram of carbs and protein?
is it logical to ingest carb loading drinks before or after an aerobic event?
before and after
what is the most valuable service a personal trainer has to offer the client?
risk factor identification
always suggest a client see their personal physician prior to starting an exercise program or increasing the intensity of an existing program: T/F
you need CPR certification only if you are working with clients who are at risk TF
is a client genetically at risk if one parent suffered a heart attak and died at age 76?
diabetes is not genetic TF
name one reason for asking your clients occupation _____
activity calorie expenditure
the par Q & You is an internationally standard document and must be completed prior to the performance of all client activities TF
in order to calculate lean body weight you must know the total body weight and the body fat percentage TF
what constitutes high blood pressure?
what is considered normal blood pressure?
how many phases in the step test?
where can sarcoplasmic fluid be found?
increased testosterone decreases estrogen and causes fluid retention? TF
steriods can cause liver and kidney damage; TF
what is gynecomastia in the male steriod user?
enlarged mammary glands
does LH and FSH stimulate the testes and adrenal glands to produce testosterone?
what is the bodys most essential nutrient?
what percent of the total body weight is water?
60 percent
water evaporates during 50 percent of all chemical reactions TF
high carb intake requires more water intake to prevent liver problems? TF
how much fluid is lost each day?
1-3 quarts
the brain centers for thirst are triggered by which of the below?
the most dangerous and rapid cause of dehydration is respiration in cold climates? TF
prolonged dehydration leads to slowed metabolism TF
how much water is recommended per day?
8-10 glasses
maximum usable water intake is /...
8-10 oz every 20 minutes
weigh in before and after exercise in hot cilmates, then
ingest 16 oz. ib of weight loss
never ingest large amounts of sodium TF
sodium is the electrolyte that causes water loss TF
glucose is the only fuel the brain can use TF
Exercise fights depression and stress TF
muscles require between ___ and ___ hours of recovery
48, 72
extreme temperatures can cause heat injuries TF
without proper instruction ballistic training can be injurious TF
load should be minimized during functional training to avoid injuries TF
waht does price stand for?
protect, rest, ice , compress, elevate
apply ice for ___ ___ min every __ ___ hours
15-20, 2-4
too much ice can damage tissue TF
how many minutes should compression be applied?
30 min
what is indicated when skin color is blue?
compression is excessive, oxygen deficient
an injured site should be elevated at least ___ to ____ ____ above heart
12-16 inches
minimizing swelling is the key to treating minor injury TF
what are the cardinal signs?
dolor =pain
calor =warmth
rubor =redness
turgor= swelling
how long does the acute phase last?
24-72 hours
a grade one injury is more sever than a grade three injury ? TF
if pain and swelling lasts longer than 48 hours see a physician TF
do not stretch an injured tendon while in rehab stage TF
an acute injury can turn into a chronic injury over time TFa
if client experiences a severe contraindication, implement your emergency medical system TF
emergency responders need to know the below info
patient age, vital signs, current medication
can you schedule a site visit with the emergency response personnel in your area?
911 is the only number to call to activate your emergency medical system TF
a client signature on an informed consent waiver CAN protect you from a law suit, TF
waivers that are NOT always upheld have the below characteristics
extreme legalese, small print, one sided verbiage
waivers need to include protective statement concerning assigns and heirs TF
you can include your informed consent waiver verbiage on your membership agreement TF
behavior as described by nfpt policies and procedures document outlines circumstances under which your affiliation with NFPT will be terminated through the consideration of NFPT certification council TF
what would differentiate a fitness consultant from a personal trainer
more detailed screening, more assessments
which of the below is an example of being political?
dont be adversarial, dont stop on anyones toes, help a club owner make money.