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99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What happens to the volatile components after any oil spill?
They evaporate into the air.
What is the global, long term-change to sea level?
Eustatic change
What was first created in an effort to claim the continental shelf as belonging to the nation it was attached to?
The Law of the Sea
What is responsible for the large-scale global ocean circulation?
Thermohaline circulation
What is the process of wave separation?
What type of ocean wave has a disturbing force of sudden changes in atmospheric pressure?
Seiche waves
What is a characteristic of a tsunami?
Long wavelengths
Where are deltas common?
Low energy shores
What is the name for slow, deep currents beneath the pycnocline?
Thermohaline currents
What is the Ekman spiral?
The decreasingly slower movement of water as it gets further away from the wind source
Why do large, broad beaches have gradual slopes?
They have a large area for wave energy to dissipate.
What thrusts water masses that are engaged in the thermohaline flow of the world's ocean?
A coastline is covered with sea caves. What kind of beach is this likely to be?
An erosional beach
What maintains a forced wave?
Disturbing force
What kind of waves occur at the boundary between two fluid media?
Orbital waves
Why is the extraction of wind so effective over or near the ocean?
The wind tends to be steady in these areas.
What type of current occurs during a high tide?
Flood current
What can not initiate a seiche?
Internal waves
What is the largest known reservoir of hydrocarbons on Earth?
Methane hydrate
When did the harvesting of commercial whale species cease?
When the hunting of whales became uneconomical
What is a characteristic of Antarctic Bottom Water?
Extreme density
What water mass is the most saline?
Mediterranean Deep Water
What is not a characteristic of western boundary currents?
They are broad currents.
What is responsible for increasing a beach's slope?
The swash
What are the most common, large-scale features on a depositional coast?
Sand spits
Which is a factor that determines the location of a coast?
The volume of water in the ocean
What is a wave period?
The time for a wave to move the distance of one wavelength
When high or low tidal currents begin to change direction, it is called:
Slack water
Why is methane hydrate not harvested for energy use?
a.It is costly to mine and liquefy the sediments.
b.It is dangerous to mine due to methane's combustibility.
c.The methane disappears as it is brought to the surface.
What maintains the permanent thermocline found at all low and mid-latitudes?
Continual upwelling
Which is not a reason why a refined oil spill is more harmful?
The oil contains more energy potential due to additives during the refinement process
Why is the ozone layer important?
It protects Earth from ultraviolet rays
What happens when a tsunami approaches the shore?
a.Its velocity drops rapidly.
b.Its period remains the same.
c.Its wave height increases
When a resource is present in a fixed amount, it is said to be:
a nonrenewable resource.
What will make people change their way of using energy and perhaps viewing the world?
They need to see a maximum to their material gains and the distribution of the costs.
What does Newton's gravitational model not consider when determining influences on tides?
The position of landmasses in relation to the moon
What is an example of a true tidal wave?
Tidal bore
What is considered to be the largest western boundary current?
Gulf Stream
What is the second most valuable marine resource?
What is the net force of inertia and gravitational attraction combined?
Tractive forces
What is usually the highest point on a beach?
Berm crest
What is the reference level to which a tidal height is compared to?
What occurs as a tsunami's circumference expands?
The energy dissipates
Which habitat is the most impacted by pollutants?
What kind of flow is important in driving the ocean surface currents?
Stokes drift
How do the insoluble components of oil affect the ocean?
a.Prevent free diffusion of gas
b.Clog feeding structures
c.Decrease the amount of light penetrating the surface
In theory, what are free-market economies based upon?
Pure competition
What is a mathematical model?
A model that uses equations to describe a system's behaviors
Why is a storm surge not considered a progressive wave?
It is only a crest rather than a whole wave.
What is the relationship between the heights of tides and the amphidromic point?
Heights increase with distance from the amphidromic point
An erosional coast that has little tidal variation:
can erode quickly because wave action is centralized.
Why does wave refraction occur?
Wave lines approach shore and enter into different depths
What remains unchanged regardless of depth?
Wave period
What is a fjord?
A deep, narrow bay
What is a sea?
None of these choices
What is a coastal cell?
A section of coastline that has a balance of input and output of sand
Why is the same side of the moon always facing Earth?
The tidal friction locked the moon's rotation to that of Earth
What determines an organism's response to a particular pollutant?
a.The quantity of the pollutant
b.The toxicity of the pollutant
c.The persistence of the pollutant
When does a wave begin to interact with its bottom?
When the bottom is shallower than the wavelength
What is not true of the backshore?
It extends slightly seaward of the berm crest.
prevents North Atlantic Deep Water from moving on a large scale like the Antarctic Bottom Water?
The topography of the basin
When do tidal currents reach their maximum velocity?
Midway between high and low tide
How are pristine conditions of the atmosphere determined?
Seawater samples from deep within polar ice packs
What is not an important factor for the development of wind waves?
What is an amphidromic point?
A node in the center of an ocean basin
Why is the West Wind Drift not considered a gyre?
It does not flow around the margins of an ocean basin.
tools do fishermen now employ to locate schools of fish?
a.Scouting vessels
b.Satellite sensors
c.Ariel photography
Barrier islands are:
formed when sediments accumulate on submerged rises
The west coast of the United States receives two high tides and two low tides of varying heights per day. What kind of tidal pattern is this?
Semidiurnal mixed tides
What is the relative ratio of height to wavelength in a tsunami?
It is extremely low.
What influences contour currents?
What occurs when waves hit an obstacle straight on?
Wave reflection
direction would a gyre in the Southern Hemisphere flow towards?
What is a fetch?
The uninterrupted distance over which wind blows
is the rate of shore erosion dependent upon?
Exposure to wave activity
What is another name for undercurrents?
Where does the largest amount of upwelling occur?
Equatorial upwelling
What is a disadvantage of using tidal power?
It cannot sustain the world's needs
What is the restoring force of a wave?
The force that returns water to a calm state
What drives a storm surge ashore?
Frontal storms
What is the disadvantage of using drift bottles to study currents?
The intermediate movements of the bottles are unknown.
What chemical is responsible for depleting the Earth's ozone at a rapid rate?
The sun and moon are aligned in a right angle with Earth at its vortex. What kind of tide would this produce?
Neap tide
What type of net has been particularly disruptive in the mistargeting of species?
Drift nets
Where is the seaward limit of a beach?
Where the sediment stops moving onshore or offshore
What function does a bay mouth bar provide?
a.It protects the area from waves.
b.It protects the area from turbulence.
c.It encourages the accumulation of sediments.
What is bycatch?
Organisms unintentionally killed during the harvesting of a different, desirable species
Geologists use ____ to view sediment layers, depth, and possible reservoir structures.
What could happen if global warming were to continue?
a.Changes in global winds and rainfall
b.Rise in ocean temperatures
c.Decrease in dissolved gases
T or F-Chemicals and fertilizers are a primary cause of coral reef damage
T or F-Clownfish confuse their prey into thinking they are swimming in the opposite direction by having an eye sized spot on their tail.
T or F-Coral reefs are formed at all latitudes on the planet.
T or F-Coral reefs form at all latitudes on the planet.
T or F-Corals generally feed during the day by stinging their prey.
T or F-Global warming is having little or no effect on coral reefs.
T or F-Humbolt squid have teeth in their tentacle suction cups.
T or F-Coral bleaching can sometimes be good for future coral development.
T or F-When walking in the ocean you should always take care to step with your feet versus dragging them
T or F-If algae is not eaten by fish on the reef, the reef will eventually die.