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34 Cards in this Set

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What are the 4 osteopathic principles?
1) body is a unit
2) the body is capable of self healing,regulation, and maintenance
3) structure and function are reciprocally interrelated
4) treatment is based on those 3 principles
What are the 5 treatment goals?
Restore homeostasis
Improve venous and lymphatic return
Increase Arterial flow
Restore physiological motion
Balance the autonomic nervous system
How do DIRECT techniques work?
These engage the restrictive barrier, the dysfunctional component is carried toward or through the restrictive barrier
How do INDIRECT techniques work?
These DISengage the restrictive barrier. The dysfunctional component is moved away from the motion barrier, to a point of balance and reduce tension
What does the direct articulatory technique do?
This is a low velocity, high amplitude procedure.
The barrier is repeatedly engaged 5 times or more.
Designed to stretch contracted muscles
Useful in transitional zones like- thoracolumbar
What are the direct techniques?
Articulatory
soft tissue
myofascial release
muscle energy
HVLA
lymphatic technique
What are the indirect techniques?
Counterstrain
Cranial
Myofascial release
functional technique
Facilitated positional relase
visceral
What is myofasical release?
This is the loading/stretching of the tissue until a release occurs
What does myofascial release try to do to the nervous system?
This trys to lower inappropriate afferent (sensory) input to CNS, so the efferent (motor) pathways may relax
What are extrafusal muscle fibers Innervated by?
Alpha motor neurons of the ventral root of spinal cord
What does the Golgi Tendon do? what does it respond to, and by doing what?
This prevents excessive muscle tension
Lies within muscles
responds to FORCE not length
inhibits alpha motor neurons
What do intrafusal muscle fibers do? What do they respond to? what innervates them?
These maintain appropriate muscle tone.
It responds to both the amount and rate of change in muscle length
is proprioceptive

Innervated by gamma motor neurons
What causes normal resting muscle tone?
gamma gain
what causes muscle spasms?
increased gamma gain
How do indrect techniques inhibit muscle spasms?
These inhibit or decrease the tone of the muscle fibers, resetting the gamma gain to a new lower level>
How do direct techniques inhibit muscle spasms?
These stretch the golgi tendon, which ends up inhibiting the muscles contraction (by inhibiting the alpha motor neurons).
What does basic muscle energy theory state?
a restricted joint w/shortened muscle:
This causes:
the muscle spindle to report increased tension- this increases gamma tone (as if muscle was stretched)
Treatment: Pull muscle to barrier, pt then flexes, this pulls on golgi tendon, which inhibits the alpha motor neurons (to prevent damage) lowering gamma gain.
What is isometric muscle contraction?
Contracting against resistance, but with constant muscle length
What is Isotonic muscle contraction?
Contracting against resistance, with change in length
(concentric= shortening muscle, eccentric= lengthening muscle)
What is lsolytic muscle contraction?
this is an isotonic variation, where a muscle is lengthens very rapidly
What is isokinetic muscle contraction?
This is an isotonic contraction where the length change occurs at constant speed
Explain the steps of Muscle Energy technique
specific diagnosis
engage barrier in all planes
Isometric contraction against dr. 3-5 sec
relax 2 sec
stretch to new barrier
Repeat process several times
How does the counterstrain technique work?
in this method, the dr locates an area of tenderness, and then moves the pt passively away from the restrictive barrier. Find position of greatest comfort and hold for 90 seconds. allowing tissue to relax
How does indirect myofasical release work?
This unloads the tissue tension by following the tissue unwinding in all plans of motion (away from barriers)
What is the activating force of OMM treatments?
This is the force that is applied after a pt has been positioned properly, that results in a therapeutic effect
What are the Soft Tissue Direct Techniques we learned?
Bilateral/Unilateral cervical bowstringing, Killer Fingers
Thoracic bowstringing
Lumbar bowstringing
What are the Direct Myofascial Release Techniques we learned?
Thoracolumbar junction treatment
What are the Articulatory Techniques we learned?
Cervical/Thoracic/Lumbar
What muscle energy motion did we learn?
The hamstring treatment
After soft tissue technqiues, how do you expect the muscle to react?
They should become red, hot, boggy, and go into spasm
Where do you put your fingers for killer fingers?
Into the sub-occipital sulcus
How do articulatory techniques work?
These are basically stretches that engage a barrier, as a muscle is engaged as its specific motion/barrier
When doing thoacic and lumbar articulatory technique, what do we need to stabilize, and using what
we use one hand to stabilize the spinous process of the vertebra below the one of interest
What are the contraindications to articulatory techniques?
disease of soft tissue, infection, weak joints or vasculature, acute injury