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26 Cards in this Set

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32) __________ and __________ transfer their high-energy electrons to the electron transport system.
A) NADH, NAD+
B) NAD+, FADH2
C) FADH2, FAD+
D) B and C
E) A and C
Answer: E
34) When energy is released during catabolism, it is temporarily trapped in high energy bonds or electrons of certain compounds. Which of the following is NOT associated with carrying energy?
A) ATP
B) DNA
C) NADH
D) FADH2
E) NADPH
Answer: B
37) The reactions of glycolysis occur in the cell's __________; the reactions of the citric acid cycle occur in the __________.
A) cytoplasm, cytoplasm
B) mitochondria, mitochondria
C) cytoplasm, mitochondria
D) mitochondria, cytoplasm
Answer: C
38) In the aerobic metabolism of glucose, __________ acts as the final electron acceptor.
A) water
B) oxygen
C) carbon dioxide
D) lactate
E) ATP
Answer: B
40) For each NADH molecule that moves through the electron transport system, what is the potential yield of ATP molecules?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 2.5
D) 3.5
E) 4
Answer: C
41) What is the potential yield of ATP molecules for each FADH2 molecule entering the electron transport system?
A) 1
B) 1.5
C) 2
D) 2.5
E) 3
Answer: B
42) Estimates of the maximum possible ATP yield for one molecule of glucose total either 30 or 32 ATP. Why are there two different results?
A) Sometimes the electron transport system is more efficient than other times.
B) The NADH molecules produced during glycolysis are in the cytoplasm; occasionally, electrons are carried by the lower energy FADH2 instead of NADH.
C) Individual variation is normal among cells.
D) Any of these answers may work under different cellular conditions.
Answer: B
127) Which of the following is a key intermediate of glucose catabolism?
A) ATP
B) pyruvate
C) oxygen
D) lactate
E) glucokinase
Answer: B
128) Lactate dehydrogenase
A) catalyzes the reaction pyruvate → lactate.
B) catalyzes the reaction lactate → pyruvate.
C) uses NADH to produce NAD+.
D) uses NAD+ to produce NADH.
E) All of the above statements are true.
Answer: E
129) The net energy yield for the anaerobic metabolism of one glucose molecule is
A) two molecules of ATP and two NADH.
B) two molecules of NADH and 0 ATP.
C) two molecules of ATP and 0 NADH.
D) 36 molecules of ATP and 0 NADH.
E) two molecules of ATP and three NADH converted to ATP later.
Answer: C
131) NADH is produced from each reaction described except one. Identify the exception.
A) during aerobic glycolysis
B) during the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
C) during the citric acid cycle
D) in the electron transport system
E) NADH is produced in each reaction listed.
Answer: D
132) Oxidative phosphorylation occurs __________; the beneficial end product is __________.
A) in the cytoplasm just inside the plasma membrane, H2O
B) in the cytoplasm just inside the plasma membrane, ATP
C) in the mitochondria due to the electron transport system, ATP
D) in the mitochondria due to the electron transport system, CO2
E) twice during the citric acid cycle, ATP
Answer: C
136) In completing the phases of glucose catabolism leading to ATP, the carbons that start the reaction as glucose actually end up
A) as ATP.
B) as CO2.
C) as NADH.
D) as oxaloacetate.
E) as pyruvate.
Answer: B
21) A hemoglobin molecule is composed of
A) two protein chains.
B) three protein chains.
C) four protein chains and nothing else.
D) four protein chains and four heme groups.
E) four heme groups but no protein.
Answer: D
22) The porphyrin ring of heme contains an atom of
A) magnesium.
B) calcium.
C) iron.
D) sodium.
E) copper.
Answer: C
23) The majority of the protein inside a red blood cell is
A) albumin.
B) porphyrin.
C) hemoglobin.
D) immunoglobulin.
E) fibrinogen.
Answer: C
24) The function of hemoglobin is to
A) carry oxygen.
B) protect the body against infectious agents.
C) aid in the process of blood clotting.
D) carry nutrients from the intestine to the body's cells.
E) all of the above
Answer: A
6) At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is __________% saturated with oxygen.
A) 10
B) 25
C) 50
D) 75
E) over 90
Answer: E
7) The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately __________ mm Hg.
A) 40
B) 45
C) 50
D) 70
E) 100
Answer: E
8) The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the cells of peripheral tissues is approximately __________ mm Hg.
A) 40
B) 45
C) 50
D) 70
E) 100
Answer: B
10) Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
A) solute dissolved in the plasma.
B) carbaminohemoglobin.
C) bicarbonate ions.
D) solute dissolved in the cytoplasm of red blood cells.
E) carbonic acid.
Answer: C
11) Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is
A) dissolved in plasma.
B) bound to hemoglobin.
C) in ionic form as solute in the plasma.
D) bound to a plasma protein.
E) carried by white blood cells.
Answer: B
12) Which of the following would make the oxygen-hemoglobin curve shift right?
A) increased H+ concentration
B) increased pH
C) decreased temperature
D) decreased CO2
E) none of the above
Answer: A
16) An increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will
A) decrease the rate of breathing.
B) increase the rate of breathing.
C) decrease pulmonary ventilation.
D) decrease the alveolar ventilation rate.
E) A, C, and D
Answer: B
54) The chloride shift occurs when
A) hydrogen ions leave the red blood cells.
B) hydrogen ions enter the red blood cells.
C) bicarbonate ions enter the red blood cells.
D) bicarbonate ions leave the red blood cells.
E) carbonic acid is formed.
Answer: D
60) Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to all EXCEPT which of the following?
A) changes in PCO2
B) changes in PO2
C) changes in pH due to carbon dioxide levels
D) changes in blood pressure
E) all of the above
Answer: D