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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Essential Elements of Management
 Goals
 Process
 Resources
Main management tasks
Planning
Organizing
Leading
Controlling
Main management approaches
 Classical or Scientific approach
 Human relations approach
 Systems approach
 Contingency approach
 Modern approaches
Different levels of management
Essential elements of an organization
People
Goals
Structure
Management
Basic components of an organization structure
 Top management
 Middle management
 Operational core
 Organisational support
 Operational support
Factors affecting organization design
Mintzberg’s Five Type of Organisation Structure
 Small, or entrepreneurial, structure
 Machine bureaucracy
 Divisionalised structure
 Professional bureaucracy
 Adhocracy
Characteristics of Project based Organisations
 Decisions are not repetitive. Early decisions have impact on later decisions.
 Learning time for members is limited.
 Work pattern is not well defined.
 Personnel are drawn from many organisations (matrix structure).
 Personnel may work on multiple projects simultaneously (matrix structure).
 Project organisation changes over different stages
Personality characteristics
 Independence
 Conscientiousness
 Agreeableness
 Self-control
Personality study approaches
 Nomothetic approach:
Approach claims that personality is largely inherited & resistant to change

 Ideographic approach:
Personality development is viewed as a process & is
open to change
Big Five Factors (Personality Traits)
 extroversion/introversion
 agreeableness/hostility
 conscientiousness/heedlessness
 emotional stability/instability
 openness or intellect/closed-mindedness
Personality: Its Application in the Workplace
 Organisations regard personality as being of key
significance in decision-making
 Personality is taken into consideration at the
selection interview
 Personality is a powerful determinant of a
manager’s effectiveness
Factors Affecting an Individual’s Perceptual Set
Selection of stimuli (perception)
 Grouping – the way in which a manager may think of a group of staff
 Figure & ground – a manager may notice a new recruit & set that person apart from the rest because of particular characteristics such as appearance
 Closure – the degree to which unanimity is perceived
Selecting Information (perception)
Verbal – what is said

Non verbal (body language) –
 Bodily contact
 Proximity to others
 Posture
 Head nods
 Facial expression
 Gestures
 Direction of gazes, etc
Common stereotypes (perception)
 Nationality
 Occupation
 Age
 Physical attributes
 Education
 Social status
 Politics
Perception processes
Language
Cultural differences
Selecting information
Stereotyping
Halo effect
Rusty halo effect
Equality and Diversity Legislations (Perception)
 Race
 Gender
 Disability
 Sexual Orientation
 Religion or Belief
 Age
Manager vs Leader
Approaches to leadership (theories)
 Traits approach
 Functional approach
 Behavioral approach
Early Trait Theories (Leadership)
Leadership consists of certain inherited
characteristics, or personality traits, which distinguish
leaders from their followers:

 Physical attributes
 Personality characteristics
 Social skills and speech fluency
 Intelligence and scholarship
 Cooperativeness
 Insight
Functional Approach (Leadership)
Leader’s function can be summarised as meeting the needs of three overlapping aspects:
 Task needs
 Team maintenance needs
 Individual needs
Behavioral approach (leadership)
 Consideration (People Oriented behaviour)– reflects the extent to which the leader establishes trust, mutual respect & rapport with the group & shows concern, warmth, support, & consideration for subordinates
 Initiating Structure (Task Oriented behaviour) – reflects the extent to which the leader defines & structures group interactions towards the attainment of formal goals
Different styles of leadership
 Authoritarian - the focus of power is with the manager
 Democratic - the focus of power is more with the group as a whole
 Laissez-faire (delegative / genuine) - The manager
consciously makes a decision to pass the focus of
power to members, to allow them freedom of action
‘to do as they think best’, and not to interfere; but is
readily available if help is needed
Contingency models of leadership
 Favourability of leadership situation (Fiedler)
 Quality & acceptance of leader’s decision (Vroom & Yetton)
 Path–goal theory (House)
 Maturity of followers (Hersey & Blanchard)
Transactional Leadership
 Based on legitimate authority within the
bureaucratic structure of an organisation
 Emphasis on the clarification of goals & objectives, work tasks & outcomes, organisational rewards & punishments
 Appeals to the self interest of followers
 Based on a relationship of mutual dependence & an exchange process of ‘I will give you this, if you do that’
Transformational Leadership
 A process of engendering higher levels of
motivation & commitment among followers
 Emphasis is on generating a vision for the
organisation, the leader’s ability to appeal to
higher ideals & values of followers, & creating
a feeling of justice, loyalty & trust
 Is about transforming the performance or
fortunes of a business
The Meaning of Motivation
 A combination of desire and commitment
demonstrated by effort
 The driving force within individuals by which
they attempt to achieve some goal in order to
fulfil some need or expectation
 The degree to which an individual wants and
chooses to engage in certain behaviour
Motivation theories
 Content theories:
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Aldefer’s ERG Theory
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
McClelland’s Achievement, Power, and Affiliation Needs
 Process theories:
Expectancy-based models – Vroom and Porter &
Lawler
Equity theory – Adams
Goal theory – Locke
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
ERG Theory (Alderfer)
 Existence needs – concerned with sustaining human existence & survival and covers physiological & safety needs of a material nature
 Relatedness needs – concerned with relationships to the social environment and covers love or belonging, affiliation, and meaningful interpersonal relationships
 Growth needs – concerned with the development of potential and covers self-esteem & self-actualisation
Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg)
 Hygiene factors:
Elements of the job context.
Sources of job dissatisfaction.

 Satisfier factors:
Elements of the job content.
Sources of job satisfaction and motivation.
Expectancy Theory (Vroom)
Key expectancy theory variables:
 Expectancy — belief that working hard will result
in desired level of performance.
 Instrumentality — belief that successful
performance will be followed by rewards.
 Valence — value a person assigns to rewards and
other work related outcomes.

M = E x I x V
If either E, I, or V is low, motivation
will be low.
Equity Theory (Adams)
 Employees mentally construct outcome-to-input ratios for themselves and their referent other and “socially compare”
 If equity exists:
Outcome/Input Self = Outcome/Input Reference person,
employees experiences no tension and persist at their current level of effort
 However, when:
Outcome/Input Self =/= Outcome/Input
Reference person,
tension is created and employees are “motivated” to restore equity
Goal-setting Theory (Locke)
 Motivational effects of task goals:
 Provide direction to people in their work.
 Clarify performance expectations.
 Establish a frame of reference for feedback.
 Provide a foundation for behavioral self-
management.
Motivation and Performance at Work (formula)
Performance = function(ability x motivation)

To increase performance, you need to do one
of or both of the following:
 Enhancing employee’s ability
 Fostering a motivating work environment
To motivate...
Set clear, effective goals
Remove the obstacles to performance
Reinforce performance enhancing behavior
Use Salient Rewards
Equitable process
Provide Accurate and Effective Feedback
Some conflict is good because:
 better decisions
 reexamine assumptions
 Improves responsiveness to external environment
 Increases cohesion within
Causes of Organizational Conflict
Diagnosing the Potential Causes of Conflict
Personal differences in values, work experience, cognitive styles, priorities, expectations, etc.
 Information deficiencies caused by poor communication, leading to misinterpret or misunderstanding.
 Role incompatibility stems from conflicting expectations, pressures from job assignments, and incompatible goals and responsibilities.
 Environmental stress stems from budget reductions, other resource scarcities
Conflict Management Process/Model
Conflict Management Approaches
Conflict Management Approaches (when to use)
Forcing: emergencies, when only one
right way exists, prevent others from
taking advantage
Avoiding: small issue, limited
time/resources
Compromising: late in conflict, when partial win
is better than none for both parties
Accommodating: keeping harmony, using
small favour to get larger one
Collaborating: for important issues when
time is not a problem, where organizational support exists, when win-win solution is possible
Difference between groups and teams
Two characteristics distinguish teams from
groups:
 Intensity with which team members work together
 Presence of a specific, overriding team goal or
objective
Factors Influencing Group Cohesiveness and
Performance
Stages of Team Development (Tuckman)
Proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965, initially
included four stages:
 Forming
 Storming
 Norming
 Performing
A fifth stage was added to the model in 1977:
 Adjourning
Belbin’s Nine Team Roles
 Plant: someone who is creative free-thinking, and
responsible for come up with innovative solutions.
 Resource Investigator: performing external facing
roles.
 Co-ordinator: responsible for allocating tasks and
helping others focus on their tasks.
 Shaper: task-focused role, who is responsible for
keeping things moving.
 Monitor Evaluator: one who can objectively assess
progress and performance.
 Teamworker: oil between the cogs that keeps the
machine that is the team running smoothly.
 Implementer: takes their colleagues' suggestions
and ideas and turns them into positive action.
 Finisher: a perfectionist who is good at finishing
touches.
 Specialist: experts in their own field of
responsibilities.
Characteristics of Effective Teamwork
 A team whose membership, size and resources match the task
 Good leadership and attention to team-building
 Commitment by team members to understand and identify with one another's goals
 The development of team goals – a shared vision
 A sense of common ownership of the task at hand and joint responsibility for its achievement
 Co-ordinated effort and planned sharing of tasks evenly across the team
 The open exchange of information within the team
 Honesty and frankness among team members.
Elements of an Organisational Control System
Types of Power
 Coercive Power: use of threat to make people do
certain things
 Remunerative (Reward) Power: use rewards, perks, new projects or training opportunities, better roles and monetary benefits to influence people.
Normative Power: relies on the allocation and the
manipulation of symbolic rewards, for example,
esteem and prestige.
Delegation & Empowerment
Advantages of Delegation
 Increases manager’s discretionary time
 Develops subordinate capabilities
 Demonstrates confidence in delegates
 Enhances commitment of delegates
 Improves decision making
 Increases efficiency
 Fosters work integration by manager coordination
Barriers to Delegation
 Lack of confidence
 Fear
 Vanity
 Insecurity
 Self -importance
Delegation Best Practices
Begin with the end in mind
Delegate broadly
Support Participation in delegation
Establish Parity Between Authority and Responsibility
Work within the Organizational Structure
Provide Adequate Support
Focus Accountability on Results
Delegate Consistently
Choose the right people
Communicate
Avoid Upward Delegation
Empowerment Best Practices
 Articulate a clear vision and goals
 Help them to master challenges
 Model the correct behavior
 Provide support
 Arouse positive emotions
 Provide good information
 Provide necessary resources
 Connect to outcomes
 Be fair, reliable, open, caring, and competent
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) includes:
Community investment
Human rights
Employee relations
Environment practice
Ethical conduct
Benefits of CSR for Businesses
 Stronger performance and profitability
 Improved relations with the investment
community and access to capital
 Enhanced employee relations and company
culture
 Risk management and access to social
opportunities
 Stronger relationships with communities and
legal regulators
Layers of Corporate Responsibilities
Elements of an effective ethics programme
What is Culture?
 Culture is “a set of values, attitudes, beliefs, and meanings that are shared by the members of a group or organisation”.
 It is often the primary way in which one ‘group’ (organisation, team, etc.) differentiates itself from others.
 Reflects the underlying assumption about the
way work is performed, what is acceptable and
not acceptable, and what behaviour and actions
are encouraged and discouraged
Benefits of Embracing Change
An Organisation Perspective:
 Change provides opportunity for business growth.
 It gives the opportunity to develop solid strategic planning and tactical maneuvers.
 It can create more efficient processes and systems.
 It enables organisations to adapt and respond quicker than competition.
 It reduces the status quo mentality.
 It promotes system thinking and long term vision.
 It brings on innovation.
 It encourages proactive approach to risk management.
 It's a lot more interesting than something that is static and stable all the time.

An Individual Perspective:
 Change provides personal growth, through learning new skills.
 It makes people more adaptable to new situations, new environments, and new people.
 It provides opportunity for improvement in personal life.
 Changes bring new beginnings and excitement to life.
Lewin’s 3-Step Change Model
Essential Steps to Successful Change
Sources of Individual Resistance to Change
Sources of Organizational Resistance to Change
Overcoming Resistance to Change
 Education and Communication
Best used: When information is lacking inaccurate.
 Participation and Involvement
Best used: Where initiators lack information, and
others have power to resist.
 Facilitation and Support
Best used: Where people resist because of
adjustment problems.
 Negotiation and Agreement
Best used: Where one group will lose, and has
considerable power to resist.
 Manipulation and Co-opting
Best used: Where other tactics won’t work or are too expensive
 Explicit or Implicit Coercion
Best used: When speed is essential, and initiators have power.