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575 Cards in this Set

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Coagulation tubes have which type of closure?
light blue
Hematology tubes have which type of closure?
purple/lavender
purple/lavender or red/speckled
Serum tubes have which type of closure?
red/speckled
A health care-acquired infection occurs when:
the chain of infection is complete.
A chemical used to inhibit the growth and development of microorganisms but not necessarily kill them is:
hydrogen peroxide.
hydrogen peroxide or chloramines
A inherited condition that is caused by the body's inability to metabolize phenylalanine is called:
PKU
A lavender stoppered evacuated tube must be redrawn because of clots in the tube. What collection error causes this?
insufficient mixing of additive with specimen
A new field of medicine that deals with the study of interaction between the brain, endocrine system, and the immune system is called:
psychoneuroimmunology
A patient has undergone a left radical mastectomy. What site can not be used for venipuncture until the patient's physician is consulted?
left arm
A patient is being treated with thiazide diuretic. What health care professional is responsible for recognizing potential drug interferences with test results?
physician
medical technologist, nurse, phlebotomist, physician
A patient suffers a transfusion reaction. What may this condition cause in the patient's specimen?
hemolysis
A phlebotmist is to collect a specimen for an APTT and prothrombin time from a patient. According to the NCCLS guidelines, what tube stopper color should the phlebotomist collect FIRST?
red
A phlebotomist attemts a venipuncture on a patient's basilic vein. If the blood that appears in the evacuated tube is dark purple-red, the phlebotomist should:
allow the tube to fill, following standard procedures.
A phlebotomist collected a specimen for ABG analyis. What should the phelebotomist do with the needle, after withdrawing it formt he patient,s arm?
insert it into a rubber stopper
A phlebotomist enters a patient's room at 5:30 am, but the patient is asleep. The phlebotomist should:
gently wake the patient and proceed
A phlebotomist is about to collect a blood specimen from a patient in ICU, but the patient is unconscious. The phlebotomist should:
proceed as though the patient were conscious
A test that will detect borderline abnormalities in a patient is said to be:
sensitive
reproducible, reliable, specific, sensitive
After completion of blood collection in an isolation room, the first step in preparation for leaving the isolation room is to:
Remove the gown by first breaking the paper tie or untying the sash.
After performing a routine venipuncture, the phlebotomist noticed that the blood in the evacuated tube was bright cherry red. What vessel did the phlebotomist puncture?
artery
After puncturing a finger during a skin puncture procedure, what is the next step?
Wipe away the first drop with gauze.
Agranulocytes that function in antibody production are called:
lymphocytes
An evacuated tube contains clot activator and serum separator gel. What color is the Hemogard TM closure?
gold
An evacuated tube contains thrombin. What color is the Hemogard TM closure?
orange
An example of a specimen that requires protection from light is:
beta-carotene and porphyrins.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) requires which of the following blood collection tubes for proper test results?
purple-topped tube
As a phlebotomist, you have just completed the collection of a GTT on a 28-year-old female patient who asks you whether it is okay that she has eaten only meat and eggs for the past week before this test. What do you tell her?
No, the GTT results will be falsely affected because the test is based on a person having a carbohydrate intake that must be at least 150 grams per day for 3 days before the GTT.
At least how long should a warmer be applied to a skin puncture site prior to making a skin puncture?
3 minutes
3, 4, 5, 6 minutes
At what angle should the needle be inserted during an arterial puncture procedure?
45 degrees
15, 30, 45, 60 degrees
Before starting a bleeding time test, the phlebotomist should:
ask the patient if he or she has taken any medications
Bleeding time is used to access what?
platelet function, blood vessel integrity
Bleeding time procedures are usually ordered:
presurgically
as timed tests, in a series, not stat, presurgically
Blood collection for neonatal screening to detect metabolic and genetic abnormalities usually occurs:
by collecting from the lateral plantar surface of the heel.
Blood enters the right side of the heart from what blood vessel?
superior vena cava
Blood enters the left side of the heart from what blood vessel?
pulmonary vein
Blood exits the heart from the left ventricle through what valve?
aortic
Blood exits the heart from the right atrium through what valve?
tricuspid valve
Blood from a routine venipuncture should have what color?
dark red
Blood smears are used to:
evaluate white blood cell morphology.
Changing a patient's position from supine to standing will cause which physiologic change?
water will filter from the plasma to the tissues
Circulating blood cells normally include which of the following:
RBCs, WBCs, platelets.
Cleaning the bleeding time puncture site too vigorously may cause:
hyperemia
hyperemia, hemoconcentration, hemolysis, hyperchromia
Communication techniques for teenagers and the elderly should be:
age-appropriate
Contamination rates of blood culture specimens should not exceed:
3%
0%, 3%, 6%, 10%
Deoxygenated blood is found in which blood vessels?
veins
Describe what a phlebotomist should do when using a winged infusion (butterfly) system to collect blood for a single coagulation test?
The phlebotomist should collect at least one other tube prior to collecting a sodium citrate tube.
Drawing blood through a hematoma may cause what to a patient's specimen?
hemolysis
During a Duke Bleeding Time procedure, a phlebotomist touches the wound with the collection device. The bleeding time results will be:
falsely prolonged
falsely prolonged, falsely decreased, impossible to interpret, unchanged
During a venipuncture procedure, patients are often asked to "make a fist." When should the fist be released?
after the blood begins to flow
after the blood begins to flow or before the puncture
During a venipuncture procedure, several tubes were required for laboratory testing. One tube was filled and the next evacuated tube was inserted into the holder but blood flow does not occur. What is the most likely problem?
The tube has lost its vacuum and will not aspirate.
During a venipuncture procedure, why is it important to "anchor the vein" prior to inserting a needle?
to keep the vein from moving around
During an Ivy Bleeding Time procedure, the blood pressure cuff should be positioned:
above the antecubital crease
above the antecubital crease, below the antecubital crease, around the patient's calf, around the patient's wrist
During pregnancy, the increase of body fluids may cause a patient's RBC count to :
decrease
During routine venipucture, how deep should the needle be inserted?
until the phlebotomist feels a slight decrease in resistance
During routine venipuncture, after the phlebotomist engages the evacuated tube, no blood appears in the tube. The phlebotomist determines that the venipuncture attempt was unsuccessful. What should the phlebotomist do FIRST to end the prodedure?
untie the tourniquet
During routine venipuncture, how should the needle be positioned, relative to the vein selected?
same direction
During routine venipuncture, the needle should be inserted at what angles relative to the patient's arm:
15 to 30 degrees
0-10, 5-10, 15-30, 30-45 (degrees)
During routine venipuncture, the needle should be inserted:
bevel up
During the Allen test, a patient's hand returns to pink 10 seconds after one of the arteries is released. What should the phlebotomist do next?
perform the Allen test on another site
During the Allen test, two arteries are compressed. One artery is susequently released. If normal circulation is present, the patient's hand should turn pink with in how many seconds?
5 seconds
5, 7, 9, 10 seconds
During the Allen test, which artery is released FIRST?
ulnar
During the Allen test, which two arteries are compressed by the phlebotomist?
radial and ulnar
During the Ivy Bleeding Time procedure, the blood pressure cuff should be inflated to:
40 mm Hg
35, 40, 45, 50 mm Hg
During the Ivy Bleeding Time procedure, the maximum length of time that may elapse between inflation of the blood pressure cuff and making the incision is :
60 seconds
10, 60, 90,120 seconds
During the Ivy Bleeding Time procedure, the phlebotomist should start the stopwatch:
simultaneously with the incision
after applying the tourniquet, simultaneously with the incision, after blotting the first drop of blood, when the blood pressure cuff is applied
During the Ivy bleeding time procedure, which position of the bleeding time device is more sensitive to borderline abnormalities and offers a cosmetic advantage to the patient?
parallel to the anticubital crease
parallel to the anticubital crease, perpendicular to the anticubital crease, tilted to the left of the phlebotomist, tilted to the right of the phlebotomist
During venipuncture, a phlebotomist moves the tube gently up and down in the holder, moving the contents back and forth. What may this cause?
Reflux
During venipuncture, the phlebotomist inserts the needle next to the patient's vein, on the left side of the patient's vein. No blood appears in the evacuated tube. The phlebotomist should?
pull back and reinsert the needle to the right
During venipuncture, the tourniquet, should be left on a patient's arm no longer than:
1 to 2 minutes
Eating what food can cause lipemic serum in a patient's blood specimen?
butter
Evacuated tubes are manufactured in a range of sizes. What is the range of volumes that most accurately reflects available sizes of evacuated tubes?
2 to 20 mL
1 to 15 mL,1 to 25 mL, 2 to 20 mL, 2 to 30 mL
Fibrin degradation products are the end result of the:
fibrinolytic pathway
Figure 2 is an instrument for:
hematology testing.
Following collection, how should specimens colledted for ABGs be transported?
on ice
Following venipuncture by syringe, blood must be aliquoted into the following evacuated tubes: red, sky blue, green. In what order should the evacuated tubes be filled:
sky blue, red speckled/gold, green
For a phlebotomist's hand decontamination, what is an effective alternative to hand-washing with soap and water?
commercially available alcohol-based hand rubs
For blood culture collections, the most appropriate needle gauge size to use is:
22-gauge.
For central venous catheter (CVC) blood collections, which of the following analytes has to have 7 mL of blood discarded from the line before another separate syringe is used to collect the additional amount for the analyte test?
partial thromboplastin time
For central venous catheter (CVC) blood collections, which of the following tests must be collected prior to other tests' collections?
blood cultures
For infants, the penetration depth of a lancet in a heelstick must be less than / or not exceed:
2.0 mm
For laboratory testing of the hormone cortisol, which of the following factors has an effect on the test results?
time of day of the specimen collection
Granulocuytes that function in fighting bacterial infections are called:
neutrophilic segmented cells
Hand hygiene is extremely important in blood collection procedures and requires the antiseptic cleaning action of:
70% isopropyl alcohol
Health care workers who use needles are at a higher risk of:
needle stick injuries.
Heel warmers should heat within what temperature ranges?
39 to 42 degrees C
39-42C, 35-39C,36-40C, 37-41C
Hemoconcentration of the specimen may be caused by:
prolong tourniquet application, vigorous hand pumping
How large are capillaries?
about the size of the diameter of one cell
about 1 centimeter in diameter or about the size of the diameter of one cell
How many steps are involved in proper patient identification?
2 steps
1, 2, 3, 4
How much can blood flow to a skin puncture site be increased if a warmer is applied prior to skin puncture?
7 times
4,5,6,7 times
How often should gloves be changed?
after every patient encounter
How should serum or plasma be frozen?
at or below 20 degrees C
How soon after collection and centrifugation should serum or plasma be removed from cells?
no longer than 2 hours
Ideally for blood specimens, when should serum be removed from the cells?
as soon as possible and not longer than 2 hours
If a patient bleeds excessively after a needle puncture and the blood is bright red, what is the most likely cause?
an artery was punctured.
If a patient develops a hematoma during a venipuncture procedure, what should the phlebotomist do?
Remove the needle immediately and apply pressure.
If a patient has "tampered" with his own specimen for urine drug screening, how can it be detected prior to analysis?
taking the urine temperature
If a patient has been taking aspirin for several days, what effect can this have on the phlebotomy process?
excessive bleeding
If a patient has petechiae, what should this indicate to the phlebotomist?
the patient may bleed excessively
If a patient has taken asprin, how long will it affect the patient's platelet function?
7 to 10 days
1-2 hrs, 7-10 mins, 1-2 days, 7-10 days
If a patient is not in his or her room, how should the phlebotomist locate the patient?
ask at the nurse's station
If a patient's arm and hands are swollen due to excessive fluild retention, this patient's condition is called:
edema
If a patient's wristband matches the requisition entirely except for the medical record number, the phlebotomist should:
contact the nurse's station
If a person is lying on their back, what position is this?
supine
If a person is standing erect, with palms facing forward, he or she is in what position?
anatomic
If a phlebotomist notes that the arm selected for venipuncture is edematous, he or she should:
select another site
If a phlebotomist palpates a vein and determines that it is sclerosed, the phlebotomist should:
draw below the sclerosed area
If a physician wishes to assess / screen a patient's platelet function, what test will provide the physician with the most reliable / sensible results?
modified Ivy bleeding time
capillary bleeding time, modified Ivy bleeding time, Duke bleeding time, tourniquet test
If a skin puncture site is warmed prior to blood collection, the speciman is said to be:
arterialized
If a specimen is hemolyzed, what color is the serum?
pink
If a test procedure can be performed the same way, on the same patient, and generate almost identical results, the test is said to be:
reproducible
sensitive, reliable, reproducible, specific
If an evacuated tube contains heparin and plasma separator gel, what color is the Hemogard TM closure?
light green
If blood has been spilled, what action should occur by the phlebotomist?
Keep the 1:10 bleach solution in contact with the contaminated area for a minimum of 20 minutes.
If patient's family is in the patient's room when the phlebotomist enters, the phlebotomist should:
ask the family to step outside the room
Introducing iodine into a specimen for blood culture analysis can result in:
false negative results
Involuntary contraction of an artery is called?
arteriospasm
Mastectomy patients often have which of the following conditions that would affect blood specimens?
fluid retention in the arm of the affected side
Microscopic slides of blood are used in a hematology laboratory for which of the following procedures:
performing white blood cell differentials
performing red blood cell differentials or performing white blood cell differentials
Most point-of-care for glucose testing procedures require:
skin puncture blood.
Mr. Bacon, a phlebotomist who collects blood in the outpatient clinic at Northshore Hospital during the week, recently suffered a needle puncture wound when a HIV-positive teenager from whom he was collecting blood became violent and hit him. Northshore Hospital must report this accidental exposure incident to the:
CDC.
Normal blood used for laboratory testing has which of the following cellular elements?
erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes
One example of a specimen that requires immediate chilling is:
blood gases.
One example of a specimen that requires immediate chilling is:
gastrin
gastrin or porphyrins
One percent lidocaine is used in:
arterial blood gas collection.
Oxygenated blood is found in which blood vessels?
arteries
Patient identification should always include:
two identifiers
Phlebotomists are accountable for their work practices. What does this mean?
Phlebotomists should do what is right even when no one is looking.
Phlebotomists should be knowledgeable and responsible for which of the following:
cultural communication strategies.
cultural communication strategies or NCAA regulations
Plasma is the fluid portion of the blood, when it filters into the tissues, decreasing the fluid portion of the blood in the blood vessels, this condition is called:
hemoconcentration
Positioning a patient's arm downward prior to venipuncture will help prevent:
reflux
Pressure applied to an arterial punctue site for at least 5 minutes following the procedure:
hematoma
Prior to making a puncture during a blood collection procedure, antiseptic solutions should be applied to the site selected:
in concentric circles, beginning at the puncture site
Protective isolation is commonly used for patients who have:
immunodeficiency disorders.
Repalpating a site prior to venipunctur for blood culture analysis, may result in:
false positive results
Reverse isolation rooms are frequently used in:
a cancer center.
a cancer center or pediatrics hospital
Select the correct "order of draw" for tubes with color-coded closures if a phlebotomist is using the evacuated tube method to collect blood for the following laboratory tests: blood cultures, PT and PTT, cell counts, and cholesterol.
yellow, light blue, red, lavender
Shaking an evacuated tube containing an additive too forcefully to mix the contents may cause what in a patient's specimen?
hemolysis
Skin punctures performed on a patients' fingers should be made:
perpendicular to the finger prints
crease between the first and second phalanx, perpendicular to the finger prints, on very tip of finger, parallel to fingerprint
Small, nonraised reddish-purple bruises/spots the size of a pinpoint on a patient's skin are called:
petechiae
Specimen collection in a patient's home may involve unusual positioning of the patient. What is the preferred position or location from which to collect a blood specimen from a homebound patient?
In a reclined position in the den or front room.
Specimens for home glucose monitoring are routinely collected by:
skin puncture
Specimens for what patient should be drawn by skin puncture?
an oncology patient, for a WBC count and platelet count
6 month old baby for blood cultures or an oncology patient for a WBC count
Specimens may remain at room temperature for specified periods. What temperature is considered room temperature?
25 degrees C
25 degrees C or 37 degrees C
Swelling caused by an abnormal accumulation of fluid is called?
edema
TDM specimens are usually performed on:
clotted blood.
The abnormal accumulation of serous fluid is called:
exudate
The body system that mechanically and chemically breaks down food into nurtients that can be absorbed and used by the body's cells is the:
digestive system
The body system that provides communication in the body by the means of electrical impulses and chemical substances is the:
nervous system
The cellular elements of the blood responsible for the transport of oxygen to the tissues are called:
erythrocytes
The cellular elements of the blood that function in coagulation are called:
thrombocyte
The cellular elements of the blood that function in fighting infection are called
leukocytes
The chemicals with a blue storage code indicates they
are a health hazard.
The clear, colorless fluid that functions in protecting and nourishing the brain and spinal cord is called:
CSF
The closed system that is composed of a needle, a holder, and a tube containing a premeasured amount of vacuum is the:
evacuated blood collection system
The condition characterized by deep and rapid respiration preceding the onset of muscular twitching and contractions is called:
tetany
The condition characterized by dizziness, weakness, pallor, clammy skin, sweaty and unconsciousness is called:
syncope
The condition where a healthy body through constant changes and functioning remains the same:
homeostasis
The dimensions of the most commonly used bleeding time devices are:
1 mm deep x 5 mm wide
1 mm deep x 3 mm wide, 3 mm deep x 5 mm deep, 5mm wide x 1mm deep, 1 mm deep x 5 mm wide
The directional term that means above, higher, or toward the head is:
superior
The directional term that means farthest from the center of the body, point of attachement, or origin is:
distal
The directional term that means higher or toward the head is:
cranial
The directional term that means lower or away from the head is:
caudal
The following Microtainers TM were to be collected following skin puncture: lavender, pink, red SST. In what order should the microtainers be collected?
lavender, pink, red SST
The following test were to be collected from a patient following skin puncture: platelet count, bilirubin, T3. What order should these tests be collected?
platelet count, bilirubin, T3
The four-chambered, muscular organ that pumps blood through the circulatory system is the:
heart
The glandular system that secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream is the:
endocrine system
The hazard labeling system developed by the NFPA has the yellow quadrant of the diamond to indicate:
instability hazard.
The HemoCue beta-hemoglobin analyzer is used to assist in the diagnosis and evaluation of:
anemia.
The internal space of a needle is the needle's:
lumen
The Ivy Bleeding time procedure is routinely performed on the patient's:
forearm (lateral aspect, volar surface of the forearm)
earlobe, foot, wrist, fore arm, lateral aspect-volar surface of the fore arm
The Keo-Diastix strip is used to test:
urine specimens.
The last step to occur when leaving the patient in an isolation room after blood collection is to:
wash hands.
The liberation of hemoglobin into the plasma following destruction of red blood cells is called:
hemolysis
The pathway that is initiated by the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways is the:
common pathway
The phlebotomis should inform a patient that the ABG procedure is:
more painful, compared to venipuncture
The phlebotomist inspects the antecubital fossa of a patient and notes that a purple area surrounds the venipuncture site, accompanied by swelling, is called:
hematoma
The point-of-care analyzer, HemoCue hemoglobin system uses what time of blood sample(s)?
venous, capillary, or arterial
The possibility of releasing plaque from the inner wall of the artery in geriatric patients is a definite disadvantage of using what artery in arterial blood gas collections?
femoral artery
The presence of bacteria and their toxins in the bloodstream is called:
septicemia
The process by which body cells use energy to make complex substances from simpler ones is called:
anabolism
The process by which complex substances in food are broken down into simple substances while releasing energy is:
catabolism
The process by which the body stops the leakage of blood from the vascular system is called:
hemostasis
The purpose of collecting blood for the GTT is to test the patient's:
insulin-releasing mechanism.
The rational for the order of draw for a syringes is to minimize:
clotting in anticoagulant tubes
The rational for the sequence of multiple specimen collection following venipuncture is to prevent:
contamination
The standard for measuring the diameter of the lumen of a needle is the needle:
gauge
The term A/G ratio refers to:
albumin/globulin.
The term for the sum of all chemical reactions necessary to sustain life is:
metabolism
The term that means "without air" is:
anaerobic
The use of a template and surgical incision is part of a bleeding time procedure was first introduced by:
Mielke
Duke, Ivy, Mielke, Landsteiner
The work status of a phlebotomist should be "off from work" if he or she has:
impetigo.
shingles or impetigo
To collect blood for the ionized calcium procedure, what blood collection tube is needed for proper test results?
green-topped tube
To collect blood from IV lines in a hospitalized child, which of the following is needed for a safe method to avoid bloodborne exposure?
transfer device for transferring blood to vacuum collection tubes
transfer device for transferring blood to vacuum collection tubes or safety blood collection butterfly set for insertion into the IV line
To examine by touch or feel is to:
palpate
palpate, palate, palpitate, patency
To prepare a punctue site prior to routine venipuncture, the phlebotomist would use:
70% isopropyl alcohol
To prevent skin and mucous membrane exposure when contact with a patient's blood is anticipated, the following should be worn:
PPE.
Two examples of bleeding time devices are:
Simplate TM, Surgicutt TM
Under universal precautions, what PPE must the phlebotomist use for every blood collection procedure?
gloves
Urine is the specimen of choice for:
drug abuse testing.
Using a needle tht is too small to accommodate the force of the vacuum of an evacuated tube may cause what in a patient's specimen?
hemolysis
Vectors in transmitting infectious diseases include:
ticks.
Veins that are hardened are:
sclerosed
What action may result in a QNS skin puncture specimen?
insufficient puncture
alcohol contamination, anemic condition of the patient, insufficient puncture, failure to wipe away the first drop of blood
What actions may result in a false positive blood culture result?
repalpating the site causes contamination
What additive in evacuated tubes binds calcium?
sodium citrate
What additive in evacuated tubes neutralizes thrombin?
sodium heparin
What additive in evacuated tubes promotes clotting?
thrombin
What additive is found in an evacuated tube with a gray conventional stopper which is used for glycolytic inhibitor?
sodium fluoride
What additive is found in an evacuated tube with a green conventional stopper and used to neutralizes thrombin?
sodium heparin
What additive is found in an evacuated tube with a yellow conventional stopper and used to inhibits complement?
SPS
What additive is found in lavender stoppered evacuated tubes?
EDTA
What analysis requires an arterial specimen?
blood gas analysis
What are "waived tests"?
easy tests to perform and least susceptible to error or harm to patients
What are the needle lengths most commonly used for adult venipuncture?
1 and 1-1/2 inch needles
1 and 1-1/2 inch, 1/2 and 1 inch, 1-1/2 and 2 inch, 2 and 2-1/2 inch
What are the three components of coagulation?
blood vessels, coagulation factors, platelets
What blood collection devices is manufactured with a rubber sheath?
multisample needle
What blood collection techniques requires sterile technique to prepare a venipuncture site?
blood culture
What blood constituents may be falsely elevated if the skin puncture site is prepared with povidone iodine?
potassium
What blood constituents will increase as the oxygen content of the air decreases?
red blood cell count
What blood culture specimen collection containers incorporates aerobic bottle and an anaerobic bottle?
Bactec TM system
What blood vessels characteristics is helpful to a phlebotomist, when palpating for a suitable site for the arterial puncture?
pulse
What blood vessels has the thickest vessel wall?
arteries
What body cavity are located in the front of the body?
abdominal
What body cavity houses the brain is the:
cranial cavity
What body cavity houses the heart and lungs is the:
thoracic cavity
What body cavity houses the stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and spleen is the:
abdominal cavity
What body cavity is located in the back of the body?
cranial
What body cavity that houses the urinary bladder and the reproductive organs is the:
pelvic cavity
What can affect cortisol levels?
caffeine
What can influence the results of a bleeding time test?
circulating von Willebrand's factor
What collection procedure will yield a speciman composed of arterial, venous, and capillary blood?
skin puncture
What complication may occur following arterial puncture, but not venipuncture?
arteriospasm
What compound is used to prepare the site prior to the puncture in a Duke Bleeding Time procedure?
alcohol
What concern is important when collecting specimens for blood culture analysis?
using sterile technique to prepare the site
What condition may cause petechiae on a patients skin?
patient platelet defect
What condition occuring in edematous tissue may alter test results?
injury of fragile tissue
What condition sometimes occurs following a mastectomy that becomes a factor in venipuncture site selection?
lymphostasis
What condition, caused by a hematoma surrounding a venipuncture site, may lead to erroneous results?
hemostasis
What constituents is prsent in higher concentrations in blood collected by skin puncture than in blood collected by venipuncture?
glucose
What convential stopper colors corresponds to the evacuated tube suitable for blood culture specimen collection?
yellow
What could cause hemolysis of a speciman obtained by skin puncture?
residual alcohol left on the site, excessive squeezing of the puncture site to secure specimen
NOT: incorrect order of draw, residual alcohol left on the site, povidone iodine to clean site, warming the site, excessive squeezing of the puncture site to secure specimen
What criterion does a phlebotomist use when selecting needle gauge prior to venipuncture procedure?
the lumen size of the patient's vein
What department in the health care setting relies most heavily on ABG results?
respiratory therapy
What effect will dislodging the platelet plug have on bleeding time results?
falsely elevated
falsely decreased, falsely elevated, impossible to predict, no effect
What effect will increasing blood flow to the bleeding time site have on the results of the procedure?
falsely elevated
falsely decreased, falsely elevated, impossible to predict, no effect
What equipment does the phlebotomist need for site preparation prior to skin puncture?
heel warmer, alcohol, sterile gauze
providone iodine, lancet, Unopette TM, sharps, sterile gauze, gloves, gown, biohazard bag, heel warmer, alcohol,
What equipment is routinely used for venipuncture, but not arterial puncture?
tourniquet
What equipment is used for a routine venipuncture?
needle, evacuated tube, holder
What equipment is used to collect specimens for ABG analysis?
syringe
evacualted tube, Microtainer TM, Unopette TM, syringe
What equipment should a phlebotomist carry on his or her tray for the Ivy Bleeding Time procedure?
bleeding time device, alcohol, Blood Pressure cuff, butterfly bandage
alcohol, iodine, steel blade lancet, bleeding time device, blood pressure cuff, filter paper, butterfly bandage
What equipment would a phlebotomist carry on his or her tray for a skin puncture procedure?
lancet, Microtainer TM, guaze
holder, needle, lancet, evacuated tube, Microtainer TM, syringe, heparin, ice, Simplate TM, filter paper, gauze,stopwatch
What evacuated tube additive acts as a glycolytic inhibitor?
sodium fluoride
What evacuated tube additive preserves labile coagulation factors?
sodium citrate
What evacuated tube additive prevents platelets from clumping?
EDTA
What evacuated tube additive produces artifact residue on blood smears stained with Wright's Stain?
sodium heparin
What evacuated tube additives inhibits complement?
SPS
What evacuated tube conventional stopper color indicates the tube contains silica particles to facilitate blood clotting?
red SST
What evacuated tube conventional stopper color should be used when collecting specimens for analyses that require both a patient's cells and serum?
red
What evacuated tube stopper is manufactured with the lowest verified levels of trace elements available?
royal blue
What evacuated tube stopper is manufactured with very low levels of lead?
tan
What fluid is located in the abdominal cavity?
peritoneal fluid
What heart structure contains deoxygenated blood?
right atrium
What heart structure contains oxygenated blood?
aorta
What heart structure is included in the plumonary circuit?
pulmonary artery
What heart structures is a part of the systemic circuit?
aorta
What infection control equipment should the phlebotomist use when performing a skin puncture procedure?
sharps, biohazard bag, gown, gloves
alcohol, sterile gauze, biohazard bag, heel warmer, Unopette TM, Simplate TM, lancet, gown, gloves, capillary tubes, alcohol pad, sharps
What information should not be provided to the patient by the phlebotomist?
what the test is for
What is a likely complication if a phlebotomist draws blood from the palm-side of the patient's wrist?
nerve damage
What is found in plasma, but not in serum?
fibrinogen
What is increased, compared with the antecubital fossa, on the skin surface of the hand?
bacteria
What is NOT an acceptable phlebotomy practice?
recapping contaminated needles
What is the additive found in a red stoppered evacuated tube?
none
What is the best site to select for skin puncture on an infant's foot?
lateral portion of the planter surface of the heel
arch of the foot, lateral portion of the planter surface of the heel, palmar surface or posterior curvature of the heel
What is the best way to end all phlebotomy encounters?
By saying "thank you" to the patient.
What is the cause of sclerosed veins?
numerous venipuncture
What is the correct sequence of the following steps in a routine venipuncture procedure?
apply tourniquet, palpate site, release tourniquet
What is the correct sequence of the following steps in a routine venipuncture procedure?
release vein, engage tube, release tourniquet
What is the correct sequence of the following steps in a routine venipuncture procedure?
uncap the needle, anchor the vein, insert the needle
What is the first step in proper patient identification?
the patient is asked to state his or her name
What is the fluid portion of a blood specimen called after the specimen has been collected into an anticoagulant?
plasma
What is the maximum number of times an infant's heel may be punctured to collect blood specimen?
2 times
1, 2, 3, 4 times
What is the most appropriate time for collecting a blood glucose level?
15 minutes before a meal
15 minutes before a meal or 30 minutes before a meal
What is the most important step in patient identification?
comparing the medical record number on the requisition with the patient's wristband
What is the rationale for the order of draw for the collection of multiple specimens following skin puncture?
minimize platelet clumping
minimizing-contamination, hemoconcentration, hemolysis, minimize platelet clumping
What is the second site choice for arterial puncture?
brachial artery
What is used to collect blood following a Duke Bleeding Time procedure?
filter paper
What is used to mix the specimen with the collection tube additive during capillary blood gas specimen collection?
metal flea
What laboratory profession has the greatest public relations responsibility for the laboratory?
phlebotomist
What level will remain elevated for at least 24 hrs following exercise?
CK
What location is most appropriate for a skin puncture?
the middle finger
What medication will interfere with the bleeding time test results?
asprin, salicylic acid
What method of blood collection is preferred for infants?
skin puncture
What needle gauges are used most often to perform routine venipuncture?
21 and 22
21 and 22, 20 and 21, 22 and 23, 23 and 24
What needle has the largest interior diameter?
smallest number, 18
18,19,20,21
What needle has the smallest interior diameter
largest number, 23
23, 20,23,21,15,22,19,18
What of the following structures is located on the medial aspect of the wrist?
ulnar artery
What pathways is initiated by the release of tissue thromboplastin?
extrinsic pathway
What pathways is initiated through the activation of factor XII?
intrinsic pathway
What patient condition may cause a transient elevation in WBC count results?
stress
What patient would a phlebotomist most likely choose a syringe to collect a blood specimen?
a man with a heparin lock
woman who had a mastectomy, woman who just suffered a miscarriage, a man with heparin lock, man who just underwent angioplasty surgery
What patient would a phlebotomist most likely choose a syringe to perform a venipuncture?
85 year old grandmother
14 yr old high school freshman, 46 yr old high school teacher, 53 yr old construction worker, 85 year old grandmother
What personnel has priority with the patient?
clergyman administering Communion
nursing giving patient a bed bath, phlebotomist to collect a CBC, respiratory therapist, clergyman administering Communion
What personnel has priority with the patient?
physician talking to a patient
phlebotomist with stat request, nurse giving the patient a bed bath, physician talking to a patient, respiratory therapist
What portion of the capillary circulation is increased when a warmer is applied to a skin puncture site?
arterial
capillary, interstitial fluid, venous, arterial
What preferred anticoagulant is used for collection of specimens for ABG analysis?
heparin
What procedure is routinely performed on a patient's earlobe?
Duke Bleeding time
What procedure requires a patient to refrain from strenous exercise for 12 hrs prior to the test?
glucose tolerance test
What response may some patients have at the sight of their blood being drawn?
syncope
What should NEVER be the same on any two patients?
medical record number
What should phlebotomists do to prevent dermatitis due to frequent hand decontamination?
use hand lotion
What site do you select for skin puncture, using a patient's finger?
distal phalanx of the ring finger
index finger, little finger, distal phalanx of the ring finger, thumb
What site for arterial puncture has disadvantage of being located close to the basilic vein?
brachial artery
What site for arterial puncture has the disadvantage of increased risk of infection?
femoral artery
What site for arterial puncture offers an advantage of collaterial circulation?
radial artery
What site for arterial puncture offers the advantage of largest size?
femoral artery
What site is acceptable to use for skin puncture on an infant's foot.
the great toe
arch of the foot, palmar surface or posterior curvature of the heel, the great toe
What skin puncture specimen is most likely to be adversely affected by excessive squeezing of the site?
bilrubin test from a 12 hour old neonate
What specimen requires warming a collection tube to 37 degrees C?
cold agglutinin titers
What step in the venipuncture procedure must the phlebotomist exercise extra care in performing when collecting blood by venipuncture from a hand vein?
anchoring the vein
What structure is located on inferior to the transverse plane?
uterus
What structure is located on the lateral aspect of the wrist?
radial artery
What structure is located on the posterior side of the frontal plane?
spinal cord
What structures is located in th medial anterior aspect of the antecubital fossa?
brachial artery
What structures is located in the leg?
femoral artery
What suppies would a phlebotomist carry on his or her tray to collect samples for ABG anaylysis?
alcohol, syringe, rubber stopper
iodine, aluminum foil, alcohol, tourniquet
What test is most commonly performed on skin puncture samples?
PKU
PKU, PCV, pH, PTT
What test is performed to assess collateral circulation of the patient's hand prior to arterial puncture?
Allen test
What test may require an extra step in patient identification?
type and crossmatch
type and crossmatch, blood cultures, fibrin degradation products, glucose tolerance testing
What test procedure cannot be performed on specimans collected by skin puncture?
blood cultures, ESR, APTT
bilirubin, blood cultures, ESR, calcium, T3, T4, APTT
What test requires a patient to fast prior to collection of the blood specimen?
glucose tolerance test
What test requires that the puncture site be warmed prior to skin puncture and collection?
capillary blood gas analysis
PKU analysis, capillary blood gas analysis
What test specimen must be collected by syringe?
ABG (arterial blood gas)
What test would be most affected by lack of proper patient preparation?
type and crossmatch
type and crossmatch, blood cultures, fibrin degradation products, glucose tolerance testing
What time of day is best for blood collection among hospitalized patients?
early morning prior to breakfast
What two steps should a phlebotomist do immediately after a needle is withdrawn from a patient?
Hold gauze over the site and activate the needle safety device.
What type of urine specimen is needed to detect an infection?
clean catch midstream
What types of venipuncture system should be used if a patient has very small veins (pediatric or geriatric)?
winged infusion
What values are higher in newborns than in adults?
red cell count
Which of the following test procedures requires that the blood be tested immediately after the blood collection?
ionized calcium
Which of the following tests requires blood to be collected in a pink-topped tube?
Coombs' test
Which of the following types of health care-acquired infections are most prevalent?
urinary tract infections
Which of the following urine specimen collections is frequently used to test for hormones?
24-hour urine specimen
Which vessels carry blood that is highest in oxygen?
arteries
Which vessels carry blood that is lowest in oxygen?
veins
While performing a venipunctuer with a syringe, a phelbotomist notices blood frothing between the hub of the needle and the syringe. As a result, the specimen may be:
hemolyzed
Why are syringes no longer commonly used for routine venipuncture?
safety and cross-contamination concerns
Why is it important to acquire a fasting specimen for venipuncture?
most reference ranges are based on fasting specimens
Why is skin puncture preferred over venipuncture for infants for the collection of blood specimens?
prevents anemia
Why is the "order of draw" important in phlebotomy procedures?
to minimize additive carryover
Why is the Duke Bleeding Time procedure not routinely performed in modern medical practices?
lack of standardized puncture
lack of standardized puncture, dangerous collection container, too many patient complaints, too messy
Why is the fifth finger of a patient's hand routinely eliminated as a potential site for skin puncgture?
the tissue is thinner than other fingers
Why is the index finger of a patient's hand routinely eliminated as a potential site for skin puncture?
it has an increased number of nerve endings
Which agency evaluates the safety, clinical efficacy, and medical efficacy of the equipment and supplies used by blood collection?
FDA
FDA,EPA,OSHA,JCAHO
All of the folowing are ways to avoid malpractive litigation EXCEPT:
reporting incident within 48 hrs
regularly participating in continuing education programs, reporting incidents within 48 hrs, properly handling all confidential communications, obtaining consent for collection of specimens
Examination of witness before a trail is referred to as:
discover
discovery, statue of limitations, respondent superior, implied consent
The type and use of PPE is overseen by:
OSHA
FDA., EPA, OSHA, HCFA
If a physician orders laboratory tests for dx, and the patient comes to the lab with a rolled up sleeve, he is giving:
informed consent
implied consent, imformed consent, rightful action consent,preventive consent
The legal concept that refers to the voluntary permission by a patient to allow touching, examination, and/or treatment by a health care provider is:
informed consent
implied consent, imformed consent, rightful action consent,preventive consent
The use of electronic transfer of patient information is now regulated by federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
HIPAA
OSHA.,HIPPA, JCAHO,CLIA
Latin term that means 'let the master answer'
Respondent superior
Case Laws are written by
Judicial Branch
Executive branch or Judicial branch
A phlebotomist provides CPR at an accident scene based on:
implied consent
implied consent, imformed consent, rightful action consent,preventive consent
What exists when immediate / emergency action is required to save a patient's life?
implied consent
implied consent, imformed consent, rightful action consent,preventive consent
What is it when a phlebotomist has an infraction, violation , or failure to perform?
breach of duty
What is a legal term referring to the failure to act or perform duties according to the standards of the profession?
Professional negligence
Phlebo means
vein
The zone of comfort refers to:
personal space
personal space, angle of the bed, cultural sensitivity, language barrier
POL stands for:
physicians office lab
physician's office lab, puncture-opened lancet, pulmonary over lungs, personal operational lab
A statute of limitations defines the maximum length of time:
after malpractice a plantiff has to file a lawsuit
served if convicted, a defendant has to respond to a lawsuit, after malpractice a plantiff has to file a lawsuit, until the age of majority
In a phlebotomy malpractice lawsuit:
Phlebotomy policies and procedures are reviewed
parties to the
Which legal term referring to a public offense that may require a jail sentence?
felony
misdemeanor, felony, tort, malice
Which is not a factor considered in negligence cases?
contract
duty, contract, proximate causation, damages
Standard of Care is set by:
JCAHO
FDA,HIPAA,OSHA,JCAHO
Which legal term that refers to a legal obligation when damages are concerned?
liable
liable, tort, malice, battery
Which is not a factor considered in negligence cases?
contract
duties, contract, proximate causation, damages
How many times per a minute does the average person inhale and exhale?
15
5, 15, 50, 100
Humans have how many major organ systems?
11
8,11,15,20
What provides germ cell formation?
Reproductive system
What molecule transports oxgen and carbon dioxide in the blood?
hemoglobin
hemogolobin or glycogen
Glomeruli are best described as:
filters of the kidneys
As CO2 levels increase in the blood, the blood pH:
decreases becoming more acidic
Which structure governs the functions of the individual cell, such as growth, repair, reporduction, and metabolism?
nucleus
How many lobes do normal human lungs have?
5
2,3,4,5,6
After oxygen crosses the respiratory membrane in the lungs, into the blood, about 97% of it combines with:
hemoglobin
What organ secretes bile?
liver
liver or pancreas
Human cells have how many chromosomes?
46
26,36,46,56
Which body system is composed of neurons, brain, and spinal cord?
nervous system
cranial, nervous, lymphatic, digestive
Gall bladder and appendix is part of what body system?
digestive system
cranial, nervous, lymphatic, digestive
These are ductless glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the blood steam.
endocrine glands
lymphatic glands, endocrine glands
It provides rapid transport of water, nutrients, electrolytes, hormones, enzymes, antibodies, cells, and gases to all cells of the body.
cardiovascular system
digestive system, cardiovascular system
Which federal agency requires the use of PPE?
OSHA
CLIA, JCAHO, EPA, OSHA
Which law is used to resolve disputes?
Judicial Law
judicial law or statutory law
Improper or unskilled care of a patient by a member of the health care team is:
Professional negligence
respondent superior or professional negligence
Statues and ordinances are implemented through:
administrative law
administrative law, judicial law
Health care institutions need to report accidental bloodborne exposure to:
CDC
EPA, CDC, OSHA, CLIA
The laboratory that analyzes surgical tissues and performs autopsies is:
anatomical pathology
Provides barrier protection when handlign biohazard substances
PPE
The laboratory that analyzes blood and other body fluids:
Clinical pathology
The manner that someone carries their body, especially when sitting and standing; conveys a sense of confidence and professionalism:
Posture
Phase of the laboratory testing where phlebotomist has the greatest impact on the quality of the specimen:
preanalytical
Professional negligence is:
malpractice
Voluntary permission by a patient for health care is:
informed consent
Moral standards of behavior
ethics
Reviews and approves research studies:
IRB
What is measured by JCAHO?
Standard of Care
Federal regulation to ensure quality of laboratory testing is:
CLIA
Proves or disproves the lawsuit is:
evidence
What is stored glucose in the muscles?
Glycogen
Outer Layer of the bone is:
Compact Bone
What is the walls of the heart?
cardiac muscle
What contains an enzyme that helps break down carbohydrates?
Saliva
What has metacarpals, the bones of the hand and fingers?
phalanges
Where gas exchange in the lungs take place?
alveoli
Outer layer of the skin is the:
epidermis
Blood cells are produced by:
bone marrow
Serum is blood that:
does not contain anticoagulants
is highly oxgenated, contains anticoagulants, does not contain anticoagulants, is rich in carbon monoxide
The fluid portion of plasma's color is:
staw-yellow
What is inadequate oxygen levels in body tissues?
hypoxia
Veins are what type of vessels?
Afferent vessels that carry blood toward the heart
What circulates in the blood as a mature cell that should no longer contain a nucleus?
Normal RBC's
Plasma is made up of 90% of:
Water
What is urea and uric acid?
metabolic waste products
How is bone marrow samples usually removed?
By aspiration from the iliac crest of the hip
What is Systole?
contraction of the heart
What is Diastole?
relaxation of the heart
The atrioventricular valves function to prevent:
backward blood flow through the heart,
A differential count refers to:
enumeration of specific types of WBC's
How fast does the average adult heart beat?
60 to 80 times
Which arteries provide blood to the heart?
coronary
subclavian, coronary, hepatic, brachial
When blood exits the right ventricle, it travels to:
Pulmonary circuit
What is the process of dissolution of blood clot and regeneration of the blood vessel?
fibrinolysis
Anticoagulant used to prevent blood from clotting:
heparin
What disease causes excessive bleeding due to inadequate clotting factors?
hemophilia
Medical term for excessive bleeding:
hemorrhage
Hardening of the arteries due to build up of cholesterol and/or calcium deposits:
arteriosclerosis
A blood test that seperates blood cells from plasma by centrifuging the blood sample:
hematocrit
What is the layer of erythrocytes and platelets in an anticoagulated specimen?
buffy coat
What is the longest vein in the body?
saphenous vein
An individual with type O blood:
Universal Donor
Maintenance and retention of circulating blood in the vascular system:
hemostasis
What is the fluid portion of unclotted blood?
Plasma
A health-care-aquired infections occurs when a/the:
chain of infection is complete
source is detected, means of transmission is maintained by disinfectants, susceptible host remains stable, chain of infection is complete
Which of the following is not a component that makes up the chain of infection?
mode of transportation
mode of transmission, source, mode of transportation, susceptible host
What is something that can transmit infectious disease?
Vectors (mites)
What is Hepatitis B virus and human immuno deficiency virus?
bloodborne pathogens
What are pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood called?
bloodborne pathogens
What federal agency is responsible for monitoring morbidity and mortality through out the country?
Center for Disease Control and Prevention
CDC or OSHA
What means sterile, free from all living microorganisms?
Aseptic
Aseptic or Reverse Isolation
What is usually to corrosive to use on human skin?
disinfectants
sanitizers, disinfectants, antiseptics
What does BBP stand for?
bloodborne pathogens
bloodborne procedures or bloodborne pathogens
What is Occupational Safety and Health Administration?
OSHA
What is Joint Commission Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations?
JCAHO
What is handwashing and following standard precautions?
aseptic technique
What is an infection called that is the result of 3 infection chain components being linked?
health care-acquired
chain of infection is complete
What are inanimate objects that can cause an infection?
fomites (anything you can touch)
Who oversees the federal investigation of communicable diseases?
JCAHO
OSHA.,HIPPA, JCAHO,CLIA
What does pathogen mean?
causing disease
What are health care-aquired infections called?
nosocomial
What type of protective isolation is used for patients with combined immunodeficiencies?
reverse isolation
What reduces the risk of transmission of herpes simplex?
contact precautions
Is ethyl alcohol or formaldehyde a common antiseptic:
ethyl alcohol
What chemical compound is used to remove or kill pathogenic microorganisms?
disinfectants
What precautions are used for patients known to have serious illnesses transmitted by large particle droplets?
airborne pathogens
What is a disinfectant used in health care?
chlorophenol
chlorophenol or hexachlorophene
What is a common antiseptic?
ethyl alcohol
Which of the following organizations regulates the disposal of waste?
EPA, OSHA
JCAHO, NFPA, OSHA, NCCLS, EPA
According to the NFPA hazard-labeling system the yellow quadrant of the diamond indicates:
instability hazard
This type of fire extinguisher include foam, dry chemicals and CO2
BC
Components of Fire:
fuel, oxygen, heat
What is Enviromental Protection Agency?
EPA
What fire extinguisher is used for multipurpose and combat all types of fires?
ABC
What represents health hazards in the NFPA labeling system for hazardous chemicals?
blue quadrant diamond
What is done to a shock victim's legs when giving first aid?
elevation
What colors are required for labeling sharps containers?
red or orange
When you elevate a limb that is bleeding it will?
decrease bleeding
What is added to acid in a chemical sfety measure?
Water
What is used at 95% stength to cleanse the specimen collection area?
ethyl alcohol
Who originated the Right to Know law?
OSHA
OSHA.,HIPPA, JCAHO,CLIA
Bar codes Represent:
The light and dark bands of varying widths, alphanumeric symbols, and specific codes for numbers and letters are represented by:
Quality control records for reagents and supplies include information about:
expiration dates and stability information
patient results, ethical handling, confidential data, expiration dates and stability information
Why is rapid transportation of blood specimens important?
Glycolytic action in the blood does not occur
What reduces transcription erros and speed up sample processing?
bar codes
What specimen needs to be warmed to the body tempature?
cold agglutinin titers
When mailing specimens, all outer packaging should be marked as:
infectious substances
How are errors corrected?
Never erase them, rather cross them out and corrected according to policy
What is a light sensitive blood constituent that must be protect from light but not chilled:
bilirubin
A tube system for transporting items in carriers through out a building
pneumatic
What is oxygen and carbon dioxide?
blood gases
When lab results indicate a life-threatening state:
critical values
What is the break down of glucose?
glycolytic action
Chromosome analysis requires whole blood collected in what color of tube top:
green
green, red, gray, light blue
SPS additive in a yellow tube top is:
Sodium polyanetholesulfonate
Which of the following additives prevent coagulation of blood by removing calcium through the formation of insoluble calcium salts?
EDTA, sodium citrate, potassium oxalate
ammonium oxalate, EDTA, sodium heparin - EDTA, lithium heparin, sodium citrate - sodium fluoride, lithium heparin, EDTA - EDTA, sodium citrate, postassium oxalate
Additives that remove calcium to prevent coagulation:
EDTA, sodium citrate, potassium oxalate
Lead, nickle blood levels are collected in what tube stopper color:
blue
Blood collection vaccum tubes may contain silicon to:
decrease the possibility of hemolysis,
decrease the possibility of hemolysis, decrease interfer between the red blood cells and the, create a barrier between the RBCs and serum, create a barrier between RBCs and plasma
Blood collected for creatine kinase(CK) is collected in a:
Gray top tube
Gray top tube
What requires plasma to be collected in a purple-topped vacuum tube and transported in an ice-water slurry?
renin activity
Renin Activity or Bleeding time
Why are needles color coded?
indicates guage size
What is used frequently as the anticoagulant for blood studies and what color is the tube top?
sodium citrate, blue top
What has the highest percentage of needle stick injuries?
butterfly needles
butterfly needs or venipuncture needle
What color tube top contains sodium fluoride?
gray
yellow, gray, green , blue
Blood collection and dilution unit manufactured by BD
Unopette
Disposable narrow-bore pipettes used for pediatric blood collections and/or micro hemacrit measures:
capillary tubes
Indicates the diameter of the needle
gauage number
What is ALT?
alanine aminotransferase
What anticoagulant prevents blood clotting by inactivating thrombin and thromboplasts?
heparin
What is ACD?
acid-citrate-dextrose
What is the blood-clotting chemical in the body?
thrombin
What inhibits the growth of microorganisms?
antiseptics
How long should alcohol be allowed to dry for before a venipuncture procedure?
30-60 seconds
5, 10, 20, 30-60
What is the preferred position to have the patient in when drawing blood?
supine/reclining position/lying down
What is TDM?
therapeutic drug monitoring collection
What is HBV?
Hepatitis B virus
What is HCV?
Hepatitis C virus
When an increased concentration of large molecules of blood such as cells and proteins, this is called:
hemoconcentration
What is HIV?
Human immunodeficiency virus
When alcohol is not dried before a skin puncture it causes:
prevent round drop from forming, cause hemolysis of blood cells, cause erroneous results for some lab test
Point of Care Testing often uses what type of samples?
Capillary samples
Which way is preferable for a finger puncture/cut to be done on the fingerprint :
across the ridges
across the ridges or parrell (to the fingerprint)
What is the skin puncture depth appropriate for an adult?
2-3 mm
0.5-1.0mm, 2-3mm, 3-5mm, 5.5mm
What is the best angle for spreading a blood smear by using two glass slides?
30 degrees
completely flat, 0, 30, 90, 180 degrees
How do you dry blood smears?
air dry
air dry, add saline, blow dry, hold to a heat element
Skin puncture blood that contains a mixture of blood from venules, arterioles, and tissue fluid:
Capillary blood
What is PCV?
Packed cell volume
Early morning, 12 hrs after eating last meal
Basal State
Glucose fasting is:
8-12 hrs
Testorone andCortisol hormone and the blood concentration is not affected by:
eating
Turbid specimen is not affected by:
Glucose
Glucose, lipids, bacteria, cholestorals
What blood test would be affected erroneously by an angiography procedure?
cortisol
What analyte is significantly increased in the blood with changes in position?
iron
WBC, RBC, iron
If tourniquet is applied for more than 3 minutes, which of these analytes most likely will become falsely elevated?
potassium, protein, lipids
Variations in the body's functions that occur during daylight hours or every 24 hrs:
diurnal variations
Last stage in the hemostatic process, where a blood clot begins to dissolve or break up:
fibrinolysis
An agent used to decontaminate surfaces:
chlorhexidine
Characteristics related to a drug metabolism and action:
pharmacokinetics
The optimal depth of a finger stick in a child is:
2.0 mm
PKU must dry a minimum of:
3 hours
Infant scalp puncture at what degree and gauge of butterfly:
15 degree and 23/25 gauge
Total blood volume of premature infant is calculated by multiplying weight in kilograms by:
115 mL/kg
What elevates a infants pain during venipuncture?
sucrose
What vein in the hand is used for infant venipuncture?
dorsal vein at 15 degrees
What is less stressful for an infant and health care provider than a skin puncture?
dorsal vein venipuncture
What is applied to a venipuncture site of a child to alleviate pain?
EMLA
What is EMLA?
Eutectic mixture of local anesthetic
A 3-kg infant (approx 6.6 lbs) will have a total blood volume of:
225-300 mL
115-125, 225-300, 75-100, 325-400 mL
What test can be invalidated by a blood transfusion in an infant:
blood spot testing done in 72 hrs
Blood draw from an IV line requires:
small blood collection tubes
Specific guidelines for performing a heel stick includes the following:
Allow the foot to hang lower than the torso
When drawing an infants blood you must:
document the amount of blood drawn
Microcapillary sampling by skin puncture includes:
puncture-resistant sharps container
What age do kids like roll play, afraid of injury:
3-5 yrs of age
When does galactosemia dx occur:
2 weeks of life
A new technique that detects blood components associated with over 30 inherited metabolic disorders in one blood sample analysis:
random mass spectrometry
Condition in which children have high sensitivity to latex:
spina bifida
Size of syringe that should be used on CVC blood collection from a child:
ten millimeter
Detected on a blood spot testing:
hypothyroidism
CVC blood collection occurs where?
subclavian vein
Postprandial glucose test last
two hours usually
What type of tube can be inserted into a cavity or blood vessel and used as a channel for transporting fluids
cannula
Polycythemia is treated by
therapeutic phlebotomy
Radial artery is where blood is collected for what test:
ABG
A blood donor's oral tempature must not exceed:
37.5 degrees C
Blood culture guage sizes
20-22
Tx drug monitoring is used for pts taking:
lithium
dextran, lithium, streptokinase, mithramycin
You must avoid what during a glucose test:
chewing gum
Postprandial is
after eating
Artificial shunt or passage
fistula
Artery in the arm
radial artery
What is INR?
International Normalized Ration
Nova Biomedical Stat Profile pHOx analyzer measures what:
potassium, pO2
What is TC?
Total colesterol
what is pO2?
blood gas
Anemia test
hemoglobin
Packed cell volume
hematocrit
Represented by 95 % of test values
standard deviation
Sweat chloride test used for what dx
cystic fibrous and use a large surface area (leg is best)