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166 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A(n) __________ is NOT homogeneous.
a. Suspension
b. Element
c. compound
d. Solution
A. Suspension
The Scattering of light by colloids is called ________.
a. The Tyndall Effect
b. Conservation
c. Air Pollution
d. Suspension
A. The Tyndall Effect
Smoke is an example of ________.
a. substance
b. solution
c. colloid
d. suspension
C. Colloid
True or False
Substances are either elements or MIXTURES.
False- Substances are either elements or compounds.
True or False
Homogeneous mixtures CAN be seperated by physical changes.
True.
Mixture of different and easily distingushable materials.
Heterogeneous Mixture
ex. Lucky Charms Cereal
Characteristics of a material which can be observed without changing the identity of the substances in the material; examples include color, shape, size, melting point and boiling point.
Physical Property
A substance in which all atoms are alike
Element
True or False
When a firecracker explodes, mass is LOST.
False. The mass stays the same.
True or False
A suspension is a HOMOGENEOUS mixture.
False. Suspensions are hetergeneous mixtures because it contains a liquid in which visible particles settle.
Heterogeneous mixture with larger particles that never settle; scatter light in the Tyndall effect
Colloids
Change in a substances size, shape or state of matter; the substance does not change identity
Physical Change
______ is another name for a homogeneous mixture.
a. suspension
b. substance
c. solution
d. liquid
C. Solution
When gasoline is burned in an engine, ________.
a. gasoline evaporates
b. new substances are formed
c. mass is lost
d. mass is gained
B. New substances are formed
Homogenous mixture of particles so small they cannot be seen and will never settle to the bottom of thier container.
Solution
The scattering of light by collodial particals
The Tyndall effect
Any material made of two or more substances that can be physically seperated.
Mixture
All substances are built from ______.
a. elements
b. atoms
c. metal
d. salt
B. Atoms
chalk, water, and salt are all ________(s).
Compunds
Copper, Gold, and Lead are all ________.
Elements
A pond, and a river delta are examples of ___________.
Suspensions
Granite, and Permanent press fabric, and milk are ________.
Heterogeneous Mixtures
vinegar, soft drinks, and tap water are __________.
Homogeneous Mixtures
Paint, fog, and jello are __________.
Colloids
Name some physical properties
color, shape, size, texture, taste, melting point, and boiling point
A Burnt objuct has undergone a ___________ change.
Chemical
Mass of all Substances present before a chemical change equals the mass of all substances after the change.
Law of Conservation of Mass
Three examples of physical changes are __________.
a. freezing of water, evaporation of gasoline, and rusting of a nail
b. boiling of water, bursting of a balloon, and melting of a candle
c. sawing of wood, crushing of a can, and toasting a marshmallow
d. burning of gas, rotting of an egg, and exploding of fireworks
B. boiling of water, bursting of a balloon, and melting of a candle.
Matter is classified as _______ and mixtures.
Substances
True or False
In calculations using Charles' Law, temperature is expresses on the CELSIUS SCALE.
False. The Kelvin Scale is used to calculate Charles' Law.
True or False
Most solids have a regular arrangement of molecules that form CRYSTALS.
True
True or False
TEMPERATURE is the total amount of kinetic energy in all the atoms and molecules of a substance.
False. Thermal Energy
"Absolute Zero" is equal to _____.
a. 0 K
b. 0 Celcius
c. 0 Faherenheit
d. 0 degrees K
A. 0 K. The Kelvin Scale is not expressed in degrees.
3 States of Matter
Solids, Liquids, Gases
1. All matter is composed of small particles
2. Particles are in constant random motion
3. Particles collide with each other and walls of their containers
Kinetic Theory
Lack the tightly ordered structure found in crystals. Do not have definite temperature at which they change from solid to liquid. Ex.- Glass, Plastic
Amorphous Solids
Ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it.
Buoyancy
An object will _______ if its weight is less than the buoyant force acting on it from the fluid.
Float
An object in a fluid will ______ if its weight is more than the buoyant force acting on it from the fluid.
Sink
Buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
Archimede's Principle
Force exerted per unit area. Measure in a unit called a pascal.
Pressure
Pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid.
Pascal's Principle
As the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases. Principle airplanes use to fly.
Bernoulli's Principle
A liquid's resistance to flow.
Viscosity
1. Volume decreases pressure increases.
2.Pressure decreases as volume increases.
Principle used to breathe.
Boyle's Law
1. At a constant pressure, volume increases as temperature increases.
2. At a constant pressure, volume decreases as temperature decreases.
Charles's Law
True or False
A fluid can be a liquid or a SOLID.
False. Both liquids and gases are fluids.
Which of the following is a compressible fluid?
a. water
b. hydraulic fluid
c. motor oil
d. air
D. Air
Which device would be most likely to use a bimetallic strip?
a. bridge expansion joint
b. thermostat
c. spring scale
d. frying pan
B. Thermostat
The most common state of matter in the universe is ________.
Plasma
Decreasing _________ lowers the boiling point of a liquid.
a. temperature
b. the amount of liquid
c. pressure
d. volume
C. Pressure
Pressure in the metric system is measured in ________.
Kilopascals
The force that increases as the pressure above a wing decreases is _______.
a. lift
b. gravity
c. drag
d. propulsion
A. Lift
According to __________, the volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature, as long as pressure does not change.
a. Bernoulli's Principle
b. Boyle's Law
c. Charles's Law
d. Archimede's Principle
C. Charles' Law
According to _________, the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
a. Bernoulli's Principle
b. Boyle's Law
c. Charles's Law
d. Archimede's Principle
D. Archimede's Principle
Give the mumber of significant digits in: 2.030 mL
4 significant digits
Smallest piece of matter that still has the properties of the element.
Atoms
Have electrical charge of 1+.
Protons
Do not have an electrical charge; located in nucleus
Neutrons
Protons and Neutrons make up smaller particles called ________.
Quarks. There are six known quarks; the sixth is called the top quark.
What is the current atomic model and what does it show?
Electron Cloud Model shows electrons traveling in specific energy levels around a nucleus of protons and neutrons.
Composed mostly of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
Atomic Mass
The number of protons in an atom.
Atomic Number
Sum of the mumber of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Mass number
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.
Isotopes
You can figure out the number of ____ in an isotope by:
mass number - atomic number.
Neutrons
vertical columns in the periodic table
Groups. Elements in the same group have the same # of electrons in their outer energy level.
Horizontal rows of elements that contain increasing numbers of protons and neutrons.
Periods
Three classifications of elements
Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
Developed an early periodic chart
Dmitri Mendeleev
Represents the electrons in the outer energy level of an element.
Electron Dot Diagram
Weighted average mass of the mixture of its isotopes.
Average Atomic Mass
Iron, sodium, Lithium, Cadmium, Gold, zinc; located on left side of periodic table
Metals
Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon
Noble Gases
Silicon, Boron, Antimony, Arsenic; have properties of both metals and non metals
Metalloids
Represents the name of an element
Chemical symbol
S-orbitals can hold a maximum of ___________ electrons.
2
P- orbitals can hold a maximum of ____ electrons.
6
Full energy level is called a ________.
Stable Octate
How many electrons can the second energy level of the electron cloud hold TOTAL?
8. There is one p-orbital and 1 s-orbital in each energy level beyond the first.
The original periodic table was based on __________ instead of atomic number.
Atomic Mass
How many neutrons will almost all Hydrogen atoms have?
ZERO
Force that causes protons and neutrons to be attracted to each other in the nucleus.
Strong Force. BUT the strong force is powerful when the neutrons and protons are close together.
Nuclear Decay which happens when the strong force is not large enough to hold the nucleus together and the nucleus gives off matter and energy.
Radioactivity
Particles and energy are released from a decaying nucleus
Nuclear Radiation
Two protons and two neutrons with a charge of +2. Leave charged ions in their path when they travel through matter.
Alpha Particle. ** also least penetrating form of radiation
Neutron decays into a proton and releases an electron at high speed; more penetrating
Beta particles
Penetrating electromagnetic waves that carry energy, but have no mass or charge
Gamma Rays
process of one element's changing to another through nuclear decay
Radioactive Decay
Detects alpha or beta particles by a means of a trail of condensed vapor.
Cloud Chamber
Detects radioactive particles by means of a bubble trail in a superheated liquid.
Bubble Chamber
Can measure charged particles in the air
Electorscope
Measures Radioactivity by producing an electric current when radiation is present
Geiger Counter
Where does background radiation come from?
radon gas produced in the Earth's crust from cosmic rays, and from radioactive isotopes in the body.
Process of splitting a nucleus into two nuclei with smaller masses; a large amount of energy is released
Nuclear Fission
An ongoing series of fission reactions is a ____________.
Chain Reaction
Amount of fissionable material required to continue a reaction at a constant rate.
Critical Mass
Two nuclei with low masses are combined to form one nucleus of larger mass
Nuclear Fusion
In a cloud chamber, these particles leave long, thin trails.
Beta Particles
AMount of time it takes for half the nuclei in a radioactive sample to decay.
Half-life
Process of changing one element to another through nuclear decay.
Transmutations
A radioisotope used to find or track molecules in an organism.
Tracer
True or False
Beta particles can be stopped with CLOTHING.
False- Aluminum foil
True or False
Nuclear reactors such as the one at Chernobyl use nuclear FISSION to produce the energy used to make the steam that turns a generating turbine.
True
People are afraid of nuclear energy and radioactivity because it is _________.
a. invisible
b. smelly
c. scary
d. impossible to understand
A. invisible
What is the most penetrating form of radiation?
Gamma Rays
Radon gas can get into a home through _________.
a. cracks in the foundation
b. sump pump
c. below-ground level window openings
d. all of the above
D. All of the Above
The type of radioactive particle that can be stopped by a sheet of paper is the _______.
a. Alpha particle
b. Beta Particle
c. gamma ray
d. uranium
A. Alpha Particle
Radon's greatest health impact is on the ____________.
a. heart
b. brain
c. stomach
d. lungs
D. Lungs
The three types of nuclear radiation in increasing order of penetrating power are __________.
a. alpha, beta, gamma
b. alpha, gamma, beta
c. X-ray, beta, gamma
d. X-ray, gamma, beta
A. Alpha, Beta, Gamma
The Chernobyl nuclear accident occurred in ___________.
a. 1886
b. 1986
c. 1996
d. 2006
B. 1986
Which of the follwing elements is likely to be produced during a nuclear fusion reaction in the Su?
a. helium-4
b. hydrogen-1
c. uranium-235
d. uranium-238
A. Helium-4
What is the range of numbers of naturally occuring elements whose isotopes are all radioactive?
83-92
Element whose radioactive isotope is used to treat thyroid cancer.
Iodine
What is the range of atomic number of elements that don't exist naturally on Earth?
93 and above
What is the charge of a Beta particle?
-1
Positively charged metallic ions are surrounded by a cloud of electrons; ions are in sliding layers and electrons are weakly held; readily form ionic bonds with nonmetals
Metallic bonding
Combine with nonmetals by losing electrons
Ionic Bonding
property of metals meaning can be drawn into wires
Ductile
Property of metals that means it can be hammered or rolled into sheets.
Malleable
Property of metals meaning it can reflect light well.
Luster
Group one in the periodic table; metals that are softer and more reactive than other metals.
The Alkali metals
Group 2 in the periodic table; not found naturally in elemental form; 2 electrons in outer energy level
The Alkaline Earth Metals
Often occur in nature as uncombined elements; typically form colored compounds;
Transition Elements
Name of the group containing iron, cobalt and steel.
iron Triad
form when nonmetals gain electrons from metals and become negative ions
ionic compounds
Form when nonmetals share electrons with other nonmetals
Covalent Compounds
Most common element in the universe
Hydrogen
Two atoms of the same element in a covalent bond.
Diatomic molecule
What forms when a halogen gains one electron from a metal?
Salt
Group 17 that include bromide, iodine, fluorine, chlorine and astatine
The Halogens
A solid changes directly into a gas without first becoming a liquid.
Sublimation
Form ionic and covalent bonds; have some metallic and some nonmetallic properties; partial conduction gives them semiconductor characteristics
Metalloids
Group 13; 3 electrons in outer most energy level
The Boron Group
Group 14; 4 electrons in outermost energy level
The Carbon Group
Group 15; 5 electrons in outermost energy level
The Nitrogen Group
Group 16; 6 electrons in the outermost energy level
The Oxygen Group
Elements created by scientists; disintegrate quickly
Synthetic Elements
The transition elements are in Groups ______________.
3-12
Different forms of the same element, but with different molecular structures.
Allotropes
Elements that have more than 92 protons, the atomic number of uranium, are called ___________ elements.
Transuranium
Elements with atomic numbers from 58 through 71 are part of the ___________ series.
Lanthanides
Graphite is an allotrope of carbon that is soft and can be used as a lubricant because its atoms are only connected in ___________ dimension(s).
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
b. 2
Why are the noble gases so stable?
They have 8 electron in their outer energy level which is a stable octate.
Another name for a negative ion is an __________.
Anion
Radioactive elements comprise a majority of the _______.
a. actinides
b. halogens
c. lanthanides
d. noble gases
A. Actinides
Composed of symbols and subscripts indicating the number of atoms of an element in a compound
Chemical Formula
Force that holds atoms together in a compound
Chemical bond
Charged particle because it has fewer electrons than protons
Ion
When an atom _________ an electron it becomes a positively charged ion
Loses
When an atoms _____________ an electron it becomes a negatively charged ion.
Gains
The force of attraction between opposite charges of ions.
Ionic Bond
a compound that is the result of an ionic bond
Neutral Compound
Neutral particles formed as a result of sharing electrons.
Molecule
Force of attraction between atoms sharing electrons.
Covalent bonds
Molecule that has one end that is slightly negative and one end that is slightly positive although overall molecule is neutral.
Polar Molecule
Molecules in which electrons are shared equally
Nonpolar molecules
Compound composed of two elements
Binary Compound
Number of electrons an atom has gained, lost or shared to become stable
Oxidation Number
Positively or negatively charged covalently bonded group of atoms; contains two or more elements
Polyatomic Ion
Compound with water chemically attached to its ions
Hydrate
Na and Cl are chemical __________.
Symbols
What do subscript numbers tell in chemical equations?
The number of atoms of that element
True or False
The two nitrogen atoms of nitrogen gas share three pairs of electrons forming a COVALENT triple bond.
True
True or False
Particles formed from the covalent bonding of atoms are called IONS.
False. Molecules are formed from the covalent bonding of atoms.
True or False
All the noble gases have an oxidation number of 0.
True