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126 Cards in this Set

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All of the following are true about counterinsurgency except ?
B. it is less widespread than during the Cold War. 100%
Today 100 million ( ) remain from recent wars; they insure about 25,000 people a year; and it costs about $1,000 to find and disarm each of them.
B. land mines
All of the below is the way technological developments have changed the nature of military force EXCEPT
E. The computer technologies have made weapons bigger and more powerful and thus expensive.
The main difference between war and “classic” terrorism is
A. the former has military targets, whereas the latter has civilian targets.
With respect to terrorism, which of the following is true? (SELECT 2)
B. Terrorists are more willing than states are to violate the norms of the international system because, unlike states, they do not have a stake in that system.
C. Terrorist activities do not reliably achieve political ends.
Which of the below is a FALSE statement regarding weapons of mass destruction (WMD)?
C. They are used regularly in conflict.
Ballistic missiles
C. have trajectories that typically rise out of the atmosphere and then descend.
Toxic substances that can create diseases and epidemics when launched against enemy troops or populations are
B. biological weapons. 100%
Which of the below is a FALSE statement regarding proliferation?
C. In the 1990's North Korea's top nuclear scientist sold technologies and low grade uranium to Libya, Iran, and Pakistan.
How does a first strike compare to a second strike?
B. A first strike is an attack intended to destroy a state’s nuclear weapons before they can be used, whereas a second strike means that a state can retaliate even after sustaining a nuclear attack.
The _____ Treaty placed ceilings on the number of strategic weapons that the United States and Soviet Union could possess, while the _____ Treaty reduces the strategic arsenals of both countries.
B. SALT I, START I 100%
Which two countries tested nuclear weapons in 1998, leading to an increase in tensions in their region?
B. India and Pakistan
( ) is an effort by industrialized states to limit the flow of missile-relevant technology to Third World states.
D. Missile Technology Control Regime 100%
Which of the followings are true of Chemical Weapon Convention (1992)?
A. bans the production and possession of chemical weapons
B. includes strict verifications provisions
C. includes sanctions against violators
D. all of the above
MAD functions when neither side can prevent the other from destroying it.
A. True 100%
( ) prohibited either the United States or the Soviet Union from using a ballistic missile defense as a shield.
A. ABM Treaty
( ) was a U.S. effort to develop defense that could shoot down incoming ballistic missiles, spurred by President Regan in 1983.
C. SDI
Which of the below is a FALSE statement regarding military economics?
E. U.S. military spending cuts after the Cold War brought about an immediate improvement in the economy.
In his “The Clash of Civilizations?”, Huntington argues that fundamental source of conflict will be civilizations in the post-Cold War international relation. According to him, what is the most important element of a civilization?
D. religion 100%
From “The Clash of Civilizations?". Huntington predicts that the Western civilization will be confronted with the alliance of
B. Confucianism and Islam
civil war
b. A war between factions within a state trying to create, or prevent, a new government for the entire state or some territorial part of it.
guerrilla war
c. Warfare without frontlines and with irregular forces operating in the midst of civilian population.
hegemonic war
e. War for control of the entire world order
limited war
d. Military actions that seek objectives short of the surrender and occupation of enemy.
total war
a. Warfare by one state waged to conquer and occupy another
Theories of the causes of war at the interstate level of analysis
C. include that war occurs when power is relatively equally distributed and a rising power is threatening to overtake a declining one.
Nationalism
A. contributed to the disintegration of large, multinational states like Austria- Hungary.
Self-determination is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
E. all nations desiring self-determination have achieved it 100%
Which of the below is a FALSE statement about ethnic groups?
Kurds living in Turkey, Iraq, Iran, and Syria, share a culture but none of them aspire to have a state of their own because they are happy in their respective state.
With respect to international norms against genocide,
C. they were weaker than norms of state sovereignty in the case of Darfur
Religious conflicts are difficult to resolve because
B. religions deal with core values that are held as absolute truth
Islam has played a role in many recent conflicts because
C. it is predominant in an area of the world where geographical and historical circumstances encourage conflict.
Which of the following statements about Islamist movements is false?
C. Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims cooperate and are unified under the Islamist movement.
How do the different types of Islamists compare with each other?
Traditional Islamists are often apolitical, scholarly, and conservative Islamic clerics, whereas Progressive Islamists are devout Muslims who are rational and analytical, and reconcile progressive Islam with modern science.
Which of the below is FALSE about ideology
C. tends to increase its importance after a revolution, combined with national interests
Since World War II, an international norm has developed
B. against attempting to alter borders by force.
Secession movements
A. are rarely successful.
B. sometimes want to merge their territory with a neighboring state.
C. are treated as domestic problems that are of little concern to other states because of the international norms of sovereignty and territorial integrity
D. attempt to draw international borders around a province or region to create a new state.
E. all of the above
Traditionally, the waters within 3 miles of states’ shores have been recognized as ( ) especially since UN Convention on the Law of the Sea.
D. territorial warters
Which of the following is NOT a reason why the control of small islands causes serious interstate territorial disputes?
A. They add to the overall size of a country
With respect to the control of governments,
B. one state may attempt to exert influence on another state’s elections.
Why is drug trafficking considered an international security issue when other types of smuggling are not?
C. Military forces participate regularly in operations against heavily armed drug traffickers.
Which factor contributes to determining whether or not economic conflict leads to violence?
B. The use of violence would diminish the profit of economic transactions more than could be gained by such violence.
Which of the following is NOT an argument in favor of the position that a new Cold War will emerge between the United States and Russia?
D. Europe is divided in its support of either the U.S. or Russia
"The War Behind Closed Doors" follows a long-running policy battle between two of Washington's most powerful insiders and the philosophies they represent: Secretary of State Colin Powell and Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz. Powell believes in the policy of ( ) while Wolforwitz argues for a new grand strategy of ( ).
D. containment, preemption
Politicians have a difficult time running formal bureaucratic agencies because (SELECT 2)
A. the agencies can be too large and too routinized to easily control.

D. lower level career officials may not owe loyalty to the politicians.
With respect to the role of bureaucratic agencies in foreign policy-making,
C. bargaining between agencies suggests that a state does not have a single national interest.
Which of the below is a FALSE statement about interest groups in foreign policy decision making?
D. Realists argue that the key domestic influences on foreign policy in capitalist countries are rich owners of big business, which supported European imperialism.
The military-industrial complex consists of
B. the military, defense contractors, research institutes, and governmental agencies
Which of the following is NOT a way in which the components of the military-industrial complex influence foreign policy decision making?
A. Promotion of hawkish officers within the military
Public opinion
B. has more affect on foreign policy in democracies than in authoritarian governments 100%
Public support for involvement in a war (SELECT 2)
B. typically starts high and decreases over the long run.
C. will tend to improve the popularity ratings of a country's leader, at least in the short term.
Diversionary foreign policy is
C. adopting a foreign policy to distract public attention from domestic issues
The sequence of steps in the rational model of decision making is
A. clarify goals, order goals by importance, list alternatives to achieve goals, investigate consequences of alternatives, and choose the course of action
The _____ model of decision making relies on standard operating procedures.
B. organizational process 100%
The _____ model of decision making consists of negotiations between bureaucratic agencies with divergent interests.
E. government bargaining
_____ is the tendency for groups to reach decisions without accurately assessing their consequences, since individual members tend to go along with ideas they think the others support.
C. Groupthink 100%
According to the model of bounded rationality,
B. decision makers will choose a response that is good enough to meet some minimal criteria
Which of the below is FALSE about Iran Contra scandal?
D. Goldstein cites Iran Contra as a spectacular case of bureaucratic politics.
A crisis is a foreign policy situation characterized by
C. severe time constraints and decision makers under stress. 100%
With respect to legislatures playing a role in deciding whether to use military force, (SELECT 2)
B. most legislators know little about foreign affairs.
C. having an effective legislative debate over the potential use of military force can lead to better policy.
With respect to conflict resolution, which of the following is FALSE?
D. Arbitration is when a mediator listens to each side’s ideas and presents them in a way the other side can hear.
With respect to the U.S. peace movement since World War I,
A. an internationalist wing has seen international organizations as the best hope for peace and has supported wars against aggression, whereas a pacifist wing has opposed all wars and favored more radical social change to achieve positive peace. 100%
( ) refers to poverty, hunger, oppression and other social and economic sources of conflict.
C. structural violence
What is the dilemma of nonviolence?
D. The dilemma is how to respond to violence.
With respect to warfare,
D. today’s most serious conflicts consist mainly of skirmishing rather than all-out battles.
Which of the following is NOT a liberal critique of realism?
C. Human nature is not good; it is evil.
How can liberal theories of IR be distinguished from realism?
C. Realists see the rules of IR as timeless and unchanging, whereas liberal theorists see the rules of IR as evolving incrementally.
Which of the following is NOT an explanation by Immanuel Kant of how peace and cooperation are possible?
A. International regimes, around which the expectations of actors converge in a certain issue area, can solve collective goods problems.
How does the liberal concept of rationality compare to the realist one?
B. Liberals focus on forgoing short-term individual interests in favor of the long-term well-being of the community
Neoliberals (SELECT 2)
A. stress the importance of international institutions in reducing conflict in the international system.

C. agree with realists that states are unitary actors
With respect to international regimes, which of the following is true?
B. International regimes coordinate the behavior of states to assist them in overcoming collective goods problems.
( ) theory, a realist counter theory to liberal regime theory, contends that an international regime is more likely to flourish when a hegemon is able to keep order. (see. 59-59)
B. Hegemonic stability
The success of collective security depends on
D. members keeping their commitments to the group and members agreeing on what constitutes aggression.
Collective security worked in the case of _____, but did not work in the case of _____.
B. the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, the American military operation in Nicaragua
Which of the following is true?
B. Democracies almost never fight each other
According to Goldstein, which of the below is a FALSE statement regarding constructivism?
A. It is a theory rather than an approach.
Which of the following is NOT a critique of realism from the postmodern perspective?
D. International institutions are important actors in IR.
Which of the below is true of Marxism?
D. A and B

A. argues that the more powerful classes oppress and exploit the less powerful by denying them their fair share of the surplus they create.
B. was oriented toward domestic society in the industrializing countries of Marx’s time.
Difference feminism
believes that views of women are inherently less warlike than men
Liberal feminism
views that the essential differences in men’s and women’s abilities and or perspectives are trivial or non-existent.
Postmodern feminism
aims at uncovering the hidden influence of gender in IR and showing how arbitrary the construction of gender roles is.
Which of the below is a FALSE statement regarding feminism?
A. An international system based on feminine principles would respect the norm of non-intervention and deny responsibility of the people to care for each other regardless of national borders.
How can one distinguish between difference and liberal feminism?
D. Difference feminists believe that women’s unique abilities can be used to transform the entire system of IR, whereas liberal feminists believe that female participation in foreign policy will enhance state capabilities.
According to “Constructivism” by Sterling-Folker, which of the below is FALSE about constructivism?
B. Constructivist methodologies are incompatible with traditional scientific methodologies. 100%
From Snyder’s “One world, rival theories”. The core belief of Constructivism (Idealism) is that international politics is shaped by ( )
A. persuasive ideas
B. culture
C. social identities
D. all of the above
Based on “Liberalism and World Politics” by Michael Doyle, which of the below is FALSE?
C. Liberal Pacifism and Liberal Imperialism are self-contradictory tradition within liberalism and affect liberal states separately.
Which of the below is a FALSE statement about power in international relations?
D. Power is an objective measurement of a state's influence in international relations and easy to calculate.
Rationality implies that
A. states are unitary actors that can think about their actions coherently and make choices.
B. states can identify their interests and put priorities on them.
C. states are able to perform cost-benefit analysis on actions.
D. all of the above. 100%
Which of the below is not a realist?
E. Emmanuel Kant
Anarchy in the international system means
C. the absence of a central government that can enforce rules.
The structure of world politics during the Cold War was a _____ system.
B. bipolar
Total GDP, population. territory, and natural resources are examples of ( )
A. power resources
Intangible power capabilities include
D. legitimacy 100%
_____ allow actors to exercise influence whereas _____ are elements that an actor the long term to develop certain abilities.
B. Power capabilities, power resources
A situation in which states’ actions taken to assure their own security tend to threaten the security of other states is called ( ).
D. security dilemma
_____ explain international events in terms of the structure of the international system, primarily the international distribution of power.
D. Neo-realism (Structural Realism)
Cohesion within an alliance tends to be highest in which situation?
C. an alliance in which cooperation is institutionalized and habitual
If the theory of Balance of Power is correct, states try to join the weaker coalition of states in order to counterbalance the stronger coalition
A. True
The theory that the largest wars result from challenges to the top position in the hierarchy, when a rising power is surpassing or threatening to surpass the most powerful state, is
C. power transition theory
How does the Great Power system of the 20th century compare to that of 18th and 19th centuries?
A. The Great Power system in the 20th century was global, whereas the Great Power system in the 18th and 19th centuries was European.
With respect to game theory, which of the following is FALSE?
C. Game theory assumes players will not always make rational decisions.
The U.S.-Japanese military alliance is asymmetrical because
D. A and BA. the United States must defend Japan if it is attacked, but Japan need not do the same if the United States is attacked.
B. the United States maintains troops in Japan, but Japan does not have troops in the United States.
According to hegemonic stability theory, which of the below is FALSE?
D. A hegemon fears competition from industries in other states because it might lead to power decline in relation with its trade partners.
In his "The Folly of Containment", Lieber argues that the invasion of Iraq is necessary because
C. A new type of military conflict, including terrorism, requires the policy of pre- emption, which roots out the source of threats in advance.
From "Unnecessary War". Mearsheimer argues that the invasion of Iraq is unnecessary because
A. Saddam Hussein can be contained
B. The cost of the invasion would exceed the benefits of it.
C. Saddam Hussein is rational.
D. All of the above
From "Unnecessary War" and "Folly of Containment". Both Mearsheimer and Lieber are realists
A. True
A collective goods problem is
C. the problem of how to provide something that benefits all members of a group regardless of what each member contributes to it.
Why are collective goods easier to provide in small groups than large groups? (Select 2)
A. The defection of one member is harder to conceal.
B. The defection of one member has a greater impact on the overall collective good.
How do dominance and reciprocity compare as solutions to collective goods problems?
A. Dominance relies on a power hierarchy acting as a central authority, whereas reciprocity operates without any central authority.
Which of the following is not a component of a state?
E. democracy
Which of the following trends does globalization encompass?
A. expanded international trade and telecommunications
B. monetary coordination and multinational corporations
C. technical and scientific cooperation
D. migration and refugee flows
E. all of the above
According to Goldstein's textbook, sovereignty is
A. a state government answering to no higher authority.
A nation is
B. group of people who share characteristics such as language and culture.
An example of a political entity often referred to as a state but not formally recognized as one is
E. Taiwan 100%
Which of the followings is an example of Intergovernmental Organizations?
A. NATO
The _____ level of analysis concerns the influence of the international system upon outcomes, whereas the _____ level of analysis concerns the influence of trends and forces that transcend the interactions of states upon outcomes.
D. interstate, global
Consideration of the political organizations, government agencies, and economic sectors within states is the focus of the _____ level of analysis.
B. domestic 100%
Based on the Table 1.5,
D. The South has 80% of world population and 40% of world GDP
The Munich Agreement of 1938, which allowed Nazi Germany to occupy part of Czechoslovakia, has been often cited an example of
D. failed policy appeasement
In what way did the United States attempt to contain Soviet influence after World War II?
A. maintaining military bases and made alliances in Europe, Asia and other prts of the world.
B. developing a large nuclear arsenal.
C. providing aid through the Marshall Plan to rebuild Western Europe
D. all of the above
Which event in the post-World War II period probably brought the United States and the Soviet Union closest to nuclear war?
B. Cuban Missile Crisis
The post-Cold War era is
A. more complex and unpredictable than the Cold War period.
B. more peaceful than the Cold War period.
C. characterized by a more global international economy.
D. characterized by transnational concerns such as environmental degradation and disease have become more prominent.
E. all of the above.
Which of the following is NOT a point of view on globalization?
C. Globalization is changing international security more quickly and profoundly than international political economy.
When Yugoslavia fell apart,
E. ethnic Serbs seized parts of Croatia and Bosnia, where they killed or forced non-Serbs from their homes.
Why did neither Britain nor Russia assume a dominant leadership position in the 19th century? (see. pp. 26-34, Mingst)
D. Despite each nation’s power capabilities, the status quo remained the most acceptable path
Which of the following is NOT a secular trend that undermined feudalism and Christianity after 1000 A.D. (see. pp18-23, Mingst)
E. Diplomatic practices deteriorated.