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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A leisure centre manager intends to introduce new work processes that require risk assessment under regulation 3 of the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999.

i. Outline which factors to consider while carrying out the risk assessment. (8)
Factors to identify:

• Activities being undertaken
• Hazards involved
• Likelihood and severity of the harm that may be caused
• Number of employees exposed and exposure frequency
• Competence of persons carrying out activities
• Evaluation of existing control measures
• Competence of person doing the assessment
A leisure centre manager intends to introduce new work processes that require risk assessment under regulation 3 of the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999.

what is required for the assessment to be ‘suitable and sufficient’. (4)
• It should identify the significant risks arising out of the work activity
• It should identify and prioritise the measures that need to be taken to comply with relevant statutory provisions
• It should be appropriate to the nature of the work
• It should remain valid for a reasonable period of time
A leisure centre manager intends to introduce new work processes that require risk assessment under regulation 3 of the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999.

iii. Identify the various circumstances that may require the risk assessment to be reviewed at a later date. (8)
• Changes to work processes or methods
• Introduction of new plant
• Changes to production scale
• New information on hazardous substances or processes
• Accidents or ill-health becoming apparent
• Results of monitoring, inspections, audits and health surveillance
• Changes in legislation
• Changes affecting personnel i.e. disabilities, young persons and pregnancy
• At routine intervals i.e. 6 monthly or yearly review
Outline possible consequences of not achieving good standards of health and safety. (8)
Recognition of the financial and legal implications of poor health and safety performance should be outlined with details of:

• Costs of accidents and ill-health in terms of lost production
• Loss of key personnel
• Replacement staff costs
• Investigation costs
• Higher insurance premiums
• Equipment/plant damage and replacement costs
• Legal defence costs
• Fines
• Possible imprisonment
• Product quality
• Resource allocation
• Public and employee relations
A machine operator is involved in an accident by coming into contact with a dangerous part of a machine, describe:

i. The possible immediate causes (4)
• Inadequate or non-existent safety devices
• Poor housekeeping
• Loose clothing
• Machine malfunction
• Operator error
A machine operator is involved in an accident by coming into contact with a dangerous part of a machine, describe:

ii. The possible root (underlying) causes (4)
• Inadequate training
• Inadequate instruction/supervision
• Poor maintenance
• Inadequate risk assessment
• Personal factors – stress, fatigue and the
influence of drugs and alcohol
• Poor management systems
• Selection of personnel
• Selection of correct equipment
Identify EIGHT informative sources that may be consulted while developing a safe system of work (8)
Be specific

• Statutory instruments
• Approved Codes of Practice – ACOP’s
• HSE guidance
• Manufacturers’ information
• European and other official standards
• Industry and trade literature
• Results of risk assessments
• Accident statistics
• Health surveillance records
• The employees involved
• Enforcement agencies and other experts
Outline reasons why verbal communication may not be clearly understood by an employee. (8)
This is an outline question which should give reasoned answers by way of examples and not just a simple list. Reasons should include:

• Noise and distractions
• Use of technical jargon
• Complexity of information
• Communication is ambiguous
• Language/dialect barriers
• Sensory impairment
• Mental difficulty
• Lack of attention
• Inexperience
• Lengthy communication chains
a) Identify the factors that could place a greater risk of accidents at work on young persons. (4)
• Lack of knowledge
• Lack of experience
• Lack of training
• Physical development of the individual
• Nature of young persons to take risks
• Peer group pressures in young persons is
generally greater than that of more experienced
possible measures to minimise the risks to young persons at work. (4)
• Risk assessment specific to young persons
• Induction training
• Careful supervision by experienced and
responsible workers
• Specific health surveillance
• Clear lines of communication
• Restriction on type of work and hours worked
The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995:

i. List FOUR types of major injury with reference to the above regulation. (4)
• Fractures (other than fingers, thumbs and toes)
• Amputation
• Loss of sight
• Broken bones
• Electrocution resulting in resuscitation
• Hospitalisation for more than 24 hours
• Fatal injuries are a special case and DO NOT
come under the definition of ‘major injury’.
The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995:

ii. Outline procedures for reporting a major injury to the appropriate authority. (4)
• Who reports accident and how
• Notification by quickest means possible
(usually telephone or fax)
• Use of form F2508
• Within 10 days of incident
i. Define ‘ergonomics’ (2)
There are many acceptable definitions:

• The study of the interaction between workers
and the work environment

• Making the job or task fit the person

• The study of how people interact with
machinery or equipment within the workplace

• Ergonomics is the application of scientific
information concerning humans to the design
of objects, systems and environment for human

• Fitting the job to the people who have to do it,
through the design of equipment and

• Fitting the person to the job, through the use of
placement procedures or training

• The study of how the workplace relates to
human functions
ii. List SIX observations of a machine operators station which could suggest that the machine has not been ergonomically designed. (6)
• The need for excessive force or repetitive
• The need to stretch or stoop
• Machine controls in awkward positions
• Controls unmarked or poorly marked and
functions not obvious
• Lack of visibility by the operator
• Size or weight of work item making it difficult to
position or because of type of machine
• Difficulty in changing, adjusting or cleaning
machine tools
i. Explain the meaning of ‘so far as is reasonably practicable’ (2)
• Balance of risk against cost
ii. State the employer’s general and specific duties under section 2 of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974. (6)
Section 2:

General duty - "to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work with all his employees".
List what may be considered on assessment of a contractor’s health and safety competence. (8)
• Previous experience
• Reputation
• Quality and content of health and safety policy
and risk assessments
• Level of training and qualifications of staff including health and safety staff
• Accident/enforcement statistics
• Membership of official bodies
• Equipment maintenance records
• Detailed proposals of work to be undertaken
• Recommendations
• Ability to provide safe systems of work for the job i.e. resources
• Overall health and safety culture
• Their arrangements to fulfil their duties with respect of the health and safety plan
i. Define the term ‘negligence’ (2)
• Breach of common law legal duty of care to exercise reasonable care towards others, resulting in loss, damage or injury
• Or, a tort involving unreasonably careless conduct
• Key defining case - Donoghue V Stevenson (1932).
ii. Outline the THREE conditions for an employee to prove a case of negligence against an employer. (6)
1. Defendant under duty of care to claimant
(injured party)
2. Duty breached
3. Result of breach - claimant suffered damage or
i. List FOUR health and safety regulations that specify a legal duty to provide adequate lighting at work. (4)
• Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992
• Provision and Use of Workplace Equipment Regulations 1998
• Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992
• Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
• Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations 1997
• Confined Spaces Regulations 1997.
the effects inadequate lighting in a workplace would have on health and safety. (6)
• Eye strain
• Headaches
• Adopting poor posture
• Tripping over unseen objects
• Human error is likely to increase.
• NOTE: Both individual health risks and physical risks are required.
iii. Outline which factors should be considered on assessment of the adequacy of lighting within an open plan office. (10)
• The tasks being carried out
• The equipment used
• The size and layout of the office i.e. distance of
workstations to windows and the use of

• Natural light available at different times of the
day and year
• Suitability of the number, type, intensity and
hue of artificial lights

• Computer screen glare
• Shadowed areas
• Localised lighting, need for and availability of
• Maintenance of non-functional, flickering,
damaged or dirty lights
• Provision and adequacy of emergency lighting.
i. State the conditions that must be fulfilled to show that an employer may be held vicariously liable for the negligence of an employee. (4)
• The employee was acting in the course of his/her employment
• The employee caused damage or injury by not fulfilling a common law duty of care.
• Note: BOTH these conditions must be met to find the employer liable.
ii. Outline the legal duties required to be met by employers in order to ensure employees behave in a safe manner. (4)
• Section 2 of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974: to provide information, instruction, training and supervision to employees
• Regulation 11 of the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999: employees’ capabilities must be considered before allocating tasks to them. Regulation 11 also has more depth on forms of training that should be provided.
• Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 have similar requirements.
Outline management techniques which can encourage a positive attitude to health and safety in the workplace. (8)
• Communication
• Employee involvement
• Incentives
• Leading by example
• Performance appraisals.
a) Explain by way of example, why a health and safety inspector would serve:

i. An improvement notice (2)
• A breach of statutory duty and a likelihood or continuation or repeat of the breach. E.g. inadequate guarding on boring machine – breach of The Provision and Use Of Work Equipment Regs 1998
a) Explain by way of example, why a health and safety inspector would serve:

ii. A prohibition notice (2)
• If there is an imminent risk to health and safety the operation must cease immediately. E.g. No hot water washing facilities- using concrete- risk of dermatitis – breach of HSWA 1974, The Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996, The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002.
b) Outline what the effect on EACH notice would be in the case of an appeal against them. (4)
• An improvement notice is suspended until the appeal is heard
• A prohibition notice remains in force.
Outline what type of information is required in an health and safety plan before work commences on a building project as described under the CDM Regulations 1994. (8)
• The nature and risks of the work involved
• Method statements
• Emergency arrangements
• Co-ordination of, and liaison between, the relevant parties
• Use of plant and equipment
• Site rules
• Welfare arrangements
• Accident reporting
• Instruction and training
• Provision and use of personal protective equipment
• Monitoring and review arrangements
a) Give FOUR reasons why there should be a system for the internal reporting of accidents in an organisation. (4)
• The compilation of accident statistics and identifying trends
• To meet the requirements of the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995
• Investigations may be carried out to prevent future occurrences
• Use in civil claims or to satisfy insurance requirements
• Help in the identification and reduction of loss
• Inform the review of risk assessments.
b) Outline the factors that could prevent accidents from being reported at work by employees. (4)
• Ignorance of reporting procedures
• Peer pressure
• Possible retribution by management
• Preservation of the company’s or departments safety record (particularly where incentive schemes are in place)
• Avoidance of first-aid or medical treatment
• Over-complicated reporting procedures
• Lack of management response to earlier reported accidents.
Outline the information that should be given to employees when they could be exposed to a substance hazardous to health in the workplace. (8)
• Nature of substance and its possible effects
• How it is to be used, transported and stored
• Provision and use of control measures
• Possible use of personal protective equipment including information on its availability, storage, cleaning, maintenance and replacement
• Procedures relating to personal hygiene
• Monitoring
• Health surveillance
• Emergencies including first-aid and spillage procedures.
Outline why a verbal instruction given to an employee may not be clearly understood. (8)
• Noise and distractions
• Use of technical jargon
• Complexity of information
• Ambiguity
• Language and/or dialect of the speaker
• Sensory impairment
• Mental difficulty
• Inattention or inexperience of the recipient
• Lengthy communication chains.
a) List FOUR other categories of people rather than employees that an employer owes a duty to take reasonable care. (2)
• Visitors
• Members of the public
• Uninvited persons/trespassers
• Contractors
b) Outline procedures that could be used to ensure the safety of visitors to an organisations premise. (6)
• Identification of visitors: signing in, badges etc.
• Information regarding the risks present and site rules and procedures, especially in emergency situations
• Visitor supervision i.e. escorts
• Restricted access to certain areas.
State the requirements of the Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations 1997 with regards of emergency exits and routes. (8)
• Risk assessment to take into account the dimensions of the escape route, length and width, and number of persons to be evacuated.
• Doors must open easily and in the direction of escape
• Emergency signs and lighting
• Escape routes must be kept clear of obstruction at all times
• Escape routes must lead directly to a place of safety.
List the powers given to inspectors under the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974. (8)
• The right to enter premises, if necessary with police assistance
• To carry out examinations and investigations
• To direct that premises or equipment be left undisturbed for the purpose of investigations
• To take measurements and photographs
• To inspect and/or take copies of documents and records
• To take samples
• To interview a person and obtain a signed declaration of truth
• To take possession of articles and substances
• To issue enforcement notices
• To instigate and conduct proceedings in a magistrates court (except Scotland).
• To dismantle and/or test any item or substance which they decide is harmful to health.
i. Identify the significant areas that should be considered during a planned health and safety inspection of a workplace. (8)
• Substances or materials used
• Traffic routes
• Means of access and egress
• Work equipment
• Work practices such as manual handling
• Work environment
• Electricity
• Fire precautions
• First-aid facilities
• Welfare facilities
• Workstation ergonomics
• Housekeeping
• Actions points from previous inspections
ii. Outline FOUR requirements of welfare facilities that an employer must provide for his employees according to the Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992. (8)
• Sanitary conveniences
• Washing facilities
• Fresh drinking water
• Accommodation for clothing
• Facilities for changing
• Facilities for resting and eating
iii. Describe the possible enforcement action that may be brought against an employer failing to provide adequate welfare facilities in the workplace. (4)
• Serving of improvement notices or prohibition notices
• Possible prosecution
• Describe the circumstances that would lead to the issue of a notice
• Prosecution would take place in a Magistrates Court
• Prohibition notice unusual regarding welfare facilities as serious personal injury would be rare.
Outline factors that should be considered when devising safe systems of work. (8)
• Type of activity of task
• The hazards and risks involved
• The controls necessary
• The equipment and materials used
• The working environment
• Individuals involved i.e. numbers, level of training
• Legal requirements and monitoring systems
Outline the main topics of health and safety that should be included in an induction training programme. (8)
• Emergency procedures
• Fire
• First aid
• Health and safety policy
• Management and employee responsibilities for health and safety
• Local procedures and work systems
• Communication paths
Outline the main duties placed on manufacturers, suppliers and importers of substances for use at work under section 6 of the Health and Safety at Work Act etc 1974. (8)
So far as is reasonably practicable:
• Substances will be safe and without risks to health when used, handled, processed, stored or transported
• Duties regarding testing
• Information
• Research
Outline what factors should be considered in the selection process of personal eye protection for use in the workplace. (8)
• Type of hazard i.e. particles, molten metal, chemicals, etc.
• The standard of equipment required as specified in British and European Standards
• The suitability of different types of equipment i.e. goggles, visors and spectacles
• Fit and comfort
• Storage and maintenance requirements
• Costs
• Training needs
• Compatibility with other types of PPE
• General environment where the equipment will be used.
Describe what factors should be considered before a demolition project commences. (8)
• Location and disconnection of public utilities such as gas, water electricity
• Legal considerations i.e. ownership and local authority regulations
• Obtain building plans
• Assess soil structure
• Identify contaminated land
i. Explain the term ‘motivation’. (2)
• The driving force behind a person’s actions
• The way in which people can be persuaded to perform an act willingly
ii. Describe the motivating factors that could help an organisation improve its health and safety. (6)
• Financial rewards or incentive schemes
• Praise and encouragement
• Discipline
• Peer group pressure
• Leading by example
• Acceptance of responsibility
• Involvement in the decision making process.
i. Explain the term ‘accident incidence rate’. (2)
• The number of accidents per so many (usually one thousand) employees within a defined period of time (usually one year).
ii. Explain how accident information can be utilised in the promotion of health and safety in the workplace. (6)
• Safety committees can use the information to help focus on attention to high risk areas.
• It can be used to influence the behaviour of those at risk, i.e. displaying it on notice boards
• Reactive monitoring on the management systems’ effectiveness
• It can help justify and inform the allocation of resources to health and safety
• It can be used on a national scale such as national campaigns
Give details of the inspection duties that should be carried out to ensure a scaffold erection is safe. (8)
• Inspect all components before use
• Erect by experienced operatives
• Supervise erection by competent person
• Consider use for scaffold and type of structure needed
• Inspect scaffold every 7 days
• Inspect scaffold after inclement weather
• Inspection by competent person
• Details of inspection in register Form 91
Outline FOUR sources of information that might be consulted when assessing the risks of a new substance being introduced into a manufacturing process. (8)
• Manufacturers’ or suppliers’ product information
• HSE publications such as EH40
• Specialist textbooks, journals and research papers
• Guidance from trade or professional bodies
• Electronic health and safety databases, i.e. the internet
Outline the FOUR main factors when carrying out a risk assessment that should be considered under the Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992. (8)
• Task
• Individual
• Load
• Environment
• T.I.L.E