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EMS System

Emergency Medical Services System
Anatomy
the structure of the body and the relationship of its parts to each other.
Physiology
The function of the living body and it's parts.
Anatomical Postion
The patient is standing erect, facing forward, with arms down at the sides and palms forward.
Supine
The patient is lying face up on his back.
Prone
The patient is lying face down on his stomach.
Lateral recumbent postion
the patient is lying on his left or right side.
Flowers postion
The patient is lying on his back with his upper body elevated at a 45° to 60° angle.

Semi Fowler 's Postion

The patient is lying on his back with the upper body elevated at an angle less than 45°
Trendelenburg position
The patient is lying on his back with the legs elevated higher than the head and body on an inclined plane.
Shock position
Alternative to the Trendelenburg position,where only the feet and legs are elevated approximately 12 inches.
Anatomical Planes
Imaginary divisions of the body.
Sagittal planes
a vertical plane that runs lengthwise and divides the body into right and left segments. Doesn't have to be equal haves.
median plane

Midsagittal plane

VerticAl plane that runs lengthwise and divides the body into equal right and left segments.
Frontal/Coronal plane
Divides the body into front and back halves

Transverse/Horizontal plane

Parallel with the ground and divides the body into upper and lower halves

Midline

Vertical line through the middle of the patient's body, beginning at the top of the head and continuing down through the nose and the navel and to the ground between the legs.

Midaxillary line

Vertical line drawn from the middle of the patient's armpit down to the ankle.

Divides the anterior plane and posterior plane

Anterior Plane

The patient's front

Posterior Plane

The patient's back

Transverse Line

Horizontal line drawn through the patients waist

Divides the superior plane and the inferior plane

Superior Plane

above the waist

Inferior Plane

Below the waist

Anterior

towards the front

Posterior

towards the back

Superior

towards the head or above the point of reference

Inferior

towards the feet or below the point of reference

Dorsal

towards the spine

Ventral

towards the abdomen

Medial

towards the midline or center of the body

Lateral

away from the midline of the body

Bilateral

both left and right sides of the body

Unilateral

one side of the body

Iplilateral

same side

Contralateral

opposite side

Proximal

near the point of reference

Distal

far from the point of reference

Right and Left

Always the patient's right and left

Midclavicular

refers to the center of each of the collar bones

Midaxillary

refers to the center of the armpit

Plantar

refers to the sole of the foot

Palmar

refers to the palm o the hand

Abdominal Quadrants

the four parts of the abdomen as divided by imaginary horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus

Lower Left Quad., Lower Right Quad., Upper Left Quad., Upper Right Quad.

Musculoskeletal System

Consists of bony framework, or skeleton, held together by ligaments, layers of muscles, tendons and various other connective tissues

Ligaments

connect bone to bone

Tendons

Connect muscle to bone

Skull

rests at the top of the spinal column and houses and protects the brain and is divided into two parts

Cranium

Forms the top, back and sides of the skull plus the forehead.

Face

area of the skull between the brow and chin

Orbits

eye sockets

Nasal Bones

the bed of the nose

Maxillae

fused bones of the upper jaw

Zygomatic Bones

Cheekbones

Mandible

Lower Jaw

Spinal column/ Vertebral column

the principal support system of the body

Vertebrae

Irregularly shaped blocks of bone that make up the spinal column

Intervertebral Disk

Fluid-filled pad of tough elastic cartilage between two vertebrae

Cervical Spine

the first seven vertebrae from the cervical spine

C1-C7 (neck)

Thoracic Spine

The 12 thoracic vertebrae that are directly inferior to the cervical spine form the upper back

T1-T12 (Upper back)

Lumbar Spine

The 5 vertebrae that form the lower back and are the least mobile of the vertebrae

L1-L5 (Lower Back)

Sacral Spine

The 5 vertebrae that are fused together to form the rigid part of the posterior side of the pelvis

S1-S5 (back wall of the pelvis)

Coccyx

The last four vertebrae that are fused together and do not have the protrusions characteristic of the other vertebrae

tailbone

Thorax

Chest

Sternum

Breastbone

Clavicle

Collarbone

Manubrium

superior portion of the sternum

Xiphoid Process

inferior portion of the sternum

Pelvis

doughnut-shaped structure that consists of several bones, including the sacrum and the coccyx

Iliac Crest

"Wings" of the pelvis

Pubis

the anterior and inferior portion of the pelvis

Ischium

the posterior and inferior portion of the pelvis

Extremities

Limbs of the body

arms and legs

Acetabulum

Pelvic socket

Femur

thighbone

Patella

Kneecap

Tibia

The weight-bearing bone located at the anterior and medial side of the leg

Shin

Fibula

attached to the tibia at the top and is located at the lateral side of the leg parallel to the tibia

Malleolus

The knobby surface landmarks of the ankle joint

Calcaneus

heel bone

Tarsals

make up the proximal portion of the foot

Metatarsals

form the substance of the foot

Phalanges

form the toes and fingers

Scapula

shoulder blade

Acromion

Tip of the shoulder blade

Humerus

The proximal portion of the arm

Radius

the lateral bone of the forearm

Ulna

the medial bone of the forearm

Olecranon

part of the ulna that forms the bony prominence of the elbow

Carpals

bones that form the wrist

Metacarpals

bones of the hand

Joint

The place where one bone connects to another

Flexion

Bending toward the body or decreasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body

Extension

Straightening away from the body or increasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body

Abduction

Movement away from the midline

Adduction

Movement toward the midline

Circumduction

A combination of the four preceding motions as is possible with the shoulder joint

Pronation

Turning the forearm so the palm of the hand is turned toward the back

Supination

Turning the forearm so the palm of the hand is turned toward the front

Ball-and-Socket Joint

Type of joint that permits the widest range of motion- flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and rotation

Shoulder and hip joints

Hinged Joint

Permit flexion and extension

elbow, knee, and fingers

Pivot Joint

Allows for a turning motion

wrist and neck

Gliding Joint

Where one bone slides across another to the pint where surrounding structures restrict the motion

the small bones in the hands and feet

Saddle Joint

Shaped to permit combinations of limited movements along perpendicular planes

the ankle allows the foot to turn inward slightly as it moves up and down

Condyloid Joint

Modified ball-and-socket joint that permits limited motion in two directions

Wrist allows the hand to move up and down and side to side, but not to rotate completely

Skeletal Muscle/Voluntary Muscle

Can be contracted and relaxed by will of the individual. Makes deliberate movement possible.

Walking, chewing, swallowing, smiling, frowning, talking

Smooth/Involuntary muscle

Made up of large fibers that carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body through rhythmic, wavelike movements

Moving blood through the veins, bile from the gallbladder.

Cardiac Muscle

special kind of involuntary muscle particularly suited for the work of the heart

found only in the walls of the heart

Respiration

The process of moving oxygen and carbon dioxide across membranes, in and out of the alveoli, capillaries, and cells.

Oxygenation

The form of respiration in which oxygen molecules move across a membrane from an area of high oxygen concentration to an area of low oxygen concentration.

Ventilation

The mechanical process by which air is moved in and out of the lungs.

Respiratory System

The organs involved in the exchange of gases between an organism and the atmosphere

Pharynx

Throat, common passageway for food and air

oropharynx

oral portion of the pharynx

Nasopharynx

nasal portion of the pharynx

Esophagus

Structure that leads to the stomach

Trachea

Structure that leads to the lungs

Larynx

houses the vocal cords

"voice box"

Thyroid Cartilage

The anterior cartilage that covers the larynx

"Adam's Apple"

Cricoid Cartilage

a firm, full ring of cartilage that forms the lower edge of the larynx