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100 Cards in this Set

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millenarian
a person who believes in the coming of the millennium
apocalyptic
prophetic of devastation or ultimate doom
rabbinic
means a religious ‘teacher’
prophetic tradition
oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
ephramite
members of one of the twelve tribes of Israel, descended from Ephraim, one of the sons of Jacob
pentateuch
Torah: the first of three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures comprising the first five books of the Hebrew Bible considered as a unit
elohist
The Elohist (E) is one of four sources of the Torah described by the Documentary Hypothesis. Its name comes from the term it uses for God: Elohim
exilic
of or relating to a period of exile (especially the exile of the Jews known as the Babylonian Captivity)
remnant
of or relating to a period of exile (especially the exile of the Jews known as the Babylonian Captivity)
when is the period of classical prophecy?
he period of classical prophecy lasted for about 300 years (mid-eighth to mid-fifth centuries BCE) and spanned the crucial periods of the rise of three great empires, Assyria, Babylonia, and Persia, as well as pivotal events in the life of the nation---the destruction of the Northern Kingdom by Assyria (722 BCE), the destruction of the Southern Kingdom and the Temple by the Babylonians (586 BCE), the Babylonian Exile, and the early years of the Return to Zion
why did he write this book?
he has tried to acknowledge the existence of and interpretations of as well as his own views- essentially written to have reader conduct their own views and position
ostraca
a piece of pottery (or stone), usually broken off from a vase
nabi
Hebrew word for "prophet"
lacuna
a gap in a manuscript, inscription, text
canonical criticism
recent type of biblical criticism builds on the results of earlier methods
what references or evidence are there of israelite prophecy?
inscribed ostraca discovered during excavation
what does the sentence on page 9 mean?
the prophetic material in the bible has been chosen for inclusion and edited for specific ideological critera only
how was prophetic protest against injustice and exploitation given official state sanction?
it was given in a state document deuteronomy and it continued as a powerful force for social renewal
how does ephraimite prophecy differ from judean prophecy?
there is a historical context difference in the critique of society and bureaucracy. the differences in social teachings
why is is problematic to talk about THE prophets and THE religion of ancient israel?
because you are then limiting to the "religion of israel" a population as a whole- prophets were only a small minority
why did prophets play a destabilizing role?
because we would have to conclude that many of the prophets whose stories and sayings were more often at odds with the religion
how were prophetic books put together? how did this make the bible canonical?
sayings and stories were circulate in a group of disciples to be cosigned to writing only when memories began to fade- preserved in court records. redefined to broader issues and then later became building blocks for bible.
how has form criticism helped in the study of prophets?
he attempt to trace the provenance and assess the historicity of particular passages by a close analysis of their structural forms
why would there be tension between prophets and fixed law code?
prophets believed that the fixed law code neglected the prophetic word in the religious sphere. the code neutralized and contradicted claims by prophets.
how did critical study of prophets impact the civil rights movement?
use of example of rough times to a time a peace; characters of human beings; power of strength
what happened during the last two to three decades in the study of prophecy?
expressed indifference to the historical critical method; concentrates more on narrative; more contemporary interpretative options of prophecy in modern world.
gunkel's contribution
Gunkel: concentrated on the genesis narratives and the psalms. able to show that the prophets made use of many literary types
Mowinckel's contribution
Mowinckel: carried Gunkel, and expanded to the Old Testament. applied Gunkel's conclusions about prophetic speech forms to Jeremiah. distinguished between original sayings and style.
hozeh
seer
ro'eh
seer
ish 'elohim
man of god
nabi
one who is called
what are the hebrew terms used for prophets and what does each mean?
hozeh
ro'eh
ish 'elohim
nabi
what is the etymology of hebrew nabi?
to speak on behalf of another
prophet
someone who is an interpreter of the will of God
sitz im leben
social life situation; why passage was written
what happens at jonestown and waco?
presence and activity of contemporary cult groups
who was weber and what were his contributions?
thinker- distinguished the category of religious specialist from others - priests, mystics, prophets etc.
hepatoscopy
cutting open a sheep to look in their liver for signs; deductive divination
sibyl
a woman who tells fortunes
describe the text from tel deir alla- how does this relate to the bible?
the tda told in jordan with inscription mentioning destruction
deuteronomistic history
main source for destruction of people . said reason for destruction was the dis obeying of yahweh
name four 8th century prophets
isiah
amos
micah
hosea
what role did warfare have in israelite origins and early history?
served as a balance to those who socially accepted prophecy.
elijah
prophet in bible who along with elisha prophet of shammans anioints elisha as sucessor, goes to heaven in fiery chaos
elisha
succeeds elijah; 9th century prophet that brings people bakc to life
haiography
writings of holy people
nazirites
people who took vow, dont come in contact with alcohol, dead people or cut their hair
rechabites
group of people jeremiah praises live in tents and dont touch alcohol; thinks people of judah should be more like them
describe 9th century israel
prominent warfare and religious crusades. syrian wars
tiglath pileser III
"my trust is in the son of Esharra" was a prominent king of Assyria in the 8th century BC
ahaz
a king of Judah
hezekiah
king of Judah who abolished idolatry
sennacherib
king of Assyria who invaded Judea twice and defeated Babylon and rebuilt Nineveh after it had been destroyed by Babylonians
when why and how did assyria expand? how did this effect israel and judah?
assyria expands: 745

why: assyria began to impinge on damascus

how: battle/ crops/ warfare

left mark on traditional religious beliefs and practices. signaled beginning of bigger empires.
according to weber what was the primary concern of israel prophets?
foregin politics, familiarization of events near east that impacted directly on kingdoms of judah and israel
compare and contrast Manasseh and Josiah
Manasseh- introduced pagans, strengthened jureluseam, good reign.

Josiah- good king- violent end,

both expanded jureluseam
why does blenk not like the words classical or primitave?
believes they inject continuity, and mislead the reader into accepting and not questioning certain implied generalizations about prophecy
Does Blenkisopp agree with the notion that primitive prophets engaged in paranormal psychic states compared to classical prophets who had authority based on the spoken word?
Blenkisopp does not agree with this notion because he feels it overlooks evidence for ecstatic experiences among the prophets of the 8th-6th centuries and the verbal communication said to have come from inner experience.
Why in the 8th century did prophets increasingly address large numbers of people instead of individuals?
Because great empires were destroying the two kingdoms, and there was real king to preach to anymore, so attention was back on the person and the work of the prophet.
Why is Amos third in the Book of the 12?
Amos is the third book because of chronology.
What are the three sections of Amos?
*The 8 sayings against various nations condemning them for crimes

*Short sayings attributed to Amos

*Five vision reports
What can we learn from the superscription of Amos?
We learn that the Dtr school put out a collection of prophetic books, which have this characteristic title.
Describe Amos' encounter with Amaziah, and why does Amos deny that he is/was a nabi?
Amaziah accused Amos of conspiracy to the king, based on the prediction that Jeroboam would die by the sword and the people would go into exile. He orders Amos to leave the state sanctuary and find employment in Judah. He said that he was a nabi , but said that in spite of this, Yahweh had called him to prophesy to the people of Israel. He denied that he was a Nabi because he did not feel like he was a “professional” prophet
Why did scribes record the prophecies of Amos?
Initial reason might have been the great earthquake
Give some examples in which Amos reverses traditional symbols and images
At the great autumn festival of the ingathering, he reversed the expectations with the prospect of disaster taking the place of salvation and mourning that of joy; these gatherings were seen as inappropriate forms of Christian worship.
Distorts the sense of a traditional oracle of salvation by saying that God is going to destroy Israel.
What are some problems with the heading/superscription of Hosea?
He names three Judean kings, and one of the kings, Hezekiah, did not come to the throne until after the fall of Samaria in 722. It is assumed that Hosea’s career came to an end before 722
What did Jehu and his dynasty do to upset Hosea (especially in Hosea 1:4-5)?
They killed the people of Jezreel. Hozea thought that Jehu went too far and killed too many people.
Why did many, like Hosea, believe that "the nabi is a fool, the man of the spirit (ish haruach) is mad" (Hos 9:7)?
Because a nabi was seen as someone who is crazy, and that was just the belief of the times. It was a traditional belief of the people at that time. He also believed that he received messages from God without acting crazy, so it must be a different kind of spirit that is inhabiting these individuals.
Explain how the names of Hosea's three children, Jezreel, Lo-Ruhama, and Lo Ammi, have "progressively sinister connotation."
Jezreel-name is close to Israel: refers to cloody coup of Jehu in Jezreel

Lo-Ruhama- means not pitied; the time for mercy and forgiveness and prophetic intercession had run out

Lo Ammi (Not My People)- End of the relationship with God and Israel
How might have the book of Hosea reached its present form?
The small collections of sayings were put together during the careers of the prophets or shortly thereafter. Sometimes, the sayings may have been transcribed, but there was trouble in transcribing long discourses delivered over decades. Indictimeant to increase litereary activity help to further the script of the sayings. During the period of the Second Temple individuals reinterpreted prophetic sayings in the light of new situations and incorporated their commentary in the text itself.
Does Hosea marry one or two women, and just how sexually active was/were this/these woman/women? Explain these issues.
Hosea married one woman, and she became extremely sexually active after she married Hosea. Hosea had to do this as a symbolic of the Israelites being with God in the wilderness, and when they were freed they went to another partner.
How and why does Blenkinsopp argue that Canaanite religion was not addicted to sexual excess?
He states this as a reason for the dominant religion to be a blend of all of the cults of the region. He wants to make sure that the real reason of survival was seen, and not just the obvious reason of pleasure was the reason that the Canaanite panthenon had such an impact on the cults.
Instead of focusing on social justice and civil rights like Amos, what instead on what does Hosea focus?
False worship is at the root of both moral failure and social disintegration
Superscription
something written or engraved on the surface of, outside, or above something else
Doxologies
a usually liturgical expression of praise to God
Amaziah
charges Amos with conspiracy, and ordered him to leave the sanctuary and go to Judah
Bethel
house of god
Eschatological
end of the world
Syro-Ephraimite War
Assyria was a great regional power.[1] The smaller nations of Syria (often called Aram) and the Northern Kingdom of Israel (often called Ephraim because of the main tribe) formed a coalition in defense against the oncoming threat. They had previously been tributary nations to Assyria, and they finally decided to break away.
Amphictyonic
tribal federation
Hierodule
temple prostitute
summarize the last paragraph, how amos marks a major turning point in religious history
amos laid the basis for understanding of divine action in history that would be influential and problematic - politically and socially
what did blenk mean [sat quo] of worship?
worship can be used as a sinful way of life, clouded by personal beliefs or practices
moresheth
persons named in the Bible of minor notability, about whom either nothing or very little is known
difficulty in studying micah
presents the reader with a degree of difficulty disproportionate to length, beginning with a text badly preserved; obscure
how and why does micah criticize professional prophets
micah was commanded not to preach that disaster will overtake a kingdom or that god's patience has come to an end
lo yissa goy el goy herev, welo yilmadu 'od milhama
no shall not life up against nation oh lord
first isiah
yahweh saves
third isiah
theory that the latter part of isiah was written by a different author
terminus ad quem
the latest possible date an event could happen
immanuel
Emmanuel, "God with Us", a child prophesied by Isaiah as a deliverer of Judah
Maher-shalal-hash-baz
Hurrying to the spoil he has made haste to the plunder" - was the second mentioned son of the prophet Isaiah.[1] The name is a reference to the impending plunder of Samaria and Damascus by the king of Assyria
what do we know about isiah?
first of later prophets
major prophet

believed that god will work through to destroy judah but they will rebuild
what is zion theology?
the message that god is king and his dwelling place is jeruselam
when and why does isiah go naked?
isiah went naked as a symbolism of shame for his people and the humility that they should show god
examples isiah borrowed from hosea and amos:
uses echos and allusions

series of woes stemmed from amos

indicts economic and political elite

names children as command of god
ESSAY 1

how did ancient near eastern historical events impact the 8th century BCE prophets?
3 major events:

destruction of israel in 622
syro-ephrates war
earthquake

theme: syria expanding and getting more powerful
ESSAY 2

what do the 8th century BCE prophets have in common with prophets from mari and nineveh- differences?
s/m- messages linking kings
b- messages of nation

s/m- more people on in locations
b- varies

s/m- more divenation
b-less divination

common:

all oracles
deity speaks through prophets
ESSAY 3

favorite prophet and why?
MICAH-

advocate of the poor farmers

stood up against fellow prophets when he saw they were self serving

doesn't speak for god, but speaks for his people with the authority of god.