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27 Cards in this Set

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A(n) __________ variable is thought to be caused, to depend upon, or to be a function of a(n) _________ variable.
dependent variable is thought to be caused....on a(n) independent variable.
A(n) _______________ specifies the phenomena of interest; indicates which variables are independent, alternative, antecedent, intervening, and dependent; and shows which variables are thought to affect which other ones.
arrow diagram
A ____________ is a guess (but of an educated nature) that represents the proposed explanation for some phenomenon and that indicates how an independent variable is thought to affect, influence, or alter a dependent variable.
hypothesis
A _______________ relationship is one where the values of one variable increases as the values of another variable decreases.
negative
A ______________ relationship is one where the values of one variable increases (or decreases) as the values of another variable increases (or decreases).
positive
Which level of measurement below best describes a variable for which the assigned values represent only different categories or classifications for that variable?
nominal
A(n) ___________ measurement assumes that a comparison can be made on which observations have more or less of a particular attribute
ordinal
A(n) ____________ variable has only two categories.
dichotomous
A variable that measures education on a scale that includes (0) none, (1) less than college, (2) college, (3) more than college, is an example of the _________ level of measurement.
ordinal
A variable that measures education in number of years is an example of the _________ level of measurement.
ratio
A ___________ is the incorrect or mistaken rejection of a true null hypothesis.
Type I Error
A ___________ is failing to reject a false null hypothesis.
Type II Error
A hypotheses stating that there is no relationship is usually called a ________ hypothesis.
null
To claim that a result of a hypothesis test is statistically significant is to assert that a (null) hypothesis has been rejected with a specified probability of making a ______ error.
Type I
. If the observed statistic’s absolute value is greater than or equal to the critical value you should _________ the null hypothesis.
reject
A measure of _________ describes in a single number or coefficient the kind and strength of relationship between the values of two variables
association
Bounded measures of association like Pearson’s r vary between ____ and _____.
-1.00 and +1.00
A ____________ shows the joint or bivariate relationship between two categorized (nominal and/or ordinal) variables.
crosstab
Kendall’s tau b, Kendall’s tau c, Somer’s d, and Goodman and Kruskal’s gamma are all measures of ________________.
association
Which of the following best describes the relationship between two variables when high values of one variable are associated with high values of the other in which plotted X-Y points fall on a straight line.
Monotonic relationship
When the categories of the independent are arrayed across the top of the table—that is, they are the column labels—it is essential that the percentages add to ____ down the columns (these are known as column percentages).
?
The linear regression equation is ________________.
Y1=B0+B1+X1+...+E1.1
In the regression equation, , the “βo” is defined as the ______________.
y intercept
24. In the regression equation the “β1” is defined as the ______________.
slope
25. The regression coefficient tells how much ____ changes if _____ changes by one unit.
much y changes if x changes
A _____________ relationship is one in which the association between two variables is caused by a third.
spurious
R squared is measured on scale from ___ to ____.
0 to 1