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42 Cards in this Set

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The most common cause of brain injury in people under 40 is:

Tramatice Brain Injury

(TorF) The initial ischemia resulting from a stroke has much more damaging effects to the brain than the cascade of cellular and metabolic events that result from the ischemia

False

What machine is used to help people learn to change their behavior by changing their patterns of brain activity?

Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging

Tremor, rigidity, loss of spontaneous movement, and disturbances of posture would suggest:

Parkinson's Disease

Adult-onset schizophrenia has been linked to abnormalities where?

the prefrontal cortex

What is the study of the distribution and causes of diseases in human populations.

Epidemiology

What disease(s) have Lewly bodies been associated with?

Both Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diesase

(TorF) Neural plasticity is actually a challenge to investigating the neurobiology of behavioral disorders because when diseases progress slowly, the brain has a remarkable capacity for adapting.

True

What time of epileptic seizure is associated with episodes lasting about 10 seconds, with a loss of awareness to surroundings as well as blinking, rolling of eyes, and turning of one's head.

petit mal seizures

The positive symptoms of schizophrenia include:

hallucinations and agitated movements

The probability of having a seizure in your lifetime is:

1 in 20

Dementia affects what percent of people over the age of 80?

10-20%

What are phenylketonuria, Hunting's disease, and Tay-Sachs disease caused by?

Genetic errors


Individuals with depression have an elevated level of

Cortisol

What is the experience in which stimulation in one sensory modality gives rise to a sensation in another modality?

Synestesia

Conscious visual knowledge of objects (shape, size, texture) is stored in which cortex?

Temporal Cortex

The form of thinking that searches for multiple solutions to a problem is called what?

Divergent Thinking

Divergent thinking is likely controlled by which lobe?

Frontal lobes

What part of language gives humans an edge, in terms of thinking,

provides means to categorize information, organizing time, and has syntax to allow meaningful utterances to be generated.

A site of a lesion located where, would affect the ability to copy movements, read, and generate the names of objects or animals

Left parietal lobe

A site of a lesion where, would affect the ability to assemble puzzles, copy drawings, and finding one's way around the city

Right parietal lobe

The use of environmental landmarks, the ability to form an imagined map of the environment, and the ability to mentally manipulate images are used with what?

Spatial navigation

Consciousness is likely located

throughout the brain

The temporal organization of behavior is the general function of which lobe


(not temporal)

frontal lobes

In a study by Newsome and associates, monkeys were trained to discriminate different directions of motion while researchers recorded from single neurons in area V5 that were sensitive to a specific direction of motion. According to the researchers, what would result in the highest firing rate in a V5 neuron?

semicoordinated dot movement

If you present a picture of an object to the left visual field of a split-bran patient, the patient can:

pick it out with the left hand.

Neurons that combine different sources of sensory information are referred to as what kind of neurons?

Multinodal Neurons

A patient with difficulty switching strategies to a new sorting rule has an injury where?

prefrontal cortex

the association cortex makes up about how much of the total cortex?

2/3 of the total cortex

Pressing a bar to obtain food is an example of

instrumental conditioning

What is another term for Explicit memory?

Conscious Memory

The hippocampus has been implicated in what time of memory?

Memory for places

Emotional memory involves what structure?

The Amygdala

Repeated exposure to amphetamine or cocaine results in what kind of change to the brain?

long-lasting changes

What structure(s) play an important role in short-term memory or temporary memory?

frontal lobes

which of the following was largely unaffected after the memory patient H.M.'s surgery?

Implicit memory

Changed amplitude (increase) of an excitatory postsynaptic potential that lasts for hours to days or longer is called what?

Long-term potentiation

prolonged exposure to glucocorticoid hormones causes what?

kills cells in the hippocampus

the phenomenon of phantom limbs after amputation can most easily be explained by

the encroachment of the denervated cortex area by some other part of the body

Brain tissue transplants have shown some promise in treating what disease?

Parkinson's Disease

Enriched environments in adult rats have been shown to increase

brain weight, number of synapses, and number of blood capillaries

If a monkey has to remember the position of a light for a delay period after the light goes out. Neurons, from _____ fire to help the monkey retain a memory trace.

Prefrontal cortex