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47 Cards in this Set

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When Megan goes out to buy cosmetics, she reminds herself that the most expensive brands are the best. Megan's self-reminder illustrates the use of ...

a heuristic
* simple thinking, make judgments & solve problems quickly
A factory foreman mistakenly believes that older workers are not as motivated as younger workers to work hard. As a result, he keeps a sharp eye out for signs of laziness among senior workers. His supervision strategy best illustrates...
confirmation bias
* search for evidence that confirms their preconceptions
Prompt feedback regarding your performance on psychology practice tests is most likely to inhibit ...
overconfidence
In the English language, adjectives are typically placed before nouns as in "green car". This illustrates an English language rule of ...
syntax
* order & structure of language
Vocal sounds that are not included in a person's native language first begin to disappear from use during the ______ stage of language development.
babbling
Telegraphic speech is most closely associated with the ______ stage of language development.
two-word
Managers who want to foster creativity in the workplace should try to increase the ______ of their employees.
intrinsic motivation
* self-interest
The older a person is when emigrating to a new country, the harder it is to learn the language. This best illustrates the importance of _____ for learning language.
critical period
* specific time during which organism has to experience stimuli in order to process thru developmental stages properly
When Phoebe strongly disagrees with her sister's opinion, she controls her own anger & responds to her sister with empathy. Her behavior best illustrates ...
emotional intelligence
* ability to perceive, understand & manage emotions
An 8 yr old whose score on the original Stanford-Binet was typical of an avg 10 yr old was said to have an IQ of ...
125
* mature age (MA) x 100 / (CA)
Before publishing her test of musical aptitude, Professor Reed gave it to a representative sample of people. This was most clearly necessary for test ...
standardization
* defining scores by comparing them with performance of a pretested standardization group
When retested on the WAIS, people's second scores generally match their first scores quite closely. This indicates that the test has a high degree of ...
reliability
* extent to which a test yields consistent results

Comparing the academic performance of those who score extremely low on intelligence tests with those whose scores are extremely high is an effective way to highlight the tests' ...

validity
* extent to which a test measures or predicts what it's supposed to

Intelligence test scores are LEAST similar for ;
a) non-twin siblings reared together
b) fraternal twins reared together
c) identical twins reared together
d) identical twins reared apart

a) non-twin siblings reared together
Stereotype threat stimulates ...
self-confirming expectations.
cognition
mental activity associated w/ thinking, knowing, remembering, & communicating info
algorithm
methodical, logical procedure that maybe slow, but GUARANTEES success

Insight

aha moment
sudden & often novel realization the solution to problem
heuristic
* simple thinking strategy often allows us to make judgments & solve problems quickly & efficiently
* more efficient than algorithms
* do NOT guarantee success & more error-prone
availability heuristic
ESTIMATING likelihood of certain events based on how readily they come to mind
fixation
inability to approach a problem in a NEW way

confirmation bias

* obstacle to problem solving
* search for info that CONFIRMS preconceptions

overconfidence

* obstacle to problemsolving
* overestimate accuracy of beliefs & judgments
framing
* WAY an issue is or question is posed
* can affect persons perception of issue or answer to question
belief perseverance
cling to particular belief, even after info proven wrong
language
spoken word, written, or signed words & how we combine them to communicate meaning

babbling stage

* speech development around 4 mos.
* various sounds, unrelated to household language
* children from all cultures sound alike
one-word stage
speech development between 1-2 yrs mostly in single words
two-word stage
* speech development about 2 yrs
* nouns & verbs
* correct order
intelligence
ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
general intelligence (g)
Spearman & others - general factor that underlies specific mental abilities & therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
savant syndrome
* very low IQ
* possess ONE exceptional ability
creativity
ability to produce novel & valuable ideas
emotional intelligence
ability to perceive, manage, understand & use emotions
intelligence tests
measure people's MENTAL aptitudes & COMPARE with others through numerical scores
aptitude tests
* predict FUTURE performance
* measure capacity to learn NEW info, rather than what you already know
achievement tests
measure persons' current knowledge
mental age (MA)
chronological age that most typically corresponds to given level of performance
Stanford-Binet
Lewis Terman's widely used REVISION of Binet's original intelligence test
intelligence quotient (IQ)
* ration of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100
* avg 100
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
MOST used intelligence test
individually administered & contains 11 subtests broken into verbal & performance areas
standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison w/ performance of pretested standardization group
normal curve
* symmetrical bell-shaped curve
* represents frequency of occurrence of many physical & psychological attributes
* curve symmetrical w/ most scores near avg & fewer near extremes
reliability
extent to which test produces consistent results
validity
degree o which test measures or predicts what it's supposed to
heritability
proportion of variation in trait among individuals we attribute to genes
stereotype threat
self-confirming concern that will be evaluated based on negative stereotype