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114 Cards in this Set

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QUIZ QUESTION:______ are the raw data of experience, based on the activation of certain receptors located in the various sensory organs.
Sensations
QUIZ QUESTION: Cells that are triggered by light, vibrations, sounds, touch, or chemical substances are called_____.
Sensory cells
QUIZ QUESTION: The visible spectrum refers to the _______________________.
A portion of the whole spectrum visible to the human eye.
QUIZ QUESTION: Receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision and fine acuity are ______.
Cones (rods=black and white vision)
QUIZ QUESTION: Why do researchers believe color deficiencies often have genetic causes?
More males than females suffer from color deficiencies.
QUIZ QUESTION: Which of the following describes what happens if you trace an auditory stimulus from the time it first reaches the ear until it arrives at the brain?
The outermost part of the ear (pinna) gathers sound waves and funnels them down the auditory canal striking the eardrum.
QUIZ QUESTION: What are the five primary tastes?
bitter, salty, sour, sweet, umami
QUIZ QUESTION: Somasthetic senses involve all of the following except ________.
a. touch
b. pain
c. temperature sensitivity
d. taste
Taste
QUIZ QUESTION: The tendency to interpret an object as always being the same physical dimensions, regardless of its distance from the viewer, is known as...
Size constancy
QUIZ QUESTION: Figure–ground relationships concern _________________.
the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, on some background
QUIZ QUESTION: Visual distance and depth cues that require the use of both eyes are called ______.
binocular cues
QUIZ QUESTION: The Müller-Lyer illusion exists in cultures in which there are ___________.
buildings with lots of corners
What is synesthesia?
signals from sensory organs go to wrong places, causing signals to be interpreted in more than one sensation--due to areas of left brain in temporal/parietal lobe
What would happen if we didn't have sensation?
We would live entirely in our own minds, separate from one another; could not function (could not find food or any other basics of life)
What would happen if we didn't have perception?
We would be unable to understand what sensations mean
What is sensation?
Mind's window to the world
Special receptors in sense organs are activated and via transduction convert stimuli into neural activity
What are sensory receptors and give examples of some:
special neurons activated from something other than neurotransmitters
eyes=light
ears=vibrations
touch (skin)=pressure/temp.
tastebuds/smell (nose)=chemicals
What is Weber's law of just noticeable difference?
BETWEEN 2 StTIMULI
Smallest difference between two stimuli dected 50% of time is a just noticeable difference

This law tells us that the difference is always constant
--need 1 tsp sugar to detect change in 5tsp (20%), therefore need 2 tsp to detect change in 10 tsp (20% also)
What is the absolute threshold?
ONE STIMULUS
lowest level of stimulation a person can consciously detect 50% of the time
What is subliminal stimuli? Subliminal perception?
Stimuli strong enough to activate sensory receptors but not strong enough for consciousness to be aware of; subliminal perception is how these stimuli influence our behavior
What is habituation?
The tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging information (i.e. sound of air conditioner; sensory receptors still reacting though)
What is a sensory adaptation?
The tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging (i.e. taste, smell...become "used" to smell of garbage or sucking on a candy for too long)

NOT FOR EYES
Why can we NOT have sensory adaptation with the eyes? What is this called?
Due to microsaccades: constant movement of the eyes; tiny little vibrations that people do not notice consciously; prevents sensory adaptation to visual stimuli
What did Einstein say light is made of?
Photons that have specific waves
SO light made of particles and waves
What properties of light give us brightness, color and saturation?
Brightness: amplitude (higher=brighter, lower=dimmer)

Color: length of wave (long=red end, short=blue end)

Saturation: purity of the color; mix of wavelengths would lessen purity of color
What is the visible light spectrum?
ROYGBIV
400-700 nm; violet shorter, red longer
What is the pathway of light? Sun to light rays
Sun hits ground or is reflected back from round; light bends via refraction...goes to our eyes
What is the pathway of light in the eyes?
Cornea
Aqueous humor
Pupil/ iris
Lens
Vitreous Humor
Retina
What is the cornea?
Clear membrane that covers the surface of the eye; protects the eye

Bends light waves via change in shape to get it to focus on retina
What is the aqueous humor?
Behind cornea, provides nourishment to the eye
What are the pupil and iris?
Pupil=hole to get to inner eye
Iris=muscle that controls the size of the pupil to let more or less light in (colored part of eye)
What is the lens?
Clear structure behind iris
Changes thickness to focus on objects close or far away (visual accomendation)
What is the vitreous humor?
Same role as aqueous humor but in back of eye; provides nourishment
What is the retina?
Final stop for light
Photoreceptors (rods/cones) respond to various light waves and send them to the bipolar interneurons and then ganglion cells that make up the optic nerve
What are rods?
Visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina; responsible for noncolor sensitivity to low levels of brightness (very sensitive to light)

Connected to bipolar interneurons, not optic nerve directly, which is why our night vision is fuzzy
What are cones?
Visual sensory receptors found at center in fovea where there are no rods

Not sensitive to amplitude but rather wavelength, which is why responsible for COLOR VISION

Best in bright light, so also responsible for sharpness of vision
What is the blind spot?
Area where there are no rods/cones because the axons of the three layers of the retina exit the eye to form the optic nerve
What is dark adaptation?
How the eye recovers its ability to see going rom dark to bright light

Light sensitive pigments recharge in the dark, so it takes awhile; can lead to night blindness if you're old
What is light adaptation?
How the eye recovers to visual stimuli going from darkness to light; much quicker than dark adaptation because some cones are directly connected to the optic nerve
What are the layers of the eye?
Sclera
Choroid (choroid proper, ciliary body, iris)
What is the macula?
Center of vision of retina
How does crossing over and light work?
See picture!
See picture!
What is the trichromatic theory of color vision?
Hermann and Helmoltz
Said we have red, blue and green cones

If waves that have length characteristic of yellow go to eye, red/green cones get activated and make us "see" yellow

If waves that have length characteristic of red and green go to eye, red and green cones activated and, again, we "see" yellow

Brown and Wald took this theory and found the peak wavelength of light that cones are most sensitive to so we know they're red, blue green cones
What is an afterimage?
Visual sensation that persists after our original stimulus is gone; aftermath colors different than original stimulus
What is opponent process theory?
Idea that we have red/green pairs and blue/yellow pairs
When one pair is stimulated, the other is inhibited
For the afterimage, cells get tired and opposite cones get activated

Opponent-process cells are in the thalamus (lateral geniculate nucleus)
What is colorblindness?
Defective cones in retina

Recessive sex linked gene; more males get than females

Ishihara color test tests this
Monochrome color blindness:
no cones/none working; you only see gray shades
What is dichromatic color blindness?
One cone doesn't work

--Protanopia=red broken (red/green pairing doesn't work so we see yellow, blue and grey)

--Deuteronopia=green broken (see above)

--Tritanopia=blue-yellow color deficiency, blues broken; see red green and gray
How do we hear and what are three characteristics of sound?
Vibrations of air=sound; measured on decibel level

pitch=frequency (wavelength), in Hz (cycles of waves present), can only hear certain ones
Volume=amplitude (higher amplitude, louder)
timbre=saturation, purity of sound
What is the pathway of sound?
Pinna
Auditory canal
tympanic membrane
malleus/incus/stapes
oval window
cochlea
basilar membrane/organ of corti
What are the components of the outer ear?
Pinna=visible part of ear, funneler of sound
auditory canal=short tunnel to tympanic membrane
tympanic membrane=eardrum, once hit makes bones of middle ear vibrate
What are the components of the middle ear?
Malleus=hammer
Incus=anvil
Stapes=stirrip

All amplify vibrations from eardrum; stapes causes membrane covering of inner ear to vibrate
What are the components of the inner ear?
Oval window
Cochlea=filled w/ fluid, vibrates
Basilar membrane/organ of corti=resting place of organ of corti, which has hair cells (receptors for sound) that send messages to the brain
What are three theories about perceiving pitch?
Place theory: Hemholtz and Bekesy, pitch depends on what hair cells are stimulated (high=near oval window, low=near Corti); only works when basilar membrane vibrates unevenly

Frequency theory: Rutherford; how fast basilar membrane vibrates, faster=higher slower=lower; problem is neurons would have to fire as fast as our vibrations

Volley principle: Bray; neurons take turns in firing based on frequency heard
What is the sense of taste really a combo of?
Smell and taste
What four senses go from thalamus to cortex?
Vision, hearing, taste, touch
What is conduction hearing impairment?
Vibrations can't get from eardrum to the cochlea due to damaged eardrum or bones (infection)

--can use hearing aids to fix
What is nerve hearing impairment?
Inner ear/brain auditory pathways and cortical areas are damaged (i.e. loss of hair cells)

--can't use hearing aids to fix but CAN use cochlear implants (signal sent to electrodes implanted in cochlea)
How do cochlear implants work and what impairment do they fix?
Nerve hearing impairment

1. A microphone implanted just behind the ear that picks up sound from the surrounding environment

2. The speech processor selects and arranges the sound picked up by the microphone.

3. The implant is a transmitter and receiver, converting signals into electrical impulses.
4. Collected by the electrode array in the cochlea and then sent to the brain
What are taste buds?
Taste receptors that surround papillae (bumps) on tongue, responsible for sense of taste; molecules are dissolved in saliva and fit into receptors, and a signal is fired
What is gustation?
Sense of taste
What are the five tastes?
Sweet, sour, salty, bitter (all by Henning) and unami (by Lindermann; glutamate is tasted)
What is olfaction?
Sense of smell
What are olfactory bulbs
areas of the brain located just above the sinus cavity and just below the frontal lobes that receive information from the olfactory receptor cells

Move past cilia in olfactory receptor cells, bypass thalamus to get to olfactory bulbs, primary olfatory cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala
What are somesthetic senses?
The body senses consisting of the skin senses, kinesthetic senses and vestibular senses (i.e. touch)
What are the skin senses?
Touch, pressure, temperature and pain (sensory receptors in the skin)

Pain-sensitive and touch-sensitive free nerve endings; pressure-sensitive nerves
What are the kinesthetic senses?
Sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other

Proprioceptive receptors (proprioceptors)
What are the vestibular senses?
The sensations of movement, balance and body position
What is sensory conflict theory?
Explanation of motion sickness
Info from the vestibular senses conflicts with info from eyes, resulting in dizziness and nausea

(overcome with repetition, like astronauts and SMS)
What are pacinian corpuscles?
Beneath skin, feel pressure
What are free nerve endings?
Beneath top layer of skin; control temperature, pressure and pain
What are two types of pain and certain disorders of it?
Pain=visceral and somatic
Congenital analgesia and congenital insensitivty to pain=feel no pain

phantom limb pain=due to damage of nerves
Gate control theory of pain:
pain signals pass through spinal cord, can be stopped by nonpain signals from body

Substance P can be released into the spinal cord when pain receptors are stimulated, activating other neurons

Brain then intensifies pain or weakens it (secrete endorphins)
Where is the vestibular sense and what are two receptors of it?
Ear

Otolith organs=above cochlea, fluid w/ crystals in sacs; movements of these sacs set off hair receptors

semicircular canals=tubes of three planes of motion, filled with fluid
What is perception?
Method in which the brain interprets sensations experienced at any given moment and organizes them in a meaningful fashion

Has individuality between people, but some forms have perpetual consistency
What is size constancy?
the tendency to interpret an object as always being the same actual size, regardless of distance
What is shape constancy?
The tendency to interpret the shape of an object as being constant, even when its shape changes on the retina (i.e. seeing penny from side, we still know it's round)
What is brightness constancy?
The tendency to perceive the apparent brightness of an object as the same even when the light conditions change
What are all the Gestalt principles?
Figure-Ground
Reversible
Proximity
Similarity
Closure
Continuity
Contiguity
Common Region
What is the figure-ground Gestalt principle?
the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, as existing on a background
the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, as existing on a background
What is the reversible figures Gestalt principle?
visual illusions in which the figure and ground can be reversed
visual illusions in which the figure and ground can be reversed
What is the similarity Gestalt principle?
the tendency to perceive things that look similar to each other as being part of the same group
the tendency to perceive things that look similar to each other as being part of the same group
What is the proximity Gestalt principle?
the tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping
the tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping
What is the closure Gestalt principle?
the tendency to complete figures that are incomplete
the tendency to complete figures that are incomplete
What is the continuity Gestalt principle?
the tendency to perceive things as simply as possible with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
the tendency to perceive things as simply as possible with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
What is the contiguity Gestalt principle?
the tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as being related

first causes the second (i.e. we hear voice and see dummy's lips move, we believe the dummy is talking)
What is the common region Gestalt principle?
not one of initial principles

tendency to perceive objects in a common area as in a group
not one of initial principles

tendency to perceive objects in a common area as in a group
What is depth perception and what are two types of clues we use for perceiving this?
Capability to see world in 3D; develops in infancy, uses clues for perceiving

monocular clues: need only one eye to perceive depth perception
binocular clues: need both eyes to perceive depth
What are some examples of monocular cues?
I.e. pictorial depth cues, based on one eye only, artists use

1. linear perspective
2. relative size
3. overlap/interposition
4. aerial (atmospheric) perspective
5. texture gradient
6. motion parallax
7. accommodation
What is linear perspective?
Monocular cue

parallel lines appear to converge, indicating to us the lines end far away (highway)
What is relative size?
Monocular cue
perception that occurs when objects that a person expects to be of a certain size appear to be small and are, therefore, assumed to be much farther away
What is interposition (overlap)?
Monocular cue

the assumption that an object that appears to be blocking part of another object is in front of the second object and closer to the viewer
What is aerial (atmospheric) perspective?
Monocular cue

the haziness that surrounds objects that are farther away from the viewer (from particles in air), causing the distance to be perceived as greater
What is texture gradient?
Monocular cue
the tendency for textured surfaces to appear to become smaller and finer as distance from the viewer increases
What is motion parallax?
Monocular cue
Objects moving close to you seem to be moving more quickly than those far away
What is accommodation?
Not a pictoral cue but in the section anyway

Brain's use of info about changing thickness of lens if object closer or father away
What are binocular cues and what are some examples?
cues for perceiving depth based on both eyes

--convergence
--binocular disparity
What is convergence?
Binocular cue

Rotation of two eyes to focus on a single object
What is binocular disparity?
Binocular ce

If brain gets two very different images of same object, one from each eye, object must be very close
What is an illusion?
Distorted perception of something there that does not correspond with reality
What is the Hermann grid illusion?
See black spots in between grid of black squares

Wiesel and Hubel say it's because our neurons respond best to light of a specific orientation and like that orientation apparently
What is the Muller Lyer illusion?
--Segall says people in urban areas see this because there are a lot of corners in cities; in huts, they don't see this
illusion of line length that is distorted by inward-turning or outward-turning corners on the ends of the lines, causing lines of equal length to appear to be different
illusion of line length that is distorted by inward-turning or outward-turning corners on the ends of the lines, causing lines of equal length to appear to be different
What is the Ames Room illusion?
Ramachandran: Weird trapezoid room that looks normal inside room but not outside

Brain has built in assumption that walls of rooms are parallel that it overrides the fact that they're not and creates the illusion that people are giants and midg...
Ramachandran: Weird trapezoid room that looks normal inside room but not outside

Brain has built in assumption that walls of rooms are parallel that it overrides the fact that they're not and creates the illusion that people are giants and midgets

Influenced by Hemholtz
Munker White Illusion
See two diff. shades of a color (when actually they're the same) when put on diff. backgrounds
What is perceptual set/expectancy?
people perceive something the wrong way because of previous experiences (i.e. hear something wrong)

the tendency to perceive things a certain way because previous experiences or expectations influence those perceptions

i.e. start on one side...
people perceive something the wrong way because of previous experiences (i.e. hear something wrong)

the tendency to perceive things a certain way because previous experiences or expectations influence those perceptions

i.e. start on one side, middle pic will look diff. than if you start at other side
What is the moon illusion?
moon on horizon looks closer than in sky; horizon gives up depth clues, makes us magnify it (apparent distance hypothesis, acc. to Ptolemy and Al-Hazan)
What are illusion of motion?
Seeing an object moving when actually still
Autokinetic effect, stroboscopic motion, phi phenomenon, rotating snakes illusion
What is the autokinetic effect?
illusion of motion

Small stationary light appears to move in room because no visual cues show it's not moving
What is stroboscopic motion?
illusion of motion

rapid still pictures will look like they're in motion (cartoons/flipbook)
What is the phi phenomenon?
illusion of motion

Lights turned on in sequence appear to move (theater marquee)
What is the rotating snakes illusion?
illusion of motion
Dr. Kitaoka

Due to small movements of eye (micro saccades, also see Levant's "The Enigma")
illusion of motion
Dr. Kitaoka

Due to small movements of eye (micro saccades, also see Levant's "The Enigma")
Is perceptual set/perceptual expectancy top down processing or bottom up processing?
Top-down processing: we are using pre-existing knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole

Opposite, where you have no prior experience, is bottom-up processing

Mostly, we use both of these types of processing at the same time
What is so unique about the Devil's Trident perception?
People in diff. cultures can see the "trident", but most people from urban cultures can't

Therefore, cultures influence perception
People in diff. cultures can see the "trident", but most people from urban cultures can't

Therefore, cultures influence perception
What are two ways that magicians take advantage of perception?
End stop neurons: get confused with thin long objects moving quickly, make it look like they're bending (forks, pencils, etc.)

Persistence of vision: moving object from visual field quickly...yet you think it's still there